\\psf\Home\Desktop\Cc-1975\Madhya 20 -- 1975.TXT
1
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
7
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
27
28
29
29
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
41
41
41
42
43
44
45
45
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
57
57
58
59
60
61
61
62
63
64
65
65
65
65
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
71
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
83
83
83
84
85
86
87
87
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
99
99
100
101
102
103
103
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
115
115
115
116
117
118
119
119
119
120
121
122
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
124
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
143
143
144
145
146
147
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
159
159
159
160
161
162
163
163
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
175
175
175
176
177
178
179
179
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
193
193
193
193
193
194
195
196
197
197
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
209
209
209
210
211
212
213
213
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
225
225
226
227
228
229
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
241
241
241
242
243
244
245
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
257
257
257
258
259
260
261
261
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
273
273
273
274
275
276
277
277
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
289
289
290
291
292
293
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
305
305
305
306
307
308
309
309
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
321
321
321
322
323
324
325
325
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
337
337
338
339
340
341
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
353
353
354
355
356
357
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
369
369
370
371
372
373
373
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
385
385
386
387
388
389
389
389
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
401
401
401
402
403
404
405
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
417
417
418
419
420
421
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
433
433
434
435
436
437
437
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
449
449
449
450
451
452
453
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
465
465
465
465
466
467
468
469
469
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
481
481
481
482
483
484
485
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
497
497
497
498
499
500
501
501
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
513
513
513
514
515
516
517
517
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
529
529
529
530
531
532
533
533
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
545
545
545
546
547
548
549
549
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
561
561
561
562
563
564
565
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
577
577
577
578
579
580
581
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
593
593
593
594
595
596
597
597
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
609
609
609
610
611
612
613
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
625
625
625
626
627
628
629
629
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
641
641
641
642
643
644
645
645
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
657
657
657
658
659
660
661
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
673
673
673
674
675
676
677
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
689
689
689
690
691
692
693
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
705
705
705
706
707
708
709
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
721
721
721
722
723
724
725
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
737
737
737
738
739
740
741
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
753
753
753
754
755
756
757
757
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
769
769
769
770
771
772
773
773
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
785
785
785
786
787
788
789
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
801
801
801
802
803
804
805
805
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
817
817
817
818
819
820
821
821
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
833
833
833
834
835
836
837
837
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
849
849
849
850
851
852
853
853
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
865
865
866
867
868
869
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
881
881
881
882
883
884
885
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
897
897
898
899
900
901
901
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
913
913
913
914
915
916
917
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
931
931
931
931
932
933
934
935
935
935
936
937
938
939
939
939
939
939
939
939
939
940
941
941
941
941
941
941
942
943
943
943
943
943
943
943
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
957
957
957
957
957
957
958
959
960
961
961
961
961
961
961
961
962
963
964
965
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
979
979
979
979
979
979
979
979
980
981
982
983
983
983
983
983
983
983
983
983
983
984
985
986
987
987
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
993
993
993
993
993
993
994
995
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1001
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1009
1009
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1021
1021
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1025
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1043
1043
1043
1043
1043
1043
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1059
1059
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1075
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1095
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1111
1111
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1115
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1127
1127
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1143
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1159
1159
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1175
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1179
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1191
1191
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1195
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1211
1211
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1215
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1227
1227
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1243
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1259
1259
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1263
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1275
1275
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1279
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1291
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1307
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1323
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1327
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1339
1339
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1343
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1355
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1371
1371
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1385
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1399
1399
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1403
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1415
1415
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1419
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1431
1431
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1435
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1447
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1463
1463
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1467
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1479
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1495
1495
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1511
1511
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1533
1533
1533
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1545
1545
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1549
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1561
1561
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1565
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1577
1577
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1581
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1595
1595
1595
1595
1595
1595
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1599
1599
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1613
1613
1613
1613
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1629
1629
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1645
1645
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1649
1649
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1665
1665
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1669
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1681
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1685
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1697
1697
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1717
1717
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1721
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1733
1733
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1737
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1749
1749
1749
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1753
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1767
1767
1767
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1771
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1787
1787
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1791
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1809
1809
1809
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1827
1827
1827
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1831
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1847
1847
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1851
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1865
1865
1865
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1869
1869
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1873
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1889
1889
1889
1889
1889
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1893
1893
1893
1893
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1911
1911
1911
1911
1911
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1915
1915
1915
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1933
1933
1933
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1937
1937
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1955
1955
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1971
1971
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1975
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1991
1991
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1995
1995
1995
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2033
2033
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2037
2037
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2061
2061
2061
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2065
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2077
2077
2077
2077
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2081
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2085
2085
2085
2085
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2091
2091
2092
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2105
2105
2105
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2109
2109
2109
2109
2109
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2113
2113
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2119
2119
2120
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2127
2127
2127
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2139
2139
2139
2139
2139
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2143
2143
2143
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2155
2155
2155
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2159
2159
2159
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2163
2164
2165
2165
2165
2165
2165
2165
2165
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2177
2177
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2181
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2193
2193
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2197
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2213
2213
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2217
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2229
2229
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2233
2233
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2245
2245
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2249
2249
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2259
2259
2259
2260
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2273
2273
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2277
2277
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2289
2289
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2293
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2305
2305
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2321
2321
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2337
2337
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2345
2346
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2347
2348
2349
2349
2349
2349
2349
2349
2349
2349
2349
2350
2351
2351
2351
2351
2351
2351
2351
2351
2352
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2359
2359
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2371
2371
2371
2371
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2375
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2389
2389
2389
2389
2389
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2393
2393
2393
2393
2393
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2411
2411
2411
2411
2411
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2415
2415
2415
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2431
2431
2431
2432
2433
2434
2434
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2444
2444
2444
2445
2446
2446
2446
2446
2446
2446
2446
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2458
2458
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2462
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2474
2474
2474
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2478
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2490
2490
2490
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2494
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2510
2510
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2514
2514
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2526
2526
2526
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2530
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2548
2548
2548
2548
2548
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2564
2564
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2568
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2608
2608
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2612
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2624
2624
2624
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2628
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2642
2642
2642
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2646
2646
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2650
2650
2650
2650
2650
2650
2650
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2666
2666
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2670
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2682
2682
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2686
2686
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2690
2690
2690
2690
2690
2690
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2704
2704
2704
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2708
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2724
2724
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2728
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2742
2742
2742
2742
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2746
2746
2746
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2762
2762
2762
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2766
2766
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2780
2780
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2788
2789
2790
2790
2790
2790
2790
2790
2790
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2802
2802
2802
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2806
2806
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2820
2820
2820
2820
2820
2820
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2824
2824
2824
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2840
2840
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2844
2844
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2858
2858
2858
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2862
2862
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2872
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2886
2886
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2906
2906
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2910
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2922
2922
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2930
2930
2930
2930
2930
2930
2930
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2936
2936
2936
2937
2938
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2944
2944
2944
2945
2946
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2952
2952
2952
2952
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2964
2964
2964
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2968
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2980
2980
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2984
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2996
2996
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3000
3000
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3012
3012
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3016
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3030
3030
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3034
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3050
3050
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3066
3066
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3070
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3084
3084
3084
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3088
3088
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3092
3092
3092
3093
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3106
3106
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3110
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3126
3126
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3134
3134
3134
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3146
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3162
3162
3162
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3166
3166
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3178
3178
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3182
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3194
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3216
3216
3216
3216
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3232
3232
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3236
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3250
3250
3250
3250
3250
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3254
3254
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3270
3270
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3274
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3286
3286
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3290
3290
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3302
3302
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3316
3316
3316
3316
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3328
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3344
3344
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3348
3348
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3360
3360
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3364
3364
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3376
3376
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3380
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3392
3392
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3408
3408
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3412
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3424
3424
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3428
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3432
3432
3432
3432
3432
3432
3432
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3444
3444
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3448
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3460
3460
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3476
3476
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3480
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3492
3492
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3496
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3508
3508
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3524
3524
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3528
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3540
3540
3540
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3544
3544
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3556
3556
3556
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3560
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3572
3572
3572
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3576
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3588
3588
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3592
3592
3592
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3622
3622
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3626
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3638
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3654
3654
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3658
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3670
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3686
3686
3686
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3690
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3702
3702
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3718
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3734
3734
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3738
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3750
3750
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3754
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3766
3766
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3782
3782
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3786
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3798
3798
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3814
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3830
3830
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3834
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3846
3846
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3860
3860
3860
3860
3860
3860
3860
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3872
3872
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3876
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3890
3890
3890
3890
3890
3890
3890
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3902
3902
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3906
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3910
3910
3910
3910
3910
3910
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3922
3922
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3938
3938
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3942
3942
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3954
3954
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3958
3958
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3970
3970
3970
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3974
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3978
3978
3978
3978
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3990
3990
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3994
3994
3994
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4006
4006
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4022
4022
4022
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4026
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4038
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4054
4054
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4070
4070
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4086
4086
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4102
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4118
4118
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4134
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4150
4150
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4166
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4182
4182
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4198
4198
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4206
4206
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4218
4218
4218
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4222
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4234
4234
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4250
4250
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4254
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4266
4266
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4270
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4284
4284
4284
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4292
4292
4292
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4304
4304
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4320
4320
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4324
4324
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4328
4328
4328
4328
4328
4328
4328
4328
4329
4330
4330
4330
4330
4330
4330
4330
4330
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4342
4342
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4346
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4358
4358
4358
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4362
4362
4362
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4366
4367
4368
4368
4368
4368
4368
4369
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4382
4382
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4398
4398
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4402
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4406
4406
4406
4406
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4412
4412
4413
4414
4414
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4440
4440
4440
4440
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4444
4444
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4460
4460
4460
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4484
4484
4484
4484
4484
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4488
4488
4488
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4504
4504
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4520
4520
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4524
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4536
4536
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4540
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4552
4552
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4568
4568
4568
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4572
4572
4572
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4584
4584
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4588
4588
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4602
4602
4602
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4606
4606
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4622
4622
4622
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4626
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4638
4638
4638
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4642
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4654
4654
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4658
4658
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4672
4672
4672
4672
4672
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4676
4676
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4692
4692
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4708
4708
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4712
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4724
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4742
4742
4742
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4746
4746
4746
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4764
4764
4764
4764
4764
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4768
4768
4768
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4784
4784
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4788
4788
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4800
4800
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4804
4804
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4818
4818
4818
4818
4818
4818
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4822
4822
4822
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4826
4826
4826
4826
4826
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4838
4838
4838
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4842
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4858
4858
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4862
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4866
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4872
4872
4873
4874
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4880
4880
4880
4880
4880
4880
4880
4880
4881
4882
4882
4882
4882
4882
4882
4882
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4888
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4900
4900
4900
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4904
4904
4904
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4914
4914
4915
4916
4916
4916
4916
4916
4916
4916
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4922
4922
4922
4923
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4930
4930
4930
4931
4932
4932
4932
4932
4932
4932
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4938
4938
4938
4938
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4958
4958
4958
4958
4958
4958
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4962
4962
4962
4962
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4980
4980
4980
4980
4980
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4984
4984
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5000
5000
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5004
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5020
5020
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5024
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5036
5036
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5040
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5054
5054
5054
5054
5054
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5058
5058
5058
5058
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5072
5072
5072
5072
5072
5072
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5076
5076
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5092
5092
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5108
5108
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5112
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5124
5124
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5128
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5140
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5144
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5156
5156
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5160
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5172
5172
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5188
5188
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5204
5204
5204
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5208
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5224
5224
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5228
5228
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5240
5240
5240
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5244
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5256
5256
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5260
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5272
5272
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5276
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5288
5288
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5292
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5304
5304
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5308
5308
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5320
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5336
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5352
5352
5352
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5356
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5374
5374
5374
5374
5374
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5390
5390
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5394
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5406
5406
5406
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5410
5410
5410
5410
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5422
5422
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5426
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5438
5438
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5442
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5460
5460
5460
5460
5460
5460
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5464
5464
5464
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5480
5480
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5484
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5488
5488
5488
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5502
5502
5502
5502
5502
5502
5502
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5506
5506
5506
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5510
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5522
5522
5522
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5526
5526
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5542
5542
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5546
5546
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5550
5550
5550
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5562
5562
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5584
5584
5584
5584
5584
5584
5584
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5588
5588
5588
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5604
5604
5604
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5608
5608
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5626
5626
5626
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5630
5630
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5648
5648
5648
5648
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5652
5652
5652
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5668
5668
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5672
5672
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5684
5684
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5688
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5706
5706
5706
5706
5706
5706
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5710
5710
5710
5710
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5726
5726
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5730
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744
5744
5744
5744
5744
5745
5746
5747
5748
5748
5748
5748
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5752
5752
5752
5752
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5764
5764
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5768
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5780
5780
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5784
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5788
5788
5788
5788
5788
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5800
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816
5816
5816
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5832
5832
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5836
5836
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5848
5848
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5864
5864
5864
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5868
5868
5869
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5884
5884
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5896
5896
5896
5896
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5900
5900
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5912
5912
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5932
5932
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5936
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5948
5948
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5952
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5966
5966
5966
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5970
5970
5971
5972
5973
5974
5974
5974
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5988
5988
5988
5988
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5992
5992
5992
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6006
6006
6006
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6010
6010
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6022
6022
6022
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6026
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6030
6030
6030
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042
6042
6042
6042
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6046
6046
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058
6058
6058
6058
6059
6060
6061
6062
6062
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076
6076
6076
6076
6076
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6080
6080
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6084
6084
6084
6084
6084
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6098
6098
6098
6098
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6102
6103
6104
6105
6106
6106
6106
6106
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6118
6118
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6122
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6131
6132
6132
6132
6132
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144
6144
6144
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6148
6148
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6160
6160
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6164
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6178
6178
6178
6178
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182
6182
6182
6182
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186
6186
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6198
6198
6198
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6202
6202
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6216
6216
6216
6216
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6220
6220
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237
6238
6238
6238
6238
6238
6238
6239
6240
6241
6242
6242
6242
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
6246
6246
6246
6246
6246
6246
6246
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6252
6252
6252
6253
6254
6254
6254
6254
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6268
6268
6268
6268
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6272
6272
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286
6286
6286
6286
6286
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290
6290
6290
6290
6290
6291
6292
6293
6294
6294
6294
6294
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6306
6306
6306
6307
6308
6309
6310
6310
6310
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6322
6322
6322
6323
6324
6325
6326
6326
6326
6327
6328
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6338
6338
6338
6338
6339
6340
6341
6342
6342
6342
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6354
6354
6354
6355
6356
6357
6358
6358
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373
6374
6374
6374
6374
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6378
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6394
6394
6394
6395
6396
6397
6398
6398
6398
6399
6400
6401
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406
6407
6408
6408
6408
6408
6408
6408
6408
6408
6408
6409
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6420
6420
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6424
6424
6425
6426
6427
6428
6428
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6442
6442
6442
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6446
6446
6446
6446
6446
6447
6448
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459
6460
6461
6462
6462
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6478
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494
6494
6494
6494
6494
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6498
6498
6499
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510
6511
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6512
6513
6514
6515
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6516
6517
6518
6519
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6520
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530
6531
6532
6532
6532
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6536
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6548
6548
6548
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6552
6552
6552
6552
6552
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563
6564
6564
6564
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6568
6568
6568
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580
6580
6580
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584
6584
6584
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6596
6596
6596
6596
6597
6598
6599
6600
6600
6600
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6612
6612
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
6632
6632
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6636
6636
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6648
6648
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6652
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664
6664
6664
6664
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6668
6668
6668
6668
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680
6680
6680
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684
6684
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6696
6696
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6700
6700
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6712
6712
6712
6712
6713
6714
6715
6716
6716
6716
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6728
6728
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6732
6732
6732
6733
6734
6735
6736
6736
6736
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750
6750
6750
6750
6750
6750
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6754
6754
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6770
6770
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6774
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792
6792
6792
6792
6792
6793
6794
6795
6796
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6814
6814
6814
6815
6816
6817
6818
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834
6834
6834
6834
6835
6836
6837
6838
6838
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850
6850
6850
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6866
6866
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6870
6870
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882
6883
6884
6884
6884
6884
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6888
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
6904
6904
6904
6905
6906
6907
6908
6908
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917
6918
6919
6920
6920
6920
6920
6921
6922
6923
6924
6924
6924
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6936
6936
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6940
6941
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952
6952
6952
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6956
6956
6957
6958
6959
6960
6960
6960
6960
6960
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965
6966
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
6976
6977
6978
6978
6978
6979
6980
6981
6982
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993
6994
6994
6994
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998
6998
6999
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008
7009
7010
7010
7010
7010
7011
7012
7013
7014
7014
7015
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022
7023
7024
7025
7026
7026
7026
7026
7027
7028
7029
7030
7030
7030
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042
7042
7042
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046
7046
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051
7052
7053
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058
7058
7058
7058
7059
7060
7061
7062
7062
7062
7063
7064
7065
7066
7067
7068
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074
7074
7074
7074
7075
7076
7077
7078
7078
7078
7078
7078
7079
7080
7081
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086
7087
7088
7089
7090
7090
7090
7090
7091
7092
7093
7094
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103
7104
7105
7106
7106
7106
7106
7107
7108
7109
7110
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121
7122
7122
7122
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126
7126
7126
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137
7138
7138
7138
7138
7139
7140
7141
7142
7142
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154
7154
7154
7154
7154
7155
7156
7157
7158
7158
7158
7158
7159
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169
7170
7170
7170
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7174
7174
7175
7176
7177
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7178
7179
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192
7192
7192
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196
7196
7196
7197
7198
7199
7200
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210
7211
7212
7213
7214
7214
7214
7214
7214
7215
7216
7217
7218
7218
7218
7219
7220
7221
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7232
7232
7232
7232
7233
7234
7235
7236
7236
7236
7236
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240
7241
7242
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247
7248
7249
7250
7250
7250
7250
7251
7252
7253
7254
7254
7254
7255
7256
7257
7258
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7266
7266
7266
7267
7268
7269
7270
7270
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279
7280
7281
7282
7282
7282
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286
7286
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292
7293
7294
7295
7296
7297
7298
7298
7298
7298
7299
7300
7301
7302
7302
7302
7303
7304
7305
7306
7307
7308
7309
7310
7311
7312
7313
7314
7314
7314
7314
7315
7316
7317
7318
7318
7318
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322
7323
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329
7330
7330
7330
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334
7334
7334
7335
7336
7336
7336
7337
Madhya 20-1975: Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Instructs Sanatana Gosvami
in the Science of the Absolute Truth
Chapter 20
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Instructs Sanatana Gosvami in the Science
of the Absolute Truth
The following summary study of this chapter is given by Bhaktivinoda
Thakura in his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya. When Srila Sanatana Gosvami was
imprisoned by Nawab Hussain Shah, he received news from Rupa Gosvami
that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had gone to Mathura. Sanatana Gosvami
thereafter satisfied the superintendent of the jail by sweet
solicitations and bribery. After giving the jailer seven thousand gold
coins, Sanatana Gosvami was released. He then crossed the Ganges and
fled. One of his servants, Isana, followed him, carrying eight gold
coins. Sanatana Gosvami and his servant then spent the night in a small
hotel on the way to Benares. The hotel owner knew that Sanatana Gosvami
and his servant had eight gold coins, and he decided to kill them and
take the money. Making plans in this way, the hotel owner received them
as honorable guests. Sanatana Gosvami, however, asked his servant how
much money he had, and, taking seven of the gold coins, Sanatana offered
them to the hotel owner. Thus the owner helped them reach the hilly
tract toward Varanasi. On the way, Sanatana Gosvami met his
brother-in-law, Srikanta, at Hajipura, and Srikanta helped him after he
had heard about all Sanatana's troubles. Thus Sanatana Gosvami finally
arrived at Varanasi and stood before the door of Candrasekhara. Caitanya
Mahaprabhu called him in and ordered him to change his dress so that he
could look like a gentleman. For his garment, he used an old cloth of
Tapana Misra's. Later, he exchanged his valuable blanket for a torn
quilt. At this time Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very pleased with him, and
thus Sri Sanatana Gosvami received knowledge of the Absolute Truth from
the Lord Himself.
First they discussed the constitutional position of the living entities,
and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu explained to Sanatana Gosvami how the living
entity is one of Lord Krsna's energies. After this, the Lord explained
the way of devotional service. While discussing the Absolute Truth, Sri
Krsna, the Lord analyzed Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan, as well as the
expansions of the Lord called svayam-rupa, tad-ekatma and avesa, which
are divided into various branches known as vaibhava and prabhava. Thus
the Lord described the many forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
He also described the incarnations of God within the material world,
incarnations such as the purusa-avataras, manvantara-avataras, guna-
avataras and saktyavesa-avataras. The Lord also discussed the divisions
of Krsna's different ages, such as balya and pauganda, and the different
pastimes of the different ages. He explained how Krsna attained His
permanent form when He reached youth. In this way Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu explained and described everything to Sanatana Gosvami.
Madhya 20.1
TEXT 1
TEXT
vande 'nantadbhutaisvaryam
sri-caitanya-mahaprabhum
nico 'pi yat-prasadat syad
bhakti-sastra-pravartakah
SYNONYMS
vande -- I offer my respectful obeisances; ananta -- unlimited; adbhuta -
- wonderful; aisvaryam -- possessing opulences; sri-caitanya-mahaprabhum
-- unto Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nicah api -- even a person in the
lowest status of life; yat-prasadat -- by whose mercy; syat -- may
become; bhakti-sastra -- of the science of devotional service;
pravartakah -- an inaugurator.
TRANSLATION
Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who
has unlimited, wonderful opulences. By His mercy, even a person born as
the lowest of men can spread the science of devotional service.
Madhya 20.2
TEXT 2
TEXT
jaya jaya sri-caitanya jaya nityananda
jayadvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories; sri-caitanya -- to Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; jaya -- all glories; nityananda -- to Nityananda; jaya --
all glories; advaita-candra -- to Advaita Acarya; jaya -- all glories;
gaura-bhakta-vrnda -- to all devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TRANSLATION
All glories to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu! All glories to Nityananda Prabhu!
All glories to Advaita Acarya! And all glories to all the devotees of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu!
Madhya 20.3
TEXT 3
TEXT
etha gaude sanatana ache bandi-sale
sri-rupa-gosanira patri aila hena-kale
SYNONYMS
etha -- here; gaude -- in Bengal; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; ache --
was; bandi-sale -- in prison; sri-rupa-gosanira -- of Srila Rupa Gosvami;
patri -- the letter; aila -- came; hena-kale -- at that time.
TRANSLATION
While Sanatana Gosvami was imprisoned in Bengal, a letter arrived from
Srila Rupa Gosvami.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura informs us that this letter from Rupa Gosvami
to Sanatana Gosvami is mentioned by the annotator of Udbhata-
candrika. Srila Rupa Gosvami wrote a note to Sanatana Gosvami from Bakla.
This note indicated that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was coming to Mathura,
and it stated:
yadu-pateh kva gata mathura-puri
raghu-pateh kva gatottara-kosala
iti vicintya kurusva manah sthiram
na sad idam jagad ity avadharaya
"Where has the Mathura Puri of Yadupati gone? Where has the
northern Kosala of Raghupati gone? By reflection, make the mind steady,
thinking, 'This universe is not eternal.' "
Madhya 20.4
TEXT 4
TEXT
patri pana sanatana anandita haila
yavana-raksaka-pasa kahite lagila
SYNONYMS
patri pana -- receiving the note; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; anandita
haila -- became very pleased; yavana -- meat-eater; raksaka -- the
superintendent of the jail; pasa -- before; kahite lagila -- began to
say.
TRANSLATION
When Sanatana Gosvami received this note from Rupa Gosvami, he became
very pleased. He immediately went to the jail superintendent, who was a
meat-eater, and spoke as follows.
Madhya 20.5
TEXT 5
TEXT
"tumi eka jinda-pira maha-bhagyavan
ketaba-korana-sastre ache tomara jnana
SYNONYMS
tumi -- you; eka jinda-pira -- a living saint; maha-bhagyavan -- very
fortunate; ketaba -- books; korana -- the Koran; sastre -- in the
scripture; ache -- there is; tomara -- your; jnana -- knowledge.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami told the Mohammedan jailkeeper, "Dear sir, you are a
saintly person and are very fortunate. You have full knowledge of the
revealed scriptures such as the Koran and similar books.
Madhya 20.6
TEXT 6
TEXT
eka bandi chade yadi nija-dharma dekhiya
samsara ha-ite tare mukta karena gosana
SYNONYMS
eka bandi -- one imprisoned person; chade -- one releases; yadi -- if;
nija-dharma -- one's own religion; dekhiya -- consulting; samsara ha-ite
-- from material bondage; tare -- him; mukta karena -- releases; gosana -
- the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
"If one releases a conditioned soul or imprisoned person according to
religious principles, he himself is also released from material bondage
by the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
PURPORT
It appears from this statement that Sanatana Gosvami, who was formerly a
minister of the Nawab, was trying to cheat the Mohammedan superintendent.
A jail superintendent had only an ordinary education, or practically no
education, and he was certainly not supposed to be very advanced in
spiritual knowledge. However, just to satisfy him, Sanatana Gosvami
praised him as a very learned scholar of the scriptures. The jailkeeper
could not deny that he was a learned scholar because when one is
elevated to an exalted position, one thinks oneself fit for that
position. Sanatana Gosvami was correctly explaining the effects of
spiritual activity, and the jailkeeper connected his statement with his
release from jail. There are innumerable conditioned souls rotting in
the material world, imprisoned by maya under the spell of sense
gratification. The living entity is so entranced by the spell of maya
that in conditioned life even a pig feels satisfied.
There are
two kinds of covering powers
exhibited by maya. One is called praksepatmika, and the other is called
avaranatmika. When one is determined to get out of material bondage, the
praksepatmika-sakti, the spell of diversion, impels one to remain in
conditioned life fully satisfied by sense gratification. Due to the
other power (avaranatmika), a conditioned soul feels satisfied even if
he is rotting in the body of a pig or a worm in stool. To release a
conditioned soul from material bondage is very difficult because the
spell of maya is so strong. Even when the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Himself descends to deliver conditioned souls, asking them to surrender
unto Him, the conditioned souls do not agree to the Lord's proposals.
Therefore Sri Sanatana Gosvami said, "Somehow or other, if one helps
another gain release from the bondage of maya, he is certainly
recognized immediately by the Supreme Personality of Godhead." As stated
in Bhagavad-gita (18.69):
na ca tasman manusyesu
kascin me priya-krttamah
bhavita na ca me tasmad
anyah priyataro bhuvi
The greatest service one can render to the Lord is to try to infuse
devotional service into the heart of the conditioned soul so that the
conditioned soul may be released from conditional life. Srila
Bhaktivinoda Thakura has said that a Vaisnava is recognized by his
preaching work -- that is, by convincing the conditioned soul about his
eternal position, which is explained here as nija-dharma. It is the
living entity's eternal position to serve the Lord; therefore to help
one get release from material bondage is to awaken one to the dormant
understanding that he is the eternal servant of Krsna. jivera 'svarupa'
haya -- krsnera 'nitya-dasa'. This will be further
explained by the Lord Himself to Sanatana Gosvami.
Madhya 20.7
TEXT 7
TEXT
purve ami tomara kariyachi upakara
tumi ama chadi' kara pratyupakara
SYNONYMS
purve -- formerly; ami -- I; tomara -- your; kariyachi -- have done;
upakara -- welfare; tumi -- you; ama -- me; chadi' -- releasing; kara --
do; prati-upakara -- return welfare.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami continued, "Previously I have done much for you. Now I
am in difficulty. Please return my goodwill by releasing me.
Madhya 20.8
TEXT 8
TEXT
panca sahasra mudra tumi kara angikara
punya, artha, -- dui labha ha-ibe tomara"
SYNONYMS
panca sahasra -- five thousand; mudra -- golden coins; tumi -- you; kara
angikara -- please accept; punya -- pious activity; artha -- material
gain; dui labha -- two kinds of achievement; ha-ibe -- will be; tomara --
yours.
TRANSLATION
"Here are five thousand gold coins. Please accept them. By releasing me,
you will receive the results of pious activities and gain material
profit as well. Thus you will profit in two ways simultaneously."
Madhya 20.9
TEXT 9
TEXT
tabe sei yavana kahe, -- "suna, mahasaya
tomare chadiba, kintu kari raja-bhaya"
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; sei -- that; yavana -- meat-eater; kahe -- says;
suna -- just hear; mahasaya -- my dear sir; tomare -- you; chadiba -- I
would release; kintu -- but; kari raja-bhaya -- I am afraid of the
government.
TRANSLATION
In this way Sanatana Gosvami convinced the jailkeeper, who replied, "
Please hear me, my dear sir. I am willing to release you, but I am
afraid of the government."
Madhya 20.10-11
TEXTS 10-11
TEXT
sanatana kahe, -- "tumi na kara raja-bhaya
daksina giyache yadi leuti' aoyaya
tanhare kahio -- sei bahya-krtye gela
gangara nikata ganga dekhi' jhanpa dila
SYNONYMS
sanatana kahe -- Sanatana replied; tumi -- you; na -- not; kara -- do;
raja-bhaya -- fear of the government; daksina -- to the south; giyache --
has gone; yadi -- if; leuti' -- returning; aoyaya -- comes; tanhare --
to him; kahio -- you say; sei -- he; bahya-krtye -- to evacuate; gela --
went; gangara nikata -- near the bank of the Ganges; ganga dekhi' --
seeing the Ganges; jhanpa dila -- jumped.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana replied, "There is no danger. The Nawab has gone to the south.
If he returns, tell him that Sanatana went to pass stool near the bank
of the Ganges and that as soon as he saw the Ganges, he jumped in.
Madhya 20.12
TEXT 12
TEXT
aneka dekhila, tara lag na paila
daduka-sahita dubi kahan vahi' gela
SYNONYMS
aneka -- for a long time; dekhila -- I looked; tara -- of him; lag --
contact; na paila -- could not obtain; daduka-sahita -- with the
shackles; dubi -- drowning; kahan -- somewhere; vahi' gela -- washed
away.
TRANSLATION
"Tell him,'I looked for him a long time, but I could not find any trace
of him. He jumped in with his shackles, and therefore he was drowned and
washed away by the waves.'
Madhya 20.13
TEXT 13
TEXT
kichu bhaya nahi, ami e-dese na raba
daravesa hana ami makkake yaiba"
SYNONYMS
kichu -- any; bhaya -- fear; nahi -- there is not; ami -- I; e-dese --
in this country; na raba -- shall not remain; daravesa hana -- becoming
a mendicant; ami -- I; makkake yaiba -- shall go to Mecca.
TRANSLATION
"There is no reason for you to be afraid, for I shall not remain in this
country. I shall become a mendicant and go to the holy city of Mecca."
Madhya 20.14
TEXT 14
TEXT
tathapi yavana-mana prasanna na dekhila
sata-hajara mudra tara age rasi kaila
SYNONYMS
tathapi -- still; yavana-mana -- the mind of the meat-eater; prasanna --
satisfied; na -- not; dekhila -- he saw; sata-hajara -- seven thousand;
mudra -- golden coins; tara -- of him; age -- in front; rasi kaila --
made a stack.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami could see that the mind of the meat-eater was still not
satisfied. He then stacked seven thousand gold coins before him.
Madhya 20.15
TEXT 15
TEXT
lobha ha-ila yavanera mudra dekhiya
ratre ganga-para kaila daduka katiya
SYNONYMS
lobha ha-ila -- there was attraction for the money; yavanera -- of the
meat-eater; mudra dekhiya -- seeing the golden coins; ratre -- at night;
ganga-para kaila -- he got him across the Ganges; daduka -- shackles;
katiya -- breaking.
TRANSLATION
When the meat-eater saw the coins, he was attracted to them. He then
agreed, and that night he cut Sanatana's shackles and let him cross the
Ganges.
Madhya 20.16
TEXT 16
TEXT
gada-dvara-patha chadila, nare tahan yaite
ratri-dina cali' aila patada-parvate
SYNONYMS
gada-dvara-patha -- the path of the fortress; chadila -- gave up; nare --
not able; tahan -- there; yaite -- to go; ratri-dina -- night and day;
cali' -- walking; aila -- arrived; patada-parvate -- in the hilly tract
of land known as Patada.
TRANSLATION
In this way, Sanatana Gosvami was released. However, he was not able to
walk along the path of the fortress. Walking day and night, he finally
arrived at the hilly tract of land known as Patada.
Madhya 20.17
TEXT 17
TEXT
tatha eka bhaumika haya, tara thani gela
'parvata para kara ama' -- vinati karila
SYNONYMS
tatha -- there; eka bhaumika -- one landowner; haya -- there is; tara
thani -- unto him; gela -- he went; parvata -- the hilly tract; para
kara -- cross over; ama -- me; vinati -- submission; karila -- he made.
TRANSLATION
After reaching Patada, he met a landholder and submissively requested
him to get him across that hilly tract of land.
Madhya 20.18
TEXT 18
TEXT
sei bhunara sange haya hata-ganita
bhunara kane kahe sei jani' ei katha
SYNONYMS
sei bhunara -- the landlord; sange -- with; haya -- there is; hata-
ganita -- an expert in palmistry; bhunara -- of the landlord; kane -- in
the ear; kahe -- says; sei -- that man; jani' -- knowing; ei katha --
this statement.
TRANSLATION
A man who was expert in palmistry was at that time staying with the
landlord. Knowing about Sanatana, he whispered the following in the
landlord's ear.
Madhya 20.19
TEXT 19
TEXT
'inhara thani suvarnera asta mohara haya'
suni' anandita bhuna sanatane kaya
SYNONYMS
inhara thani -- in the possession of this man; suvarnera -- of gold;
asta -- eight; mohara -- coins; haya -- there are; suni' -- hearing;
anandita -- pleased; bhuna -- the landlord; sanatane -- to Sanatana;
kaya -- says.
TRANSLATION
The palmist said, "This man Sanatana possesses eight gold coins."
Hearing this, the landlord was very pleased and spoke the following to
Sanatana Gosvami.
Madhya 20.20
TEXT 20
TEXT
"ratrye parvata para kariba nija-loka diya
bhojana karaha tumi randhana kariya"
SYNONYMS
ratrye -- at night; parvata -- the hilly tract; para kariba -- I shall
cross; nija-loka diya -- with my own men; bhojana karaha -- just take
your meal; tumi -- you; randhana kariya -- cooking.
TRANSLATION
The landlord said,"I shall get you across that hilly tract at night
with my own men. Now just take your lunch and cook for yourself."
Madhya 20.21
TEXT 21
TEXT
eta bali' anna dila kariya sammana
sanatana asi' tabe kaila nadi-snana
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; anna dila -- supplied food grains; kariya
sammana -- showing great respect; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; asi' --
coming; tabe -- then; kaila -- did; nadi-snana -- bathing in the river.
TRANSLATION
Saying this, the landlord offered Sanatana grains to cook. Sanatana then
went to the riverside and took his bath.
Madhya 20.22
TEXT 22
TEXT
dui upavase kaila randhana-bhojane
raja-mantri sanatana vicarila mane
SYNONYMS
dui upavase -- fasting for two days; kaila -- performed; randhana-
bhojane -- cooking and eating; raja-mantri -- the former minister of the
Nawab; sanatana -- Sanatana; vicarila -- considered; mane -- in the mind.
TRANSLATION
Because Sanatana had been fasting for two days, he cooked the food and
ate it. However, having formerly been a minister of the Nawab, he began
to contemplate the situation.
Madhya 20.23
TEXT 23
TEXT
'ei bhuna kene more sammana karila?'
eta cinti' sanatana isane puchila
SYNONYMS
ei bhuna -- this landlord; kene -- why; more -- unto me; sammana karila -
- offered so much respect; eta cinti' -- thinking this; sanatana --
Sanatana; isane -- from Isana, his servant; puchila -- inquired.
TRANSLATION
As a former minister for the Nawab, Sanatana could certainly understand
diplomacy. He therefore thought,"Why is this landlord offering me such
respect?" Thinking in this way, he questioned his servant, whose name
was Isana.
Madhya 20.24
TEXT 24
TEXT
'tomara thani jani kichu dravya achaya'
isana kahe, -- 'mora thani sata mohara haya'
SYNONYMS
tomara thani -- in your possession; jani -- I understand; kichu -- some;
dravya -- valuable thing; achaya -- there is; isana kahe -- Isana
replied; mora thani -- in my possession; sata mohara -- seven gold coins;
haya -- there are.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana asked his servant,"Isana, I think you have some valuable
things with you." Isana replied,"Yes, I have seven gold coins."
Madhya 20.25
TEXT 25
TEXT
suni' sanatana tare karila bhartsana
'sange kene aniyacha ei kala-yama?'
SYNONYMS
suni' -- hearing; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; tare -- him; karila
bhartsana -- chastised; sange -- with you; kene -- why; aniyacha -- have
you brought; ei -- this; kala-yama -- death knell.
TRANSLATION
Hearing this, Sanatana Gosvami chastised his servant, saying,"Why have
you brought this death knell with you?"
Madhya 20.26
TEXT 26
TEXT
tabe sei sata mohara hastete kariya
bhunara kache yana kahe mohara dhariya
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; sei sata mohara -- these seven golden coins; hastete
kariya -- taking in the hands; bhunara kache -- to the landlord; yana --
going; kahe -- says; mohara dhariya -- holding the golden coins.
TRANSLATION
Thereupon, Sanatana Gosvami took the seven gold coins in his hands and
went to the landlord. Holding the gold coins before him, he spoke as
follows.
Madhya 20.27
TEXT 27
TEXT
"ei sata suvarna mohara achila amara
iha lana dharma dekhi' parvata kara para
SYNONYMS
ei sata -- these seven; suvarna mohara -- golden coins; achila -- were;
amara -- mine; iha lana -- accepting them; dharma dekhi' -- observing
religious principles; parvata -- the hilly tract of land; kara para --
kindly get me across.
TRANSLATION
"I have these seven gold coins with me. Please accept them, and from a
religious point of view please get me across that hilly tract of land.
Madhya 20.28
TEXT 28
TEXT
raja-bandi ami, gada-dvara yaite na pari
punya habe, parvata ama deha' para kari"
SYNONYMS
raja-bandi -- a prisoner of the government; ami -- I; gada-dvara yaite --
to go openly on the road by the ramparts; na pari -- I am not able;
punya -- pious activity; habe -- there will be; parvata -- the hilly
tract of land; ama -- to me; deha' -- give help; para kari -- by
crossing over.
TRANSLATION
"I am a prisoner of the government, and I cannot go along the way of the
ramparts. It will be very pious of you to take this money and kindly get
me across this hilly tract of land."
Madhya 20.29
TEXT 29
TEXT
bhuna hasi' kahe, -- "ami janiyachi pahile
asta mohara haya tomara sevaka-ancale
SYNONYMS
bhuna -- the landlord; hasi' -- smiling; kahe -- said; ami -- I;
janiyachi -- knew; pahile -- before this; asta mohara -- eight golden
coins; haya -- there are; tomara -- your; sevaka-ancale -- in the pocket
of the servant.
TRANSLATION
Smiling, the landlord said, "Before you offered them, I already knew
that there were eight gold coins in your servant's possession.
Madhya 20.30
TEXT 30
TEXT
toma mari' mohara la-itama ajikara ratrye
bhala haila, kahila tumi, chutilana papa haite
SYNONYMS
toma mari' -- killing you; mohara -- golden coins; la-itama -- I would
have taken; ajikara ratrye -- on this night; bhala haila -- it was very
good; kahila tumi -- you have spoken; chutilana -- I am relieved; papa
haite -- from such a sin.
TRANSLATION
"On this very night I would have killed you and taken your coins. It is
very good that you have voluntarily offered them to me. I am now
relieved from such a sinful activity.
Madhya 20.31
TEXT 31
TEXT
santusta ha-ilana ami, mohara na la-iba
punya lagi' parvata toma' para kari' diba"
SYNONYMS
santusta -- satisfied; ha-ilana -- have become; ami -- I; mohara -- the
golden coins; na la-iba -- I shall not take; punya lagi' -- simply for
pious activity; parvata -- the hilly tract of land; toma' -- you; para
kari' diba -- I shall get across.
TRANSLATION
"I am very satisfied with your behavior. I shall not accept these gold
coins, but I shall get you across that hilly tract of land simply to
perform a pious activity."
Madhya 20.32
TEXT 32
TEXT
gosani kahe, -- "keha dravya la-ibe ama mari'
amara prana raksa kara dravya angikari' "
SYNONYMS
gosani kahe -- Sanatana Gosvami said; keha -- someone else; dravya --
the valuable coins; la-ibe -- will take; ama mari' -- killing me; amara -
- my; prana -- life; raksa kara -- save; dravya angikari' -- by
accepting these coins.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami replied, "If you do not accept these coins, someone
else will kill me for them. It is better that you save me from the
danger by accepting the coins."
Madhya 20.33
TEXT 33
TEXT
tabe bhuna gosanira sange cari paika dila
ratrye ratrye vana-pathe parvata para kaila
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereupon; bhuna -- the landlord; gosanira sange -- with
Sanatana Gosvami; cari paika -- four watchmen; dila -- gave; ratrye
ratrye -- during the whole night; vana-pathe -- on the jungle path;
parvata -- the hilly tract of land; para kaila -- took him across.
TRANSLATION
After this settlement was made, the landlord gave Sanatana Gosvami four
watchmen to accompany him. They went through the forest path for the
whole night and thus brought him over the hilly tract of land.
Madhya 20.34
TEXT 34
TEXT
tabe para hana gosani puchila isane
"jani, -- sesa dravya kichu ache toma sthane"
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; para hana -- after crossing; gosani -- Sanatana
Gosvami; puchila -- asked; isane -- Isana; jani -- I know; sesa dravya --
something valuable left; kichu -- some; ache -- there is; toma sthane --
with you.
TRANSLATION
After crossing the hills, Sanatana Gosvami told his servant, "Isana, I
think you still have some balance left from the gold coins."
Madhya 20.35
TEXT 35
TEXT
isana kahe, -- "eka mohara ache avasesa"
gosani kahe, -- "mohara lana yaha' tumi desa"
SYNONYMS
isana kahe -- Isana replied; eka -- one; mohara -- gold coin; ache -- is;
avasesa -- left; gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami; kahe -- replied; mohara
lana -- taking this gold coin; yaha -- return; tumi -- you; desa -- to
your country.
TRANSLATION
Isana replied, "I still have one gold coin in my possession." Sanatana
Gosvami then said, "Take the coin and return to your home."
Madhya 20.36
TEXT 36
TEXT
tare vidaya diya gosani calila ekala
hate karonya, chinda kantha, nirbhaya ha-ila
SYNONYMS
tare vidaya diya -- bidding him farewell; gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami;
calila ekala -- began to travel alone; hate -- in the hand; karonya -- a
beggar's pot; chinda kantha -- a torn quilt; nirbhaya ha-ila -- he
became free from all anxiety.
TRANSLATION
After departing from Isana, Sanatana Gosvami began traveling alone with
a waterpot in his hand. Simply covered with a torn quilt, he thus lost
all his anxiety.
Madhya 20.37
TEXT 37
TEXT
cali' cali' gosani tabe aila hajipure
sandhya-kale vasila eka udyana-bhitare
SYNONYMS
cali' cali' -- walking and walking; gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami; tabe --
then; aila -- arrived; hajipure -- at Hajipura; sandhya-kale -- in the
evening; vasila -- sat down; eka -- one; udyana-bhitare -- within a
garden.
TRANSLATION
Walking and walking, Sanatana Gosvami finally arrived at a place called
Hajipura. That evening he sat down within a garden.
Madhya 20.38
TEXT 38
TEXT
sei hajipure rahe -- srikanta tara nama
gosanira bhagini-pati, kare raja-kama
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; hajipure -- in Hajipura; rahe -- there is; sri-kanta --
Srikanta; tara -- his; nama -- name; gosanira -- of Sanatana Gosvami;
bhagini-pati -- sister's husband; kare -- executes; raja-kama --
government service.
TRANSLATION
In Hajipura there was a gentleman named Srikanta, who happened to be the
husband of Sanatana Gosvami's sister. He was engaged there in government
service.
Madhya 20.39
TEXT 39
TEXT
tina laksa mudra raja diyache tara sthane
ghoda mulya lana pathaya patsara sthane
SYNONYMS
tina laksa -- 300,000; mudra -- golden coins; raja -- the king or nawab;
diyache -- has given; tara sthane -- in his custody; ghoda -- of horses;
mulya lana -- taking the price; pathaya -- sends; patsara sthane -- to
the care of the emperor.
TRANSLATION
Srikanta had 300,000 gold coins with him, which had been given to him by
the emperor for the purchase of horses. Thus Srikanta was buying horses
and dispatching them to the emperor.
Madhya 20.40
TEXT 40
TEXT
tungi upara vasi' sei gosanire dekhila
ratrye eka-jana-sange gosani-pasa aila
SYNONYMS
tungi upara vasi' -- sitting in an elevated place; sei -- that Srikanta;
gosanire -- Sanatana Gosvami; dekhila -- saw; ratrye -- at night; eka-
jana-sange -- with a servant; gosani-pasa -- near Sanatana Gosvami; aila
-- he came.
TRANSLATION
When Srikanta was sitting in an elevated place, he could see Sanatana
Gosvami. That night he took a servant and went to see Sanatana Gosvami.
Madhya 20.41
TEXT 41
TEXT
dui-jana mili' tatha ista-gosthi kaila
bandhana-moksana-katha gosani sakali kahila
SYNONYMS
dui-jana mili' -- meeting together; tatha -- there; ista-gosthi --
various types of conversation; kaila -- did; bandhana-moksana -- of the
arrest and release; katha -- the story; gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami;
sakali -- everything; kahila -- narrated.
TRANSLATION
When they met, they had many conversations. Sanatana Gosvami told him in
detail about his arrest and release.
Madhya 20.42
TEXT 42
TEXT
tenho kahe, -- "dina-dui raha ei-sthane
bhadra hao, chada' ei malina vasane"
SYNONYMS
tenho kahe -- he said; dina-dui -- at least for two days; raha -- stay;
ei-sthane -- in this place; bhadra hao -- become like a gentleman in
appearance; chada' -- give up; ei -- this; malina -- dirty; vasane --
dress.
TRANSLATION
Srikanta then told Sanatana Gosvami, "Stay here for at least two days
and dress up like a gentleman. Abandon these dirty garments."
Madhya 20.43
TEXT 43
TEXT
gosani kahe, -- 'eka-ksana iha na rahiba
ganga para kari' deha', e-ksane caliba"
SYNONYMS
gosani kahe -- Sanatana Gosvami said; eka-ksana -- even for one moment;
iha -- here; na rahiba -- I shall not stay; ganga para kari' deha' --
help me cross the River Ganges; e-ksane -- immediately; caliba -- I
shall go.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami replied, "I shall not stay here even for a moment.
Please help me cross the Ganges. I shall leave immediately."
Madhya 20.44
TEXT 44
TEXT
yatna kari' tenho eka bhota-kambala dila
ganga para kari' dila -- gosani calila
SYNONYMS
yatna kari' -- with great care; tenho -- he (Srikanta); eka -- one;
bhota-kam-bala -- woolen blanket; dila -- gave; ganga para kari'
dila -- got him across the River Ganges; gosani calila -- Sanatana
Gosvami departed.
TRANSLATION
With great care, Srikanta gave him a woolen blanket and helped him cross
the Ganges. Thus Sanatana Gosvami departed again.
Madhya 20.45
TEXT 45
TEXT
tabe varanasi gosani aila kata-dine
suni anandita ha-ila prabhura agamane
SYNONYMS
tabe -- in this way; varanasi -- to Varanasi; gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami;
aila -- came; kata-dine -- after a few days; suni -- hearing; anandita -
- very pleased; ha-ila -- he became; prabhura -- of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; agamane -- about the arrival.
TRANSLATION
After a few days, Sanatana Gosvami arrived at Varanasi. He was very
pleased to hear about Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's arrival there.
Madhya 20.46
TEXT 46
TEXT
candrasekharera ghare asi' dvarete vasila
mahaprabhu jani' candrasekhare kahila
SYNONYMS
candrasekharera ghare -- to the house of Candrasekhara; asi' -- going;
dvarete -- at the door; vasila -- sat down; mahaprabhu -- Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; jani' -- knowing; candrasekhare -- to Candrasekhara; kahila -
- said.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami then went to the house of Candrasekhara and sat down by
the door. Understanding what was happening, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
spoke to Candrasekhara.
Madhya 20.47
TEXT 47
TEXT
'dvare eka 'vaisnava' haya, bolaha tanhare'
candrasekhara dekhe -- 'vaisnava' nahika dvare
SYNONYMS
dvare -- at your door; eka vaisnava -- one Vaisnava devotee; haya --
there is; bolaha tanhare' -- please call him; candrasekhara --
Candrasekhara; dekhe -- sees; vaisnava -- a devotee; nahika -- there is
not; dvare -- at the door.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "There is a devotee at your door. Please
call him in." Going outside, Candarsekhara could not see a Vaisnava at
his door.
Madhya 20.48
TEXT 48
TEXT
'dvarete vaisnava nahi' -- prabhure kahila
'keha haya' kari' prabhu tahare puchila
SYNONYMS
dvarete -- at my door; vaisnava nahi -- there is no Vaisnava; prabhure
kahila -- he informed Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; keha haya -- is there
anyone; kari' -- in this way; prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tahare
puchila -- inquired from him.
TRANSLATION
When Candrasekhara informed the Lord that no Vaisnava was at his door,
the Lord asked him, "Is there anyone at your door at all?"
Madhya 20.49
TEXT 49
TEXT
tenho kahe, -- eka 'daravesa' ache dvare
'tanre ana' prabhura vakye kahila tanhare
SYNONYMS
tenho kahe -- he replied; eka daravesa -- one Muslim mendicant; ache --
there is; dvare -- at the door; tanre ana -- bring him; prabhura -- of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; vakye -- the order; kahila -- said; tanhare --
unto him.
TRANSLATION
Candrasekhara replied, "There is a Muslim mendicant." Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu immediately said, "Please bring him here." Candrasekhara then
spoke to Sanatana Gosvami, who was still sitting beside the door.
Madhya 20.50
TEXT 50
TEXT
'prabhu tomaya bolaya, aisa, daravesa!'
suni' anande sanatana karila pravesa
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tomaya -- unto you; bolaya -- calls;
aisa -- come here; daravesa -- O Muslim mendicant; suni' -- hearing;
anande -- in great pleasure; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; karila
pravesa -- entered.
TRANSLATION
"O Muslim mendicant, please come in. The Lord is calling you." Sanatana
Gosvami was very pleased to hear this order, and he entered
Candrasekhara's house.
Madhya 20.51
TEXT 51
TEXT
tanhare angane dekhi' prabhu dhana aila
tanre alingana kari' premavista haila
SYNONYMS
tanhare -- him; angane -- in the courtyard; dekhi' -- seeing; prabhu --
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dhana aila -- came to see him with great haste;
tanre -- him; alingana kari' -- embracing; prema-avista haila -- became
overwhelmed with ecstatic love.
TRANSLATION
As soon as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw Sanatana Gosvami in the courtyard,
He immediately went up to him with great haste. After embracing him,
the Lord was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.
Madhya 20.52
TEXT 52
TEXT
prabhu-sparse premavista ha-ila sanatana
'more na chuniha' -- kahe gadgada-vacana
SYNONYMS
prabhu-sparse -- by the touch of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prema-avista --
overwhelmed with ecstatic love; ha-ila -- became; sanatana -- Sanatana
Gosvami; more -- me; na -- do not; chuniha -- touch; kahe -- says;
gadgada-vacana -- in a faltering voice.
TRANSLATION
As soon as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu touched Sanatana Gosvami, Sanatana
was also overwhelmed with ecstatic love. In a faltering voice, he said, "
O my Lord, do not touch me."
Madhya 20.53
TEXT 53
TEXT
dui-jane galagali rodana apara
dekhi' candrasekharera ha-ila camatkara
SYNONYMS
dui-jane -- the two persons; galagali -- shoulder to shoulder; rodana --
crying; apara -- unlimited; dekhi' -- seeing; candrasekharera -- of
Candrasekhara; ha-ila -- there was; camatkara -- astonishment.
TRANSLATION
Shoulder to shoulder, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sanatana Gosvami began
to cry unlimitedly. Candarsekhara was very astonished to see this.
Madhya 20.54
TEXT 54
TEXT
tabe prabhu tanra hata dhari' lana gela
pindara upare apana-pase vasaila
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanra -- of
Sanatana Gosvami; hata dhari' -- catching the hand; lana gela -- took
him inside; pindara upare -- in an elevated place; apana-pase -- near
Him; vasaila -- made Sanatana Gosvami sit down.
TRANSLATION
Catching his hand, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took Sanatana Gosvami inside
and made him sit in an elevated place next to Him.
Madhya 20.55
TEXT 55
TEXT
sri-haste karena tanra anga sammarjana
tenho kahe, -- 'more, prabhu, na kara sparsana'
SYNONYMS
sri-haste -- by the spiritual hand; karena -- does; tanra anga -- of his
body; sammarjana -- cleansing; tenho kahe -- he said; more -- me; prabhu
-- my Lord; na kara sparsana -- do not touch.
TRANSLATION
When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu began cleansing Sanatana Gosvami's body
with His own transcendental hand, Sanatana Gosvami said, "O my Lord,
please do not touch me."
Madhya 20.56
TEXT 56
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "toma sparsi atma pavitrite
bhakti-bale para tumi brahmanda sodhite
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied; toma sparsi -- I touch
you; atma pavitrite -- to purify Myself; bhakti-bale -- the strength of
your devotional service; para -- are able; tumi -- you; brahmanda -- the
whole universe; sodhite -- to purify.
TRANSLATION
The Lord replied, "I am touching you just to purify Myself because by
the force of your devotional service you can purify the whole universe.
Madhya 20.57
TEXT 57
TEXT
bhavad-vidha bhagavatas
tirtha-bhutah svayam prabho
tirthi-kurvanti tirthani
svantah-sthena gada-bhrta
SYNONYMS
bhavat-vidhah -- like you; bhagavatah -- advanced devotees; tirtha-
bhutah -- personified holy places of pilgrimage; svayam -- personally;
prabho -- my lord; tirthi-kurvanti -- make into holy places; tirthani --
all the holy places of pilgrimage; sva-antah-sthena -- situated within
their hearts; gada-bhrta -- by Lord Visnu, who carries a club.
TRANSLATION
" 'Saints of your caliber are themselves places of pilgrimage. Because
of their purity, they are constant companions of the Lord, and therefore
they can purify even the places of pilgrimage.'
PURPORT
This verse was spoken by Maharaja Yudhisthira to Vidura in Srimad-
Bhagavatam (1.13.10). Vidura was returning home after visiting sacred
places of pilgrimage, and Maharaja Yudhisthira was receiving his saintly
uncle. In essence, Maharaja Yudhisthira was saying, "My dear Lord Vidura,
you yourself are a holy place because you are an advanced devotee.
People like you always carry Lord Visnu in their hearts. You can
revitalize all holy places after they have been polluted by the
pilgrimages of sinners."
A sinful person goes to a holy place of pilgrimage to be purified. In a
holy place, there are many saintly people and temples of Lord Visnu;
however, the holy place becomes infected with the sins of many visitors.
When an advanced devotee goes to a holy place, he counteracts all the
sins of the pilgrims. Therefore Maharaja Yudisthira addressed Vidura in
this way.
Since an advanced devotee carries Lord Visnu within his heart, he is a
moving temple and a moving Visnu. An advanced devotee does not need to
go to holy places, for wherever he stays is a holy place. In this
connection, Narottama dasa Thakura states, tirtha-yatra parisrama,
kevala manera bhrama: visiting holy places is simply another type of
bewilderment. Since an advanced devotee does not need to go to a holy
place, why does he go? The answer is that he goes simply to purify the
place.
Madhya 20.58
TEXT 58
TEXT
na me 'bhaktas catur-vedi
mad-bhaktah sva-pacah priyah
tasmai deyam tato grahyam
sa ca pujyo yatha hy aham
SYNONYMS
na -- not; me -- My; abhaktah -- devoid of pure devotional service;
catuh-vedi -- a scholar in the four Vedas; mat-bhaktah -- My devotee;
sva-pacah -- even from a family of dog-eaters; priyah -- very dear;
tasmai -- to him (a pure devotee, even though born in a very low family);
deyam -- should be given; tatah -- from him; grahyam -- should be
accepted (remnants of food); sah -- that person; ca -- also; pujyah --
worshipable; yatha -- as much as; hi -- certainly; aham -- I.
TRANSLATION
" 'Even though a person is a very learned scholar of
the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless
he is pure in devotional service. However, even though a person is born
in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee
who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activity or mental speculation.
Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers
should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.'
PURPORT
This verse is included in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa (10.127) compiled by
Sanatana Gosvami.
Madhya 20.59
TEXT 59
TEXT
viprad dvisad-guna-yutad aravinda-nabha-
padaravinda-vimukhat sva-pacam varistham
manye tad-arpita-mano-vacanehitartha-
pranam punati sa kulam na tu bhuri-manah
SYNONYMS
viprat -- than a brahmana; dvi-sat-guna-yutat -- who is qualified with
twelve brahminical qualifications; aravinda-nabha -- of Lord Visnu, who
has a lotuslike navel; pada-aravinda -- unto the lotus feet; vimukhat --
than a person bereft of devotion; sva-pacam -- a candala, or a person
accustomed to eating dogs; varistham -- more glorified; manye -- I think;
tat-arpita -- dedicated unto Him; manah -- mind; vacana -- words; ihita
-- activities; artha -- wealth; pranam -- life; punati -- purifies; sah -
- he; kulam -- his family; na tu -- but not; bhuri-manah -- a brahmana
proud of possessing such qualities.
TRANSLATION
" 'One may be born in a brahmana family and have all twelve brahminical
qualities, but if he is not devoted to the lotus feet of Lord Krsna, who
has a navel shaped like a lotus, he is not as good as a candala who has
dedicated his mind, words, activities, wealth and life to the service of
the Lord. Simply to take birth in a brahmana family or to have
brahminical qualities is not sufficient. One must become a pure devotee
of the Lord. If a sva-paca or candala is a devotee, he delivers not only
himself but his whole family, whereas a brahmana who is not a devotee
but simply has brahminical qualifications cannot even purify himself,
not to speak of his family.' "
PURPORT
This verse is spoken by Prahlada Maharaja in Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.10).
A brahmana is supposed to be qualified with twelve qualities. As stated
in the Mahabharata:
dharmas ca satyam ca damas tapas ca
amatsaryam hris titiksanasuya
yajnas ca danam ca dhrtih srutam ca
vratani vai dvadasa brahmanasya
"A brahmana must be perfectly religious. He must be truthful, and he
must be able to control his senses. He must execute severe austerities,
and he must be detached, humble and tolerant. He must not envy anyone,
and he must be expert in performing sacrifices and giving whatever he
has in charity. He must be fixed in devotional service and expert in the
knowledge of the Vedas. These are the twelve qualifications for a
brahmana."
Bhagavad-gita describes the brahminical qualities in this
way:
samo damas tapah saucam
ksantir arjavam eva ca
jnanam vijnanam astikyam
brahma-karma svabhava-jam
"Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty,
wisdom, knowledge, and religiousness -- these are the
qualities by which the brahmanas work." (Bg. 18.42)
In the Muktaphala-tika, it is said:
samo damas tapah saucam
ksanty-arjava-viraktayah
jnana-vijnana-santosah
satyastikye dvisad gunah
"Mental equilibrium, sense control, austerity, cleanliness, tolerance,
simplicity, detachment, theoretical and practical knowledge,
satisfaction, truthfulness and firm faith in the Vedas are the twelve
qualities of a brahmana."
Madhya 20.60
TEXT 60
TEXT
toma dekhi, toma sparsi, gai tomara guna
sarvendriya-phala, -- ei sastra-nirupana
SYNONYMS
toma dekhi -- by seeing you; toma sparsi -- by touching you; gai tomara
guna -- praising your transcendental qualities; sarva-indriya-phala --
the fulfillment of the activities of all the senses; ei -- this; sastra-
nirupana -- the verdict of the revealed scriptures.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "By seeing you, by touching you and
by glorifying your transcendental qualities, one can perfect the purpose
of all sense activity. This is the verdict of the revealed scriptures.
PURPORT
This is confirmed in the following verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (
13.2).
Madhya 20.61
TEXT 61
TEXT
aksnoh phalam tvadrsa-darsanam hi
tanoh phalam tvadrsa-gatra-sangah
jihva-phalam tvadrsa-kirtanam hi
sudurlabha bhagavata hi loke
SYNONYMS
aksnoh -- of the eyes; phalam -- the perfect result of the action;
tva-drsa -- a person like you; darsanam -- to see; hi -- certainly;
tanoh -- of the body; phalam -- the perfection of activities; tva-
drsa -- of a person like you; gatra-sangah -- touching the body; jihva-
phalam -- the perfection of the tongue; tva-drsa -- a person like
you; kirtanam -- glorifying; hi -- certainly; su-durlabhah -- very rare;
bhagavatah -- pure devotees of the Lord; hi -- certainly; loke -- in
this world.
TRANSLATION
" 'My dear Vaisnava, seeing a person like you is the perfection of one's
eyesight. Touching your lotus feet is the perfection of the sense of
touch. Glorifying your good qualities is the tongue's real
activity, for in the material world it is very difficult to find a pure
devotee of the Lord.' "
Madhya 20.62
TEXT 62
TEXT
eta kahi kahe prabhu, -- "suna, sanatana
krsna -- bada dayamaya, patita-pavana
SYNONYMS
eta kahi -- saying this; kahe -- continued to speak; prabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; suna -- please hear; sanatana -- My dear Sanatana;
krsna -- Lord Krsna; bada -- very much; daya-maya -- merciful; patita-
pavana -- deliverer of the fallen souls.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "My dear Sanatana, please hear from
Me. Krsna is very merciful, and He is the deliverer of all fallen souls.
Madhya 20.63
TEXT 63
TEXT
maha-raurava haite toma karila uddhara
krpara samudra krsna gambhira apara"
SYNONYMS
maha-raurava haite -- from the deepest hellish condition of life; toma --
you; karila uddhara -- has delivered; krpara samudra -- the ocean of
mercy; krsna -- Krsna; gambhira -- very grave; apara -- unlimitedly.
TRANSLATION
"My dear Sanatana, Krsna has saved you from Maharaurava, life's deepest
hell. He is an ocean of mercy, and His activities are very grave."
PURPORT
As stated in Bhagavad-gita, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese '
rjuna tisthati. Staying within everyone's heart, Lord Krsna works very
gravely. No one can understand how He is working, but as soon as the
Lord understands the sincere activity of a person in devotional service,
He helps him in such a way that the devotee cannot understand how things
are happening. If the devotee is determined to serve the Lord, the Lord
is always prepared to help him (dadami buddhi-yogam tam yena mam
upayanti te). Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is telling Sanatana Gosvami how
merciful the Lord is. Sanatana Gosvami was a minister in the service of
Nawab Hussain Shah. He was always mixing with people materially inclined
, particularly with Mohammedans, meat-eaters. Although he was in
intimate touch with them, by Krsna's mercy he came to find such
association distasteful. Therefore he left them. As stated by Srinivasa
Acarya: tyaktva turnam asesa-mandala-pati-srenim sada tucchavat.
Krsna enlightened Sanatana Gosvami in such a way that he was able to
give up his exalted post as minister. Thinking his material position
insignificant, Sanatana was prepared to become a mendicant. Appreciating
the activities of Sanatana Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu praised his
action and thanked Krsna for His mercy upon him.
Madhya 20.64
TEXT 64
TEXT
sanatana kahe, -- 'krsna ami nahi jani
amara uddhara-hetu tomara krpa mani'
SYNONYMS
sanatana kahe -- Sanatana Gosvami said; krsna -- Lord Krsna; ami -- I;
nahi jani -- do not know; amara -- my; uddhara-hetu -- the cause of
release; tomara -- Your; krpa -- mercy; mani -- I accept.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana replied, "I do not know who Krsna is. As far as I am concerned,
I have been released from prison only by Your mercy."
Madhya 20.65
TEXT 65
TEXT
'kemane chutila' bali prabhu prasna kaila
adyopanta saba katha tenho sunaila
SYNONYMS
kemane chutila -- how were you released; bali -- saying; prabhu -- Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prasna kaila -- inquired; adya-upanta -- from
beginning to the end; saba -- all; katha -- the narration; tenho -- he;
sunaila -- described.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then asked Sanatana Gosvami, "How were you
released from prison?" Sanatana then described the story from beginning
to end.
Madhya 20.66
TEXT 66
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "tomara dui-bhai prayage milila
rupa, anupama -- dunhe vrndavana gela"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; tomara -- your; dui-bhai --
two brothers; prayage milila -- met Me at Prayaga; rupa -- Rupa Gosvami;
anupama -- his brother Anupama; dunhe -- both of them; vrndavana gela --
have gone to Vrndavana.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "I met your two brothers, Rupa and Anupama,
at Prayaga. They have now gone to Vrndavana."
Madhya 20.67
TEXT 67
TEXT
tapana-misrere ara candrasekharere
prabhu-ajnaya sanatana milila donhare
SYNONYMS
tapana-misrere -- unto Tapana Misra; ara -- and; candrasekharere -- unto
Candrasekhara; prabhu-ajnaya -- by the order of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
sanatana -- Sanatana; milila -- met; donhare -- both of them.
TRANSLATION
By the order of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sanatana Gosvami met both
Tapana Misra and Candrasekhara.
Madhya 20.68
TEXT 68
TEXT
tapana-misra tabe tanre kaila nimantrana
prabhu kahe, -- 'ksaura karaha, yaha, sanatana'
SYNONYMS
tapana-misra -- Tapana Misra; tabe -- then; tanre -- unto him (Sanatana
Gosvami); kaila -- made; nimantrana -- invitation; prabhu kahe --
Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; ksaura karaha -- get shaved; yaha -- go;
sanatana -- My dear Sanatana.
TRANSLATION
Tapana Misra then extended an invitation to Sanatana, and Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu asked Sanatana to go get a shave.
Madhya 20.69
TEXT 69
TEXT
candrasekharere prabhu kahe bolana
'ei vesa dura kara, yaha inhare lana'
SYNONYMS
candrasekharere -- unto Candrasekhara; prabhu kahe -- Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu said; bolana -- calling; ei vesa -- this kind of dress; dura
kara -- take away; yaha -- go; inhare lana -- taking him with you.
TRANSLATION
After this, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu called Candrasekhara and asked him
to take Sanatana Gosvami with him. He also asked him to take away
Sanatana's present dress.
Madhya 20.70
TEXT 70
TEXT
bhadra karana tanre ganga-snana karaila
sekhara aniya tanre nutana vastra dila
SYNONYMS
bhadra karana -- making gentle; tanre -- him; ganga-snana -- bathing in
the Ganges; karaila -- caused to do; sekhara -- Candrasekhara; aniya --
bringing; tanre -- to him; nutana -- new; vastra -- clothing; dila --
delivered.
TRANSLATION
Candrasekhara then made Sanatana Gosvami look like a gentleman. He took
him to bathe in the Ganges, and afterwards he brought him a new set of
clothes.
PURPORT
The words bhadra karana are significant in this verse. Due to his long
hair, moustache and beard, Sanatana Gosvami looked like a daravesa, or
hippie. Since Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu did not like Sanatana Gosvami's
hippie features, he immediately asked Candrasekhara to get him shaved
clean. If anyone with long hair or a beard wants to join this Krsna
consciousness movement and live with us, he must similarly shave himself
clean. The followers of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu consider long hair
objectionable. Sanatana Gosvami was saved from a hellish condition (
Maharaurava) by the grace of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Maharaurava is a
hell wherein animal killers are placed. In this regard, refer to Srimad-
Bhagavatam (5.26.10-12).
Madhya 20.71
TEXT 71
TEXT
sei vastra sanatana na kaila angikara
suniya prabhura mane ananda apara
SYNONYMS
sei vastra -- that new dress; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; na kaila --
did not; angikara -- accept; suniya -- hearing; prabhura -- of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; mane -- in the mind; ananda apara -- unlimited
happiness.
TRANSLATION
Candrasekhara offered a new set of garments to Sanatana Gosvami, but
Sanatana did not accept them. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu heard news of
this, he became unlimitedly happy.
Madhya 20.72
TEXT 72
TEXT
madhyahna kariya prabhu gela bhiksa karibare
sanatane lana gela tapana-misrera ghare
SYNONYMS
madhyahna kariya -- finishing bathing at noon; prabhu -- Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; gela -- went; bhiksa karibare -- to accept lunch; sanatane --
Sanatana Gosvami; lana -- taking; gela -- went; tapana-misrera ghare --
to the house of Tapana Misra.
TRANSLATION
After bathing at noon, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to the house of
Tapana Misra for lunch. He took Sanatana Gosvami with Him.
Madhya 20.73
TEXT 73
TEXT
pada-praksalana kari' bhiksate vasila
'sanatane bhiksa deha' -- misrere kahila
SYNONYMS
pada-praksalana -- washing the feet; kari' -- doing; bhiksate -- to
lunch; vasila -- sat down; sanatane bhiksa deha -- give Sanatana also
lunch; misrere kahila -- He asked Tapana Misra.
TRANSLATION
After washing His feet, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu sat down for lunch. He
asked Tapana Misra to supply Sanatana Gosvami lunch also.
Madhya 20.74
TEXT 74
TEXT
misra kahe, -- 'sanatanera kichu krtya ache
tumi bhiksa kara, prasada tanre diba pache'
SYNONYMS
misra kahe -- Tapana Misra said; sanatanera -- of Sanatana Gosvami;
kichu -- some; krtya -- duty; ache -- there is; tumi bhiksa kara -- You
take Your lunch; prasada -- the remnants of Your food; tanre -- unto him;
diba -- I shall deliver; pache -- at the end.
TRANSLATION
Tapana Misra then said, "Sanatana has some duty to perform; therefore he
cannot accept lunch now. At the conclusion of the meal, I shall supply
Sanatana with some remnants."
Madhya 20.75
TEXT 75
TEXT
bhiksa kari' mahaprabhu visrama karila
misra prabhura sesa-patra sanatane dila
SYNONYMS
bhiksa kari' -- after taking His lunch; mahaprabhu -- Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; visrama karila -- took rest; misra -- Tapana Misra; prabhura
-- of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sesa-patra -- the plate of remnants;
sanatane dila -- delivered to Sanatana.
TRANSLATION
After eating, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took rest for a while. Tapana
Misra then gave Sanatana Gosvami the remnants of food left by Caitanya
Mahaprabhu.
Madhya 20.76
TEXT 76
TEXT
misra sanatane dila nutana vasana
vastra nahi nila, tenho kaila nivedana
SYNONYMS
misra -- Tapana Misra; sanatane -- unto Sanatana; dila -- delivered;
nutana vasana -- new cloth; vastra -- the cloth; nahi nila -- he did not
accept; tenho -- he; kaila -- made; nivedana -- submission.
TRANSLATION
When Tapana Misra offered Sanatana Gosvami a new cloth, he did not
accept it. Instead, he spoke as follows.
Madhya 20.77
TEXT 77
TEXT
"more vastra dite yadi tomara haya mana
nija paridhana eka deha' puratana"
SYNONYMS
more -- unto me; vastra dite -- to offer cloth; yadi -- if; tomara --
your; haya -- there is; mana -- mind; nija -- own; paridhana -- cloth;
eka -- one; deha' -- give; puratana -- old.
TRANSLATION
"If you want to give me some cloth according to your desire, please give
me an old cloth you have used."
Madhya 20.78
TEXT 78
TEXT
tabe misra puratana eka dhuti dila
tenho dui bahirvasa-kaupina karila
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; misra -- Tapana Misra; puratana -- old; eka -- one;
dhuti -- dhoti; dila -- delivered; tenho -- he (Sanatana Gosvami); dui --
two; bahirvasa -- outer coverings; kaupina -- underwear; karila -- made.
TRANSLATION
When Tapana Misra gave Sanatana Gosvami a used dhoti, Sanatana
immediately tore it in pieces to make two sets of outer cloth and
underwear.
Madhya 20.79
TEXT 79
TEXT
maharastriya dvije prabhu milaila sanatane
sei vipra tanre kaila maha-nimantrane
SYNONYMS
maha-rastriya -- from Maharastra; dvije -- the brahmana; prabhu
-- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; milaila -- introduced; sanatane -- unto
Sanatana Gosvami; sei -- that; vipra -- brahmana; tanre -- unto him;
kaila -- did; maha -- full; nimantrane -- invitation.
TRANSLATION
When Caitanya Mahaprabhu introduced the Maharastriya brahmana to
Sanatana, the brahmana immediately invited Sanatana Gosvami for full
meals.
Madhya 20.80
TEXT 80
TEXT
"sanatana, tumi yavat kasite rahiba
tavat amara ghare bhiksa ye kariba"
SYNONYMS
sanatana -- O Sanatana; tumi -- you; yavat -- as long as; kasite -- in
Benares; rahiba -- will remain; tavat -- so long; amara -- my; ghare --
at the home; bhiksa -- lunch; ye -- that; kariba -- please accept.
TRANSLATION
The brahmana said, "My dear Sanatana, as long as you remain at Kasi,
please accept lunch at my place."
Madhya 20.81
TEXT 81
TEXT
sanatana kahe, -- "ami madhukari kariba
brahmanera ghare kene ekatra bhiksa laba?"
SYNONYMS
sanatana kahe -- Sanatana replied; ami -- I; madhukari kariba -- shall
practice acceptance of food by madhukari means; brahmanera ghare -- in
the house of a brahmana; kene -- why; ekatra -- in one place; bhiksa
laba -- I should accept lunch.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana replied,"I shall practice the process of madhukari. Why should
I accept full meals in the house of a brahmana?"
PURPORT
The word madhukari comes from the word madhukara, which refers to bees
collecting honey from flower to flower. A madhukari is a saintly person
or a mendicant who does not accept a full meal at one house but begs
from door to door, taking a little food from each householder's place.
In this way he does not overeat or give householders unnecessary trouble.
A person in the renounced order may beg but not cook. His begging
should not be a burden for the householders. The madhukari process is
strictly to be followed by a babaji, that is, one who has attained the
paramahamsa stage. This practice is still current in Vrndavana, and
there are many places where alms are offered. Unfortunately, there are
many beggars who have come to Vrndavana to accept alms but not follow
the principles of Sanatana Gosvami. People try to imitate him and lead
an idle life by practicing madhukari. It is almost impossible to
strictly follow Sanatana Gosvami or Rupa Gosvami. It is better to accept
food offered to Krsna in the temple than to try to imitate Sanatana
Gosvami and Rupa Gosvami.
yuktahara-viharasya
yukta-cestasya karmasu
yukta-svapnavabodhasya
yogo bhavati duhkha-ha
"He who is temperate in his habits of eating, sleeping, working and
recreation can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system.
" (Bg. 6.17)
The ideal sannyasi strictly follows the ways practiced by the Gosvamis.
Madhya 20.82
TEXT 82
TEXT
sanatanera vairagye prabhura ananda apara
bhota-kambala pane prabhu cahe bare bara
SYNONYMS
sanatanera -- of Sanatana Gosvami; vairagye -- by the renunciation;
prabhura -- of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; ananda -- happiness; apara --
unlimited; bhota-kambala -- the woolen blanket; pane -- towards; prabhu -
- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; cahe -- looks; bare bara -- repeatedly.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu felt unlimited happiness to observe Sanatana
Gosvami's strict following of the principles of sannyasa. However, He
repeatedly glanced at the woolen blanket Sanatana Gosvami was wearing.
Madhya 20.83
TEXT 83
TEXT
sanatana janila ei prabhure na bhaya
bhota tyaga karibare cintila upaya
SYNONYMS
sanatana janila -- Sanatana Gosvami could understand; ei -- this;
prabhure -- by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; na bhaya -- is not approved;
bhota -- the woolen blanket; tyaga -- giving up; karibare -- to do;
cintila -- considered; upaya -- a means.
TRANSLATION
Because Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was repeatedly glancing at this valuable
woolen blanket, Sanatana Gosvami could understand that the Lord did not
approve of it. He then began to consider a way to give it up.
Madhya 20.84
TEXT 84
TEXT
eta cinti' gela gangaya madhyahna karite
eka gaudiya kantha dhuna diyache sukaite
SYNONYMS
eta cinti' -- thinking this; gela -- went; gangaya -- to the bank of the
Ganges; madhyahna -- bathing at noon; karite -- to do; eka -- one;
gaudiya -- Bengali Vaisnava; kantha -- quilt; dhuna -- washing; diyache -
- spread out; sukaite -- to dry.
TRANSLATION
Thinking in this way, Sanatana went to the bank of the Ganges to bathe.
While there, he saw that a mendicant from Bengal had washed his quilt
and had spread it out to dry.
Madhya 20.85
TEXT 85
TEXT
tare kahe, -- "ore bhai, kara upakare
ei bhota lana ei kantha deha' more"
SYNONYMS
tare kahe -- he said to him; ore bhai -- O my brother; kara upakare --
kindly do a favor; ei bhota -- this woolen blanket; lana -- taking; ei --
this; kantha -- quilt; deha' -- give; more -- to me.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami then told the Bengali mendicant, "My dear brother,
please do me a favor. Trade me your quilt for this woolen blanket."
Madhya 20.86
TEXT 86
TEXT
sei kahe, -- "rahasya kara pramanika hana?
bahu-mulya bhota diba kena kantha lana?"
SYNONYMS
sei kahe -- he said; rahasya -- joking; kara -- you do; pramanika hana --
although being a man of authority; bahu-mulya -- very valuable; bhota --
woolen blanket; diba -- you would give; kena -- why; kantha lana --
taking this quilt.
TRANSLATION
The mendicant replied, "Sir, you are a respectable gentleman. Why are
you joking with me? Why would you trade your valuable blanket for my
torn quilt?"
Madhya 20.87
TEXT 87
TEXT
tenho kahe, -- "rahasya nahe, kahi satya-vani
bhota laha, tumi deha' more kantha-khani"
SYNONYMS
tenho kahe -- he said; rahasya nahe -- there is no joking; kahi satya-
vani -- I am speaking the truth; bhota laha -- take this blanket; tumi --
you; deha' -- give; more -- to me; kantha-khani -- the quilt.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana said, "I am not joking; I am speaking the truth. Kindly take
this blanket in exchange for your torn quilt."
Madhya 20.88
TEXT 88
TEXT
eta bali' kantha la-ila, bhota tanre diya
gosanira thani aila kantha gale diya
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; kantha la-ila -- he took the quilt; bhota --
the blanket; tanre -- unto him; diya -- giving; gosanira thani -- to
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; aila -- returned; kantha -- quilt; gale -- onto the
shoulder; diya -- keeping.
TRANSLATION
Saying this, Sanatana Gosvami exchanged the blanket for the quilt. He
then returned to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu with the quilt on his shoulder.
Madhya 20.89
TEXT 89
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- 'tomara bhota-kambala kotha gela?'
prabhu-pade saba katha gosani kahila
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; tomara -- your; bhota-
kambala -- woolen blanket; kotha gela -- where did it go; prabhu-pade --
unto the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya; saba -- all; katha -- narration;
gosani -- Sanatana Gosvami; kahila -- said.
TRANSLATION
When Sanatana Gosvami returned, the Lord asked, "Where is your woolen
blanket?" Sanatana Gosvami then narrated the whole story to the Lord.
Madhya 20.90-91
TEXTS 90-91
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "iha ami kariyachi vicara
visaya-roga khandaila krsna ye tomara
se kene rakhibe tomara sesa visaya-bhoga?
roga khandi' sad-vaidya na rakhe sesa roga
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; iha -- this; ami -- I;
kariyachi vicara -- considered deliberately; visaya-roga -- the disease
of material attraction; khandaila -- has now nullified; krsna -- Lord
Krsna; ye -- since; tomara -- your; se -- Lord Krsna; kene -- why;
rakhibe -- should allow you to keep; tomara -- your; sesa -- last;
visaya-bhoga -- attraction for material things; roga khandi' --
vanquishing the disease; sat-vaidya -- a good physician; na rakhe --
does not keep; sesa -- the last part; roga -- disease.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then said, "I have already deliberately
considered this matter. Since Lord Krsna is very merciful, He has
nullified your attachment for material things. Why should Krsna allow
you to maintain a last bit of material attachment? After vanquishing a
disease, a good physician does not allow any of the disease to remain.
Madhya 20.92
TEXT 92
TEXT
tina mudrara bhota gaya, madhukari grasa
dharma-hani haya, loka kare upahasa"
SYNONYMS
tina mudrara bhota -- a woolen blanket costing three gold coins; gaya --
on the body; madhukari grasa -- and practicing the madhukari system;
dharma-hani haya -- that is a religious discrepancy; loka kare upahasa --
people will joke.
TRANSLATION
"It is contradictory to practice madhukari and at the same time wear a
valuable blanket. One loses his spiritual strength by doing this, and
one will also become an object for jokes."
Madhya 20.93
TEXT 93
TEXT
gosani kahe, -- 'ye khandila kuvisaya-bhoga
tanra icchaya gela mora sesa visaya-roga"
SYNONYMS
gosani kahe -- Sanatana Gosvami said; ye khandila -- the person who has
vanquished; ku-visaya-bhoga -- enjoyment of sinful material life; tanra
icchaya -- by His desire; gela -- has gone; mora -- my; sesa -- last bit;
visaya-roga -- material disease.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami replied, "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has saved
me from the sinful life of material existence. By His desire, my last
piece of material attraction is now gone."
Madhya 20.94
TEXT 94
TEXT
prasanna hana prabhu tanre krpa kaila
tanra krpaya prasna karite tanra sakti haila
SYNONYMS
prasanna hana -- being very pleased; prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
tanre -- unto him; krpa kaila -- offered His causeless mercy; tanra
krpaya -- by His mercy; prasna karite -- to inquire; tanra -- his; sakti
haila -- there was strength.
TRANSLATION
Being pleased with Sanatana Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu bestowed
His causeless mercy upon him. By the Lord's mercy, Sanatana Gosvami
received the spiritual strength to inquire from Him.
Madhya 20.95-96
TEXTS 95-96
TEXT
purve yaiche raya-pase prabhu prasna kaila
tanra saktye ramananda tanra uttara dila
ihan prabhura saktye prasna kare sanatana
apane mahaprabhu kare 'tattva'-nirupana
SYNONYMS
purve -- formerly; yaiche -- as; raya-pase -- unto Ramananda Raya;
prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prasna kaila -- inquired; tanra
saktye -- only by His mercy; ramananda -- Ramananda Raya; tanra -- his;
uttara -- answers; dila -- gave; ihan -- here; prabhura -- of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; saktye -- by the strength; prasna -- questions;
kare -- puts; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; apane -- personally;
mahaprabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kare -- does; tattva -- the truth;
nirupana -- discerning.
TRANSLATION
Formerly, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Ramananda Raya spiritual
questions, and by the Lord's causeless mercy, Ramananda Raya could
properly reply. Now, by the Lord's mercy, Sanatana Gosvami questioned
the Lord, and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu personally supplied the truth.
Madhya 20.97
TEXT 97
TEXT
krsna-svarupa-madhuryais-
varya-bhakti-rasasrayam
tattvam sanatanayesah
krpayopadidesa sah
SYNONYMS
krsna-svarupa -- of the real identity of Sri Krsna; madhurya -- of
conjugal love; aisvarya -- of opulence; bhakti -- of devotional service;
rasa -- of transcendental mellows; asrayam -- the shelter; tattvam --
the truth; sanatanaya -- unto Sri Sanatana; isah -- Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Lord; krpaya -- by His causeless mercy;
upadidesa -- instructed; sah -- He.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, personally
told Sanatana Gosvami about Lord Krsna's real identity. He also told him
about the Lord's conjugal love, His personal opulence and the mellows of
devotional service. All these truths were explained to Sanatana Gosvami
by the Lord Himself out of His causeless mercy.
Madhya 20.98
TEXT 98
TEXT
tabe sanatana prabhura carane dhariya
dainya vinati kare dante trna lana
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; sanatana -- Sanatana Gosvami; prabhura -- of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; carane -- the lotus feet; dhariya -- catching;
dainya -- humility; vinati -- bowing; kare -- does; dante -- in the
teeth; trna -- a straw; lana -- taking.
TRANSLATION
Putting a straw in his mouth and bowing down, Sanatana Gosvami clasped
the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and humbly spoke as follows.
Madhya 20.99
TEXT 99
TEXT
"nica jati, nica-sangi, patita adhama
kuvisaya-kupe padi' gonainu janama!
SYNONYMS
nica jati -- born of a low family; nica-sangi -- associated with low men;
patita -- fallen; adhama -- the lowest; ku-visaya-kupe -- in a well of
material enjoyment; padi' -- having fallen down; gonainu -- I have
passed; janama -- my life.
TRANSLATION
Sanatana Gosvami said, "I was born in a low family, and my associates
are all low-class men. I myself am fallen and am the lowest of men.
Indeed, I have passed my whole life fallen in the well of sinful
materialism.
PURPORT
Actually Sri Sanatana Gosvami belonged to a brahmana family because he
belonged to the Sarasvata division of the brahmanas and was well
cultured and well educated. Somehow or other he accepted a ministership
in the Muslim government; therefore he had to associate with meat-eaters,
drunkards and gross materialists. Sanatana Gosvami considered himself
fallen, for in the association of such men, he also fell victim to
material enjoyment. Having passed his life in that way, he considered
that he had wasted his valuable time. This statement about how one can
become fallen in this material world is made by the greatest authority
in the Gaudiya Vaisnava-sampradaya. Actually the whole world is
presently fallen into material existence. Everyone is a meat-eater,
drunkard, woman hunter, gambler and whatnot. People are enjoying
material life by committing the four basic sins. Although they are
fallen, if they simply submit themselves at the lotus feet of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, they will be saved from sinful reactions.
Madhya 20.100
TEXT 100
TEXT
apanara hitahita kichui na jani!
gramya-vyavahare pandita, tai satya mani
SYNONYMS
apanara -- of my personal self; hita -- welfare; ahita --
inauspiciousness; kichui -- anything; na jani -- I do not know; gramya-
vyavahare -- in ordinary dealings; pandita -- a learned man; tai satya
mani -- I accept that as truth.
TRANSLATION
"I do not know what is beneficial for me and what is detrimental.
Nonetheless, in ordinary dealings people consider me a learned scholar,
and I am also thinking of myself as such.
Madhya 20.101
TEXT 101
TEXT
krpa kari' yadi more kariyacha uddhara
apana-krpate kaha 'kartavya' amara
SYNONYMS
krpa kari' -- by Your causeless mercy; yadi -- if; more -- unto me;
kariyacha -- You have done; uddhara -- deliverance; apana-krpate -- by
Your own mercy; kaha -- please speak; kartavya amara -- my duty.
TRANSLATION
"Out of Your causeless mercy, You have delivered me from the
materialistic path. Now, by the same causeless mercy, please tell me
what my duty is.
Madhya 20.102
TEXT 102
TEXT
'ke ami', 'kene amaya jare tapa-traya'
iha nahi jani -- 'kemane hita haya'
SYNONYMS
ke ami -- who am I; kene -- why; amaya -- unto me; jare -- give trouble;
tapa-traya -- the three kinds of miserable conditions; iha -- this; nahi
jani -- I do not know; kemane -- how; hita -- my welfare; haya -- there
is.
TRANSLATION
"Who am I? Why do the threefold miseries always give me trouble? If I do
not know this, how can I be benefited?
PURPORT
The threefold material miseries are miseries arising from the body and
the mind, miseries arising from dealings with other living entities, and
miseries arising from natural disturbances. Sometimes we suffer bodily
when we are attacked by a fever, and sometimes we suffer mentally when a
close relative dies. Other living entities also cause us misery. There
are living entities born of the human embryo, of eggs, perspiration and
vegetation. Miserable conditions brought about by natural catastrophes
are controlled by the higher demigods. There may be severe cold or
thunderbolts, or a person may be haunted by ghosts. These threefold
miseries are always before us, and they entrap us in a dangerous
situation. Padam padam yad vipadam. There is danger in
every step of life.
Madhya 20.103
TEXT 103
TEXT
'sadhya'-'sadhana'-tattva puchite na jani
krpa kari' saba tattva kaha ta' apani"
SYNONYMS
sadhya -- of the goal of spiritual life; sadhana -- of the process of
obtaining that goal; tattva -- truth; puchite -- to inquire; na jani --
I do not know; krpa kari' -- by Your causeless mercy; saba tattva -- all
such truths; kaha ta' apani -- please personally explain to me.
TRANSLATION
"Actually I do not know how to inquire about the goal of life and the
process for obtaining it. Being merciful upon me, please explain all
these truths."
Madhya 20.104
TEXT 104
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "krsna-krpa tomate purna haya
saba tattva jana, tomara nahi tapa-traya
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kahe -- said; krsna-krpa -- the mercy
of Krsna; tomate -- on you; purna -- full; haya -- there is; saba tattva
-- all truths; jana -- you know; tomara -- of you; nahi -- there is not;
tapa-traya -- the threefold miseries.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "Lord Krsna has bestowed His full mercy
upon you so that all these things are known to you. For you, the
threefold miseries certainly do not exist.
Madhya 20.105
TEXT 105
TEXT
krsna-sakti dhara tumi, jana tattva-bhava
jani' dardhya lagi' puche, -- sadhura svabhava
SYNONYMS
krsna-sakti -- the energy of Lord Krsna; dhara -- process; tumi -- you;
jana -- know; tattva-bhava -- the factual position; jani' -- although
knowing all these things; dardhya lagi' -- for the sake of strictness;
puche -- he inquires; sadhura -- of the saintly persons; sva-bhava -
- the nature.
TRANSLATION
"Since you possess Lord Krsna's potency, you certainly know these things.
However, it is the nature of a sadhu to inquire. Although he knows
these things, the sadhu inquires for the sake of strictness.
Madhya 20.106
TEXT 106
TEXT
acirad eva sarvarthah
sidhyaty esam abhipsitah
sad-dharmasyavabodhaya
yesam nirbandhini matih
SYNONYMS
acirat -- very soon; eva -- certainly; sarva-arthah -- the goal of life;
sidhyati -- becomes fulfilled; esam -- of these persons; abhipsitah --
desired; sat-dharmasya -- of the path of progressive devotional service;
avabodhaya -- for understanding; yesam -- those whose; nirbandhini --
unflinching; matih -- intelligence.
TRANSLATION
" 'Those who are anxious to awaken their spiritual consciousness, who
have unflinching intelligence and who are not deviated,
certainly attain the desired goal.'
PURPORT
This verse, quoted from the Naradiya Purana, is found in Bhakti-
rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.103).
Madhya 20.107
TEXT 107
TEXT
yogya-patra hao tumi bhakti pravartaite
krame saba tattva suna, kahiye tomate
SYNONYMS
yogya-patra -- fit person; hao -- are; tumi -- you; bhakti -- devotional
service; pravartaite -- to propagate; krame -- one after another; saba --
all; tattva -- truths; suna -- please hear; kahiye -- I shall speak;
tomate -- to you.
TRANSLATION
"You are fit to propagate the cult of devotional service. Therefore
gradually hear all the truths about it from Me. I shall tell you about
them.
Madhya 20.108-109
TEXTS 108-109
TEXT
jivera 'svarupa' haya -- krsnera 'nitya-dasa'
krsnera 'tatastha-sakti', 'bhedabheda-prakasa'
suryamsa-kirana, yaiche agni-jvala-caya
svabhavika krsnera tina-prakara 'sakti' haya
SYNONYMS
jivera -- of the living entity; sva-rupa -- the constitutional
position; haya -- is; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; nitya-dasa -- eternal
servant; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; tatastha -- marginal; sakti --
potency; bheda-abheda -- one and different; prakasa -- manifestation;
surya-amsa -- part and parcel of the sun; kirana -- a ray of sunshine;
yaiche -- as; agni-jvala-caya -- molecular particle of fire; svabhavika -
- naturally; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; tina-prakara -- three varieties;
sakti -- energies; haya -- there are.
TRANSLATION
"It is the living entity's constitutional position to be an eternal
servant of Krsna because he is the marginal energy of Krsna and a
manifestation simultaneously one and different from the Lord, like
a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. Krsna has three varieties of
energy.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura paraphrases these verses as follows: Sri
Sanatana Gosvami asked Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, "Who am I?" In answer,
the Lord replied, "You are a pure living entity. You are neither the
material body nor the subtle body composed of mind and
intelligence. Actually you are a spirit soul, eternal part and parcel
of the Supreme Soul, Krsna. Therefore you are His eternal servant. You
belong to Krsna's marginal potency. There are two worlds -- the
spiritual world and the material world -- and you are situated between
the material and spiritual potencies. You have a relationship with both
the material and spiritual worlds; therefore you are called the
marginal potency. You are related with Krsna as one and simultaneously
different. Because you are spirit soul, you are one in quality with the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, but because you are a very minute
particle of spirit soul, you are different from the Supreme Soul.
Therefore your position is simultaneously one with and different from
the Supreme Soul. The examples given are those of the sun itself and the
small particles of sunshine and of a blazing fire and the small
particles of fire." Another explanation of these verses can be found in
Adi-lila (Chapter Two, verse 96).
Madhya 20.110
TEXT 110
TEXT
eka-desa-sthitasyagner
jyotsna vistarini yatha
parasya brahmanah saktis
tathedam akhilam jagat
SYNONYMS
eka-desa -- in one place; sthitasya -- being situated; agneh -- of fire;
jyotsna -- the illumination; vistarini -- expanded everywhere; yatha --
just as; parasya -- of the Supreme; brahmanah -- of the Absolute Truth;
saktih -- the energy; tatha -- similarly; idam -- this; akhilam --
entire; jagat -- universe.
TRANSLATION
" 'Just as the illumination of a fire, which is situated in one place,
is spread all over, the energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Parabrahman, are spread all over this universe.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from the Visnu Purana (1.22.53).
Madhya 20.111
TEXT 111
TEXT
krsnera svabhavika tina-sakti-parinati
cic-chakti, jiva-sakti, ara maya-sakti
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; svabhavika -- natural; tina -- three; sakti --
of energies; parinati -- transformations; cit-sakti -- spiritual potency;
jiva-sakti -- spiritual sparks, living entities; ara -- and; maya-sakti
-- illusory energy.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna naturally has three energetic transformations, and these are
known as the spiritual potency, the living entity potency and the
illusory potency.
Madhya 20.112
TEXT 112
TEXT
visnu-saktih para prokta
ksetrajnakhya tatha para
avidya-karma-samjnanya
trtiya saktir isyate
SYNONYMS
visnu-saktih -- the potency of Lord Visnu; para -- spiritual; prokta --
it is said; ksetra-jna-akhya -- the potency known as ksetrajna; tatha --
as well as; para -- spiritual; avidya -- ignorance; karma -- fruitive
activities; samjna -- known as; anya -- other; trtiya -- third; saktih --
potency; isyate -- known thus.
TRANSLATION
" 'Originally, Krsna's energy is spiritual, and the energy known as the
living entity is also spiritual. However, there is another energy,
called illusion, which consists of fruitive activity. That is the Lord's
third potency.'
PURPORT
For a further
explanation of this verse, refer to the Adi-lila, Chapter Seven, verse
119.
Madhya 20.113
TEXT 113
TEXT
saktayah sarva-bhavanam
acintya-jnana-gocarah
yato 'to brahmanas tas tu
sargadya bhava-saktayah
bhavanti tapatam srestha
pavakasya yathosnata
SYNONYMS
saktayah -- energies; sarva-bhavanam -- of all types of creation;
acintya -- inconceivable; jnana-gocarah -- by the range of man's
knowledge; yatah -- from whom; atah -- therefore; brahmanah -- from the
Absolute Truth; tah -- those; tu -- but; sarga-adyah -- bringing about
creation, maintenance and annihilation; bhava-saktayah -- the creative
energies; bhavanti -- are; tapatam -- of all the ascetics; srestha -- O
chief; pavakasya -- of fire; yatha -- as; usnata -- heat.
TRANSLATION
" 'All the creative energies, which are inconceivable to a common man,
exist in the Supreme Absolute Truth. These inconceivable energies act in
the process of creation, maintenance and annihilation. O chief of the
ascetics, just as there are two energies possessed by fire -- namely
heat and light -- these inconceivable creative energies are the natural
characteristics of the Absolute Truth.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from the Visnu Purana (1.3.2).
Madhya 20.114
TEXT 114
TEXT
yaya ksetra-jna-saktih sa
vestita nrpa sarva-ga
samsara-tapan akhilan
avapnoty atra santatan
SYNONYMS
yaya -- by which; ksetra-jna-saktih -- the living entities, known as the
ksetra-jna potency; sa -- that potency; vestita -- covered; nrpa -- O
King; sarva-ga -- capable of going anywhere in the spiritual or
material worlds; samsara-tapan -- miseries due to the cycle of repeated
birth and death; akhilan -- all kinds of; avapnoti -- obtains; atra --
in this material world; santatan -- arising from suffering or enjoying
various kinds of reactions to fruitive activities.
TRANSLATION
" 'O King, the ksetra-jna-sakti is the living entity. Although he has
the facility to live in either the material or spiritual world, he
suffers the threefold miseries of material existence because he is
influenced by the avidya [nescience] potency, which covers his
constitutional position.
PURPORT
This and the following verse are also quoted from the Visnu Purana (6.7.
62-63).
Madhya 20.115
TEXT 115
TEXT
taya tirohitatvac ca
saktih ksetra-jna-samjnita
sarva-bhutesu bhu-pala
taratamyena vartate
SYNONYMS
taya -- by her; tirah-hitatvat -- from being freed from the
influence; ca -- also; saktih -- the potency; ksetra-jna -- ksetra-jna;
samjnita -- known by the name; sarva-bhutesu -- in different types of
bodies; bhu-pala -- O King; taratamyena -- in different degrees; vartate
-- exists.
TRANSLATION
" 'This living entity, covered by the influence of nescience, exists in
different forms in the material condition. O King, he is thus
proportionately freed from the influence of material energy, to
greater or lesser degrees.'
Madhya 20.116
TEXT 116
TEXT
apareyam itas tv anyam
prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho
yayedam dharyate jagat
SYNONYMS
apara -- inferior energy; iyam -- this material world; itah -- beyond
this; tu -- but; anyam -- another; prakrtim -- energy; viddhi -- you
must know; me -- of Me; param -- which is superior energy; jiva-bhutam --
they are the living entities; maha-baho -- O mighty-armed; yaya --
by which; idam -- this material world; dharyate -- is being conducted;
jagat -- the cosmic manifestation.
TRANSLATION
" 'Besides this inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is
a superior energy of Mine, which consists of all living entities
who are struggling with material nature and are sustaining the
universe.'
PURPORT
This is a verse from Bhagavad-gita (7.5). It is also quoted
in the Adi-lila (Chapter Seven, verse 118).
Madhya 20.117
TEXT 117
TEXT
krsna bhuli' sei jiva anadi-bahirmukha
ataeva maya tare deya samsara-duhkha
SYNONYMS
krsna bhuli' -- forgetting Krsna; sei jiva -- that living entity; anadi -
- from time immemorial; bahih-mukha -- attracted by the external feature;
ataeva -- therefore; maya -- illusory energy; tare -- to him; deya --
gives; samsara-duhkha -- miseries of material existence.
TRANSLATION
"Forgetting Krsna, the living entity has been attracted by the external
feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy [maya] gives
him all kinds of misery in his material existence.
PURPORT
When the living entity forgets his constitutional position as an eternal
servant of Krsna, he is immediately entrapped by the illusory, external
energy. The living entity is originally part and parcel of Krsna and is
therefore the superior energy of Krsna. He is endowed with inconceivable
minute energy that works inconceivably within the body. However, the
living entity, forgetting his position, is situated in material energy.
The living entity is called the marginal energy because by nature he is
spiritual but by forgetfulness he is situated in the material energy.
Thus he has the power to live either in the material energy or in the
spiritual energy, and for this reason he is called marginal energy.
He is sometimes attracted by the
external illusory energy when he stays in the marginal position, and
this is the beginning of his material life. When he enters the material
energy, he is subjected to the threefold time measurement -- past,
present and future. Past, present and future belong only to the material
world; they do not exist in the spiritual world. The living entity is
eternal, and he existed before the creation of this material world.
Unfortunately he has forgotten his relationship with Krsna. The living
entity's forgetfulness is described herein as anadi, which indicates
that it has existed since time immemorial. One should understand that
due to his desire to enjoy himself in competition with Krsna, the living
entity comes into material existence.
Madhya 20.118
TEXT 118
TEXT
kabhu svarge uthaya, kabhu narake dubaya
dandya-jane raja yena nadite cubaya
SYNONYMS
kabhu -- sometimes; svarge -- to higher planetary systems; uthaya -- he
rises; kabhu -- sometimes; narake -- in hellish conditions of life;
dubaya -- he is drowned; dandya-jane -- a criminal; raja -- a king; yena
-- as; nadite -- in the river; cubaya -- dunks.
TRANSLATION
"In the material condition, the living entity is sometimes raised to
higher planetary systems and material prosperity and sometimes drowned
in a hellish situation. His state is exactly like that of a criminal
whom a king punishes by submerging him in water and then raising him
again from the water.
PURPORT
In the Vedas it is stated, asango 'yam
purusah: the living entity is always free from the contamination of the
material world. One who is not materially infected and who does not
forget Krsna as his master is called nitya-mukta. In other words, one
who is eternally liberated from material contamination is called nitya-
mukta. From time immemorial the nitya-mukta living entity has always
been a devotee of Krsna, and his only attempt has been to serve Krsna.
Thus he never forgets his eternal servitorship to Krsna. Any living
entity who forgets his eternal relationship with Krsna is under the sway
of the material condition. Bereft of the Lord's transcendental loving
service, he is subjected to the reactions of fruitive activity. When he
is elevated to the higher planetary systems due to worldly pious
activities, he considers himself well situated, but when he is subjected
to punishment, he thinks himself improperly situated. Thus material
nature awards and punishes the living entity. When the living entity is
materially opulent, material nature is rewarding him. When he is
materially embarrassed, material nature is punishing him.
Madhya 20.119
TEXT 119
TEXT
bhayam dvitiyabhinivesatah syad
isad apetasya viparyayo 'smrtih
tan-mayayato budha abhajet tam
bhaktyaikayesam guru-devatatma
SYNONYMS
bhayam -- fear; dvitiya-abhinivesatah -- from the misconception of being
a product of material energy; syat -- arises; isat -- from the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Krsna; apetasya -- of one who has withdrawn (the
conditioned soul); viparyayah -- reversal of the position; asmrtih -- no
conception of his relationship with the Supreme Lord; tat-mayaya --
because of the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord; atah -- therefore;
budhah -- one who is wise; abhajet -- must worship; tam -- Him; bhaktya -
- by devotional service; ekaya -- undiverted to karma and jnana; isam --
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guru -- as the spiritual master;
devata -- the worshipable Lord; atma -- the Supersoul.
TRANSLATION
" 'When the living entity is attracted by the material energy, which is
separate from Krsna, he is overpowered by fear. Because he is separated
from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the material energy, his
conception of life is reversed. In other words, instead of being the
eternal servant of Krsna, he becomes Krsna's competitor. This is called
viparyayo 'smrtih. To nullify this mistake, one who is actually learned
and advanced worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his
spiritual master, worshipful Deity and source of life. He thus worships
the Lord by the process of unalloyed devotional service.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.37). It is an
instruction given by Kavi Rsi, one of the nine saintly personalities
called the nine Yogendras. When Vasudeva, Krsna's father, asked Devarsi
Narada in Dvaraka about devotional service, it was mentioned that
previously King Nimi, who was the King of Videha, was instructed by the
nine Yogendras. When Sri Narada Muni discoursed on bhagavata-dharma,
devotional service, he indicated how a conditioned soul can be liberated
by engaging in the loving transcendental service of the Lord. The Lord
is the Supersoul, spiritual master and worshipable Deity of all
conditioned souls. Not only is Krsna the supreme worshipful Deity for
all living entities, but He is also the guru, or caitya-guru, the
Supersoul who always gives the living entity good counsel.
Unfortunately the living entity neglects the Supreme Person's
instructions. He thus identifies with material energy and is
consequently overpowered by a kind of fear resulting from accepting
himself as the material body and considering paraphernalia related to
the material body to be his property. All types of fruitive results
actually come from the spirit soul, but because he has forgotten his
real duty, he is embarrassed by many material consequences such as fear
and attachment. The only remedy is to revert to the service of the Lord
and thus be saved from material nature's unwanted harassment.
Madhya 20.120
TEXT 120
TEXT
sadhu-sastra-krpaya yadi krsnonmukha haya
sei jiva nistare, maya tahare chadaya
SYNONYMS
sadhu -- of saintly persons; sastra -- of scriptures; krpaya -- by the
mercy; yadi -- if; krsna-unmukha haya -- one becomes Krsna conscious;
sei -- that; jiva -- living entity; nistare -- becomes liberated; maya --
the illusory energy; tahare -- him; chadaya -- gives up.
TRANSLATION
"If the conditioned soul becomes Krsna conscious by the mercy of saintly
persons who voluntarily preach scriptural injunctions and help him to
become Krsna conscious, the conditioned soul is liberated from the
clutches of maya, who gives him up.
PURPORT
A conditioned soul is one who has forgotten Krsna as his eternal master.
Thinking that he is enjoying the material world, the conditioned soul
suffers the threefold miseries of material existence. Saintly persons (
sadhus), Vaisnava devotees of the Lord, preach Krsna consciousness on
the basis of Vedic literature. It is only by their mercy that the
conditioned soul is awakened to Krsna consciousness. When awakened, he
is no longer eager to enjoy the materialistic way of life. Instead, he
devotes himself to the loving transcendental service of the Lord. When
one engages in the Lord's devotional service, he becomes detached from
material enjoyment.
bhaktih paresanubhavo viraktir
anyatra caisa trika eka-kalah
(Bhag. 11.2.42)
This is the test by which one can tell whether he is advancing in
devotional service. One must be detached from material enjoyment. Such
detachment means that maya has actually given the conditioned soul
liberation from illusory enjoyment. When one is advanced in Krsna
consciousness, he does not consider himself as good as Krsna. Whenever
he thinks that he is the enjoyer of material advantages, he is
imprisoned in the bodily conception. However, when he is freed from the
bodily conception, he can engage in devotional service, which is his
actual position of freedom from the clutches of maya. This is all
explained in the following verse from Bhagavad-gita (7.14).
Madhya 20.121
TEXT 121
TEXT
daivi hy esa gunamayi
mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante
mayam etam taranti te
SYNONYMS
daivi -- belonging to the Supreme Lord; hi -- certainly; esa -- this;
gunamayi -- made of the three modes; mama -- My; maya -- external
energy; duratyaya -- very difficult to surpass; mam -- unto Me; eva --
certainly; ye -- those who; prapadyante -- surrender fully; mayam --
illusory energy; etam -- this; taranti -- cross over; te -- they.
TRANSLATION
" 'This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material
nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me
can easily cross beyond it.'
Madhya 20.122
TEXT 122
TEXT
maya-mugdha jivera nahi svatah krsna-jnana
jivere krpaya kaila krsna veda-purana
SYNONYMS
maya-mugdha -- enchanted by the illusory energy; jivera -- of the
conditioned soul; nahi -- there is not; svatah -- automatically; krsna-
jnana -- knowledge of Krsna; jivere -- unto the conditioned soul; krpaya
-- out of mercy; kaila -- presented; krsna -- Lord Krsna; veda-purana --
the Vedic literature and the Puranas (supplements to the Vedic
literature).
TRANSLATION
"The conditioned soul cannot revive his Krsna consciousness by his own
effort. But out of causeless mercy, Lord Krsna compiled the Vedic
literature and its supplements, the Puranas.
PURPORT
A conditioned soul is bewildered by the Lord's illusory energy (maya).
Maya's business is to keep the conditioned soul forgetful of his real
relationship with Krsna. Thus the living entity forgets his real
identity as spirit soul, Brahman, and instead of realizing his factual
position thinks himself the product of the material energy. According to
Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.5):
yaya sammohito jiva
atmanam tri-gunatmakam
paro 'pi manute 'nartham
tat-krtam cabhipadyate
"Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental
to the three modes of material nature, thinks of himself as a material
product and thus undergoes the reactions of material miseries."
This is a description of maya's action upon the conditioned soul.
Thinking himself a product of the material energy, the conditioned soul
engages in the service of material energy in so many ways. He
becomes the servant of lust, anger, greed and envy. In this way one
totally becomes a servant of the illusory energy. Later, the bewildered
soul becomes a servant of mental speculation, but in any case he is
simply covered by the illusory energy. Out of his causeless mercy and
compassion, Krsna has compiled various Vedic literatures in His
incarnation as Vyasadeva. Vyasadeva is a saktyavesa-avatara of Lord
Krsna. He has very kindly presented these literatures to awaken the
conditioned soul to his senses. Unfortunately, at the present moment the
conditioned souls are guided by demons who do not care to read the Vedic
literatures. Although there is an immense treasure-house of knowledge,
people are engaged in reading useless literature that will give them no
information on how to get out of the clutches of maya. The purpose of
the Vedic literatures is explained in the following verses.
Madhya 20.123
TEXT 123
TEXT
'sastra-guru-atma'-rupe apanare janana
'krsna mora prabhu, trata' -- jivera haya jnana
SYNONYMS
sastra-guru-atma-rupe -- in the form of Vedic literature, the
spiritual master and the Supersoul; apanare janana -- informs about
Himself; krsna -- Lord Krsna; mora -- my; prabhu -- Lord; trata --
deliver; jivera -- of the conditioned soul; haya -- there is; jnana --
knowledge.
TRANSLATION
"The forgetful conditioned soul is educated by Krsna through the Vedic
literatures, the realized spiritual master and the Supersoul. Through
these, he can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is,
and he can understand that Lord Krsna is his eternal master and
deliverer from the clutches of maya. In this way one can acquire real
knowledge of his conditioned life and can come to understand how to
attain liberation.
PURPORT
Being forgetful of his real position, the conditioned soul may take help
from sastra, guru and the Supersoul within his heart. Krsna is situated
within everyone's heart as the Supersoul. As stated in Bhagavad-gita
:
isvarah sarva-bhutanam
hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati
bhramayan sarva-bhutani
yantrarudhani mayaya
"The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is
directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a
machine, made of the material energy." (Bg. 18.61)
As the saktyavesa-avatara Vyasadeva, Krsna teaches the conditioned soul
through Vedic literatures. Krsna externally appears as the spiritual
master and trains the conditioned soul to come to Krsna consciousness.
When his original Krsna consciousness is revived, the conditioned soul
is delivered from the material clutches. Thus a conditioned soul is
always helped by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in three ways -- by
the scriptures, the spiritual master and the Supersoul within the heart.
The Lord is the deliverer of the conditioned soul and is accepted as the
Supreme Lord of all living entities. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (18.
66):
sarva-dharman parityajya
mam ekam saranam vraja
aham tvam sarva-papebhyo
moksayisyami ma sucah
This same
instruction is found throughout all Vedic literature. Sadhu, sastra and
guru act as the representatives of Krsna, and the Krsna consciousness
movement is also taking place all over the universe. Whoever takes
advantage of this opportunity becomes liberated.
Madhya 20.124
TEXT 124
TEXT
veda-sastra kahe -- 'sambandha', 'abhidheya', 'prayojana'
'krsna' -- prapya sambandha, 'bhakti' -- praptyera sadhana
SYNONYMS
veda-sastra kahe -- the Vedic literature instructs; sambandha -- the
conditioned soul's relationship with the Lord; abhidheya -- the
regulated activities of the conditioned soul for reviving that
relationship; prayojana -- and the ultimate goal of life to be attained
by the conditioned soul; krsna -- Lord Krsna; prapya -- to be awakened;
sambandha -- the original relationship; bhakti -- devotional service;
praptyera sadhana -- the means of attaining Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"The Vedic literatures give information about the living entity's
eternal relationship with Krsna, which is called sambandha. The living
entity's understanding of this relationship and acting accordingly
is called abhidheya. Returning home, back to Godhead, is the ultimate
goal of life and is called prayojana.
Madhya 20.125
TEXT 125
TEXT
abhidheya-nama 'bhakti', 'prema' -- prayojana
purusartha-siromani prema maha-dhana
SYNONYMS
abhidheya -- activities to revive one's relationship; nama -- named;
bhakti -- devotional service; prema -- love of Godhead; prayojana -- the
ultimate goal of life; purusa-artha-siromani -- the topmost interest of
the living entity; prema -- love of Godhead; maha-dhana -- the greatest
wealth.
TRANSLATION
"Devotional service, or sense activity for the satisfaction of the Lord,
is called abhidheya because it can develop one's original love of
Godhead, which is the goal of life. This goal is the living entity's
topmost interest and greatest wealth. Thus one attains the platform of
transcendental loving service unto the Lord.
PURPORT
The conditioned soul is bewildered by the external material energy,
which fully engages him in a variety of sense gratification.
Due to engagement in material activities, one's original Krsna
consciousness is covered. However, as the supreme father of all living
entities, Krsna wants His sons to return home, back to Godhead;
therefore He personally comes to deliver Vedic literatures like
Bhagavad-gita. He engages His confidential servants who serve as
spiritual masters and enlighten the conditioned living entities. Being
present in everyone's heart, the Lord gives the living entities the
conscience whereby they can accept the Vedas and the spiritual master.
In this way the living entity can understand his constitutional position
and his relationship with the Supreme Lord. As personally enunciated by
the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), vedais ca sarvair aham
eva vedyah: through the study of Vedanta, one may become fully aware of
his relationship with the Supreme Lord and act accordingly. In this way
one may ultimately attain the platform of loving service to the Lord. It
is in the living entity's best interest to understand the Supreme Lord.
Unfortunately, the living entities have forgotten;
therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam says: na te viduh svartha-
gatim hi visnum (Bhag. 7.5.31).
Everyone wants to achieve life's ultimate goal, but due to being
absorbed in the material energy, we waste our time with sense
gratification. Through the study of Vedic literatures -- of which the
essence is Bhagavad-gita -- one comes to Krsna consciousness. Thus
one engages in devotional service, called abhidheya. When
actually developed, love of Godhead is called prayojana, the
living entity's ultimate goal. When one
becomes fully Krsna conscious, he has attained the perfection of life.
Madhya 20.126
TEXT 126
TEXT
krsna-madhurya-sevananda-praptira karana
krsna-seva kare, ara krsna-rasa-asvadana
SYNONYMS
krsna-madhurya -- of an intimate relationship with Krsna; seva-ananda --
of pleasure from rendering service unto Him; praptira -- of achievement;
karana -- because; krsna-seva kare -- one renders service to Krsna; ara -
- and; krsna-rasa -- of the mellows of such service; asvadana -- tasting.
TRANSLATION
"When one attains the transcendental bliss of an intimate relationship
with Krsna, he renders service to Him and tastes the mellows of Krsna
consciousness.
Madhya 20.127
TEXT 127
TEXT
ihate drstanta -- yaiche daridrera ghare
'sarvajna' asi' duhkha dekhi' puchaye tahare
SYNONYMS
ihate -- in this connection; drstanta -- the example; yaiche -- just as;
daridrera ghare -- in the house of a poor man; sarva-jna -- an
astrologer; asi' -- coming; duhkha -- distressed condition; dekhi' --
seeing; puchaye tahare -- inquires from him.
TRANSLATION
"The following example may be given. Once a learned astrologer came to
the house of a poor man and, seeing his distressed condition, questioned
him.
PURPORT
Sometimes we go to an astrologer or palmist when we are in a distressed
condition or when we want to know the future. The living entity in
conditioned life is always distressed by the threefold miseries of
material existence. Under the circumstances, he is inquisitive about his
position. For instance, Sanatana Gosvami approached the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, to ask Him why he was
in a distressed condition. This is the position of all conditioned souls.
We are always in a distressed condition, and an intelligent man
naturally becomes inquisitive. This position is called brahma-jijnasa.
Athato brahma-jijnasa (Vedanta-sutra 1.1.1). Brahma here refers to
Vedic literature. One should consult Vedic literature to know why
the conditioned soul is always in a distressed condition. Vedic
literatures are meant to free the conditioned soul from the miserable
conditions of material existence. In this chapter, the story of the
astrologer Sarvajna and the poor man is very instructive.
Madhya 20.128
TEXT 128
TEXT
'tumi kene duhkhi, tomara ache pitr-dhana
tomare na kahila, anyatra chadila jivana"
SYNONYMS
tumi -- you; kene -- why; duhkhi -- distressed; tomara -- your; ache --
there is; pitr-dhana -- the riches of your father; tomare -- unto you;
na kahila -- he did not disclose; anyatra -- somewhere else; chadila --
gave up; jivana -- his life.
TRANSLATION
"The astrologer asked, 'Why are you unhappy? Your father was very
wealthy, but he did not disclose his wealth to you because he died
elsewhere?'
Madhya 20.129
TEXT 129
TEXT
sarvajnera vakye kare dhanera uddese
aiche veda-purana jive 'krsna' upadese
SYNONYMS
sarvajnera -- of the astrologer; vakye -- the words; kare -- make;
dhanera -- of the riches; uddese -- news; aiche -- similarly; veda-
purana -- Vedic literatures; jive -- unto the living entity, the
conditioned soul; krsna -- of Lord Krsna; upadese -- instructs.
TRANSLATION
"Just as the words of the astrologer Sarvajna gave news of the poor man'
s treasure, Vedic literatures advise one about Krsna consciousness
when one is inquisitive to know why he is in a distressed material
condition.
Madhya 20.130
TEXT 130
TEXT
sarvajnera vakye mula-dhana anubandha
sarva-sastre upadese, 'sri-krsna' -- sambandha
SYNONYMS
sarvajnera -- of the astrologer; vakye -- by the assurance; mula-dhana --
with the treasure; anubandha -- connection; sarva-sastre -- all Vedic
literatures; upadese -- instruct; sri-krsna -- Lord Sri Krsna, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; sambandha -- the central connection.
TRANSLATION
"By the words of the astrologer, the poor man's connection with the
treasure was established. Similarly, Vedic literature advises us
that our real connection is with Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead.
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita (7.26), Sri Krsna says:
vedaham samatitani
vartamanani carjuna
bhavisyani ca bhutani
mam tu veda na kascana
"O Arjuna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I know everything that
has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present, and all
things that are yet to come. I also know all living entities, but Me no
one knows."
Thus Krsna knows the cause of the distressed condition of the
conditioned soul. He therefore descends from His original position to
instruct the conditioned soul and inform him about his forgetfulness of
his relationship with Krsna. Krsna exhibits Himself in His relationships
in Vrndavana and at the Battle of Kuruksetra so that people will be
attracted to Him and will again return home, back to Godhead. Krsna also
says in Bhagavad-gita that He is the proprietor of all universes,
the enjoyer of everything that be and the friend of everyone. Suhrdam
sarva-bhutanam jnatva mam santim rcchati (
Bg. 5.29). If we revive our original intimate relationship with Krsna,
our distressed condition in the material world will be mitigated.
Everyone is trying to adjust to the distressed conditions of material
existence, but the basic problems cannot be solved unless one is in an
intimate relationship with Krsna.
Madhya 20.131
TEXT 131
TEXT
'bapera dhana ache' -- jnane dhana nahi paya
tabe sarvajna kahe tare praptira upaya
SYNONYMS
bapera dhana ache -- the father has some treasure; jnane -- by this
knowledge; dhana -- treasure; nahi paya -- one does not get; tabe --
then; sarvajna -- the astrologer; kahe -- says; tare -- unto the
poor man; praptira upaya -- the means of getting the treasure.
TRANSLATION
"Although being assured of his father's treasure, the poor man cannot
acquire this treasure by such knowledge alone. Therefore the astrologer
had to inform him of the means whereby he could actually find the
treasure.
Madhya 20.132
TEXT 132
TEXT
'ei sthane ache dhana' -- yadi daksine khudibe
'bhimarula-baruli' uthibe, dhana na paibe
SYNONYMS
ei sthane -- at this place; ache -- is; dhana -- treasure; yadi -- if;
daksine -- on the southern side; khudibe -- you will dig; bhimarula-
baruli -- wasps and drones; uthibe -- will rise; dhana -- the riches; na
paibe -- you will not get.
TRANSLATION
"The astrologer said, 'The treasure is in this place, but if you dig
toward the southern side, the wasps and drones will rise, and you will
not get your treasure.
Madhya 20.133
TEXT 133
TEXT
'pascime' khudibe, taha 'yaksa' eka haya
se vighna karibe, -- dhane hata na padaya
SYNONYMS
pascime -- on the western side; khudibe -- if you dig; taha -- there;
yaksa -- ghost; eka -- one; haya -- there is; se -- he; vighna karibe --
will create disturbances; dhane -- on the treasure; hata -- hand; na --
not; padaya -- touches.
TRANSLATION
" 'If you dig on the western side, there is a ghost who will create such
a disturbance that your hands will not even touch the treasure.
Madhya 20.134
TEXT 134
TEXT
'uttare' khudile ache krsna 'ajagare'
dhana nahi pabe, khudite gilibe sabare
SYNONYMS
uttare -- on the northern side; khudile -- if you dig; ache -- there is;
krsna -- black; ajagare -- snake; dhana -- treasure; nahi -- not; pabe --
you will get; khudite -- digging; gilibe -- will devour; sabare --
everyone.
TRANSLATION
" 'If you dig on the northern side, there is a big black snake that will
devour you if you attempt to dig up the treasure.
Madhya 20.135
TEXT 135
TEXT
purva-dike tate mati alpa khudite
dhanera jhari padibeka tomara hatete
SYNONYMS
purva-dike -- on the eastern side; tate -- there; mati -- the dirt; alpa
-- small quantity; khudite -- digging; dhanera -- of the treasure; jhari
-- the pot; padibeka -- you will get; tomara -- your; hatete -- in the
hands.
TRANSLATION
" 'However, if you dig up a small quantity of dirt on the eastern side,
your hands will immediately touch the pot of treasure.'
PURPORT
The Vedic literatures, including the Puranas, state that according to
the position of the conditioned soul, there are different processes --
karma-kanda, jnana-kanda, the yogic process and the bhakti-yoga process.
Karma-kanda is compared to wasps and drones that will simply bite if one
takes shelter of them. Jnana-kanda, the speculative process, is simply
like a ghost who creates mental disturbances. Yoga, the mystic process,
is compared to a black snake that devours people by the impersonal
cultivation of kaivalya. However, if one takes to bhakti-yoga, he
becomes quickly successful. In other words, through bhakti-yoga, one's
hands touch the hidden treasure without difficulty.
Therefore it is
said in Bhagavad-gita: vedais ca
sarvair aham eva vedyah. One has to take to devotional service.
Although the Vedas enjoin one to search out Krsna and take shelter at
His lotus feet, other Vedic processes
will not help.
According to Bhagavad-gita, only the bhakti process is said
to be definitive. Bhaktya mam abhijanati. This is the conclusive
statement of the Vedas, and one has to accept this process if one is
serious in searching for Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In
this connection, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura gives the
following statement. The eastern side represents devotional service to
Lord Krsna. The southern side represents the process of fruitive
activity (karma-kanda), which ends in material gain. The western side
represents jnana-kanda, the process of mental speculation, sometimes
called siddhi-kanda. The northern side represents the speculative
method sometimes known as the mystic yoga system. It is only the
eastern side, devotional service, that enables one to attain life's real
goal. On the southern side, there are fruitive activities by which one
is subject to the punishment of Yamaraja. When one follows the system of
fruitive activity, his material desires remain prominent. Consequently
the results of this process are compared to wasps and drones. The living
entity is bitten by the wasps and drones of fruitive activity and thus
suffers in material existence birth after birth. One cannot be free
from material desires by following this process. The propensity for
material enjoyment never ends. Therefore the cycle of birth and death
continues, and the spirit soul suffers perpetually.
The mystic yoga process is compared to a black snake that devours the
living entity and injects him with poison. The ultimate goal of the yoga
system is to become one with the Absolute. This means finishing one's
personal existence. However, the spiritual part and parcel of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead has an eternal individual existence.
Bhagavad-gita confirms that the individual soul existed in the past, is
existing in the present and will continue to exist as an individual in
the future. Artificially trying to become one with the Absolute is
suicidal. One cannot annihilate his natural condition.
A yaksa, a protector of riches, will not allow anyone to take away
riches for enjoyment. Such a demon will simply create disturbances. In
other words, a devotee will not depend on his material resources but on
the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can give real
protection. This is called raksisyatiti visvasah or (in the Bengali
poetry of Bhaktivinoda Thakura's Saranagati), 'avasya raksibe krsna' --
visvasa palana. The surrendered soul must accept the fact that his real
protector is Krsna, not his material acquisitions.
Considering all these points, devotional service to Krsna is the real
treasure-house for the living entity. When one comes to the platform of
devotional service, he always remains opulent in the association of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who is bereft of devotional service
is swallowed by the black snake of the yoga system and bitten by the
wasps and drones of fruitive activity, and he suffers consequent
material miseries. Sometimes the living entity is misled into trying to
merge into spiritual existence, thinking himself as good as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. This means that when he comes to the spiritual
platform, he will be disturbed and will again return to the material
platform. According to Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32):
ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas
tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah
aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah
patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah
Such people may become sannyasis, but unless they take shelter of Krsna'
s lotus feet, they will return to the material platform to perform
philanthropic activities. In this way, one's spiritual life is lost.
This is to be understood as being devoured by the black snake.
Madhya 20.136
TEXT 136
TEXT
aiche sastra kahe, -- karma, jnana, yoga tyaji'
'bhaktye' krsna vasa haya, bhaktye tanre bhaji
SYNONYMS
aiche -- in that way; sastra kahe -- Vedic literatures confirm;
karma -- fruitive activities; jnana -- speculative knowledge; yoga --
the mystic yoga system; tyaji' -- giving up; bhaktye -- by devotional
service; krsna -- the Supreme Absolute Personality of Godhead; vasa haya
-- becomes satisfied; bhaktye -- by devotional service; tanre -- Him;
bhaji -- we worship.
TRANSLATION
"Revealed scriptures conclude that one should give up fruitive
activity, speculative knowledge and the mystic yoga system and instead
take to devotional service, by which Krsna can be fully satisfied.
Madhya 20.137
TEXT 137
TEXT
na sadhayati mam yogo
na sankhyam dharma uddhava
na svadhyayas tapas tyago
yatha bhaktir mamorjita
SYNONYMS
na -- never; sadhayati -- causes to remain satisfied; mam -- Me; yogah --
the process of control; na -- nor; sankhyam -- the process of gaining
philosophical knowledge about the Absolute Truth; dharmah -- such an
occupation; uddhava -- My dear Uddhava; na -- nor; svadhyayah -- study
of the Vedas; tapah -- austerities; tyagah -- renunciation, acceptance
of sannyasa, or charity; yatha -- as much as; bhaktih -- devotional
service; mama -- unto Me; urjita -- developed.
TRANSLATION
[The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, said:] " 'My dear Uddhava,
neither through astanga-yoga [the mystic yoga system to control the
senses], nor through impersonal monism or an analytical study of the
Absolute Truth, nor through study of the Vedas, nor through practice of
austerities, nor through charity, nor through acceptance of sannyasa can
one satisfy Me as much as one can by developing unalloyed devotional
service unto Me.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.
14.20). The explanation for this verse is given in Adi-lila (17.76).
Madhya 20.138
TEXT 138
TEXT
bhaktyaham ekaya grahyah
sraddhayatma priyah satam
bhaktih punati man-nistha
sva-pakan api sambhavat
SYNONYMS
bhaktya -- by devotional service; aham -- I, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; ekaya -- unflinching; grahyah -- obtainable; sraddhaya -- by
faith; atma -- the most dear; priyah -- to be served; satam -- by the
devotees; bhaktih -- the devotional service; punati -- purifies; mat-
nistha -- fixed only on Me; sva-pakan -- the lowest of human beings, who
are accustomed to eat dogs; api -- certainly; sambhavat -- from all
faults due to birth and other circumstances.
TRANSLATION
" 'Being very dear to the devotees and sadhus, I am attained through
unflinching faith and devotional service. This bhakti-yoga system, which
gradually increases attachment for Me, purifies even a human being born
among dog-eaters. That is to say, everyone can be elevated to the
spiritual platform by the process of bhakti-yoga.'
PURPORT
This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.14.21).
Madhya 20.139
TEXT 139
TEXT
ataeva 'bhakti' -- krsna-praptyera upaya
'abhidheya' bali' tare sarva-sastre gaya
SYNONYMS
ataeva -- therefore; bhakti -- devotional service; krsna-praptyera -- of
achieving the lotus feet of Krsna; upaya -- the only means; abhidheya --
abhidheya; bali' -- calling; tare -- this system; sarva-sastre -- in all
revealed scriptures; gaya -- is described.
TRANSLATION
"The conclusion is that devotional service is the only means to
approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This system is therefore
called abhidheya. This is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.
PURPORT
As stated in Bhagavad-gita (18.55):
bhaktya mam abhijanati
yavan yas casmi tattvatah
tato mam tattvato jnatva
visate tad-anantaram
"One can understand the Supreme Personality as He
is only by devotional service. And when one is in full
consciousness of the Supreme Lord by such devotion, he can enter
the kingdom of God."
The aim of life is to get rid of the material conditioning and enter
into spiritual existence. Although the sastras prescribe different
methods for different men, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says that
one ultimately must accept the path of devotional service as the assured
path of spiritual advancement. Devotional service to the Lord is the
only process actually confirmed by the Lord. Sarva-dharman parityajya
mam ekam saranam vraja (Bg. 18.66). One must become a devotee if one
wants to return home, back to Godhead, and become eternally blissful.
Madhya 20.140
TEXT 140
TEXT
dhana paile yaiche sukha-bhoga phala paya
sukha-bhoga haite duhkha apani palaya
SYNONYMS
dhana paile -- when one gets riches; yaiche -- just as; sukha-bhoga --
enjoyment of happiness; phala -- result; paya -- one gets; sukha-bhoga --
real enjoyment of happiness; haite -- from; duhkha -- all distresses;
apani -- themselves; palaya -- run away.
TRANSLATION
"When one actually becomes rich, he naturally enjoys all kinds of
happiness. When one is actually in a happy mood, all distressful
conditions go away by themselves. No extraneous endeavor is needed.
Madhya 20.141
TEXT 141
TEXT
taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya
preme krsnasvada haile bhava nasa paya
SYNONYMS
taiche -- similarly; bhakti-phale -- by the result of devotional service;
krsne -- unto Lord Krsna; prema -- love; upajaya -- arises; preme -- in
devotional love; krsna-asvada -- tasting the association of Lord Krsna;
haile -- when there is; bhava -- the distress of the repetition of birth
and death; nasa -- annihilation; paya -- obtains.
TRANSLATION
"Similarly, as a result of bhakti, one's dormant love for Krsna awakens.
When one is so situated that he can taste the association of Lord Krsna,
material existence, the repetition of birth and death, comes to an end.
Madhya 20.142
TEXT 142
TEXT
daridrya-nasa, bhava-ksaya, -- premera 'phala' naya
prema-sukha-bhoga -- mukhya prayojana haya
SYNONYMS
daridrya-nasa -- the end of poverty-stricken life; bhava-ksaya --
annihilation of material existence; premera -- of love of Godhead; phala
-- the result; naya -- certainly is not; prema-sukha-bhoga -- enjoyment
of the happiness of love of God; mukhya -- chief; prayojana -- goal of
life; haya -- is.
TRANSLATION
"The goal of love of Godhead is not to become materially rich or free
from material bondage. The real goal is to be situated in devotional
service to the Lord and to enjoy transcendental bliss.
PURPORT
The results of devotional service are certainly not material benefits or
liberation from material bondage. The goal of devotional service is to
be eternally situated in the loving service of the Lord and to enjoy
spiritual bliss from that service. One is said to be in a poverty-
stricken condition when one forgets the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
One has to end such a life of poverty in order to automatically end the
miserable conditions of material existence. One is automatically
liberated from material enjoyment when one tastes the service of Krsna.
One does not have to endeavor separately for opulence. Opulence
automatically comes to the pure devotee, even though he does not desire
material happiness.
Madhya 20.143
TEXT 143
TEXT
veda-sastre kahe sambandha, abhidheya, prayojana
krsna, krsna-bhakti, prema, -- tina maha-dhana
SYNONYMS
veda-sastre -- in Vedic literature; kahe -- it is said; sambandha --
relationship; abhidheya -- execution; prayojana -- goal; krsna -- Lord
Krsna; krsna-bhakti -- devotional service to the Lord; prema -- love of
Godhead; tina -- these three; maha-dhana -- the supreme treasure.
TRANSLATION
"In Vedic literatures, Krsna is the central point of attraction, and
His service is our activity. To attain the platform of love of Krsna is
life's ultimate goal. Therefore Krsna, Krsna's service and love of Krsna
are the three great riches of life.
Madhya 20.144
TEXT 144
TEXT
vedadi sakala sastre krsna -- mukhya sambandha
tanra jnane anusange yaya maya-bandha
SYNONYMS
veda-adi -- beginning with the Vedas; sakala -- all; sastre -- in the
revealed scriptures; krsna -- Lord Krsna; mukhya -- chief; sambandha --
central point or central attraction; tanra jnane -- by knowledge of Him;
anusange -- simultaneously; yaya -- goes away; maya-bandha -- the
bondage of material existence.
TRANSLATION
"In all revealed scriptures, beginning with the Vedas, the central point
of attraction is Krsna. When complete knowledge of Him is realized, the
bondage of maya, the illusory energy, is automatically broken.
Madhya 20.145
TEXT 145
TEXT
vyamohaya caracarasya jagatas te te puranagamas
tam tam eva hi devatam paramikam jalpantu kalpavadhi
siddhante punar eka eva bhagavan visnuh samastagama-
vyaparesu vivecana-vyatikaram nitesu nisciyate
SYNONYMS
vyamohaya -- to increase the illusion and ignorance; cara-acarasya -- of
all living entities, moving and nonmoving; jagatah -- of the world; te
te -- those respective; purana -- the supplementary Vedic literatures
called the Puranas; agamah -- and Vedas; tam tam -- that respective; eva
hi -- certainly; devatam -- demigod; paramikam -- as supreme; jalpantu --
let them speak about; kalpa-avadhi -- until the end of the millenium;
siddhante -- in conclusion; punah -- but; ekah -- one; eva -- only;
bhagavan -- Supreme Personality of Godhead; visnuh -- Lord Visnu;
samasta -- all; agama -- of the Vedas; vyaparesu -- in the dealings;
vivecana-vyatikaram -- to collective consideration; nitesu -- when
forcibly brought; nisciyate -- is established.
TRANSLATION
" 'There are many types of Vedic literatures and supplementary Puranas.
In each of them there are particular demigods who are spoken of as the
chief demigods. This is just to create an illusion for moving and
nonmoving living entities. Let them perpetually engage in such
imaginations. However, when one analytically studies all these Vedic
literatures collectively, he comes to the conclusion that Lord Visnu is
the one and only Supreme Personality of Godhead.'
PURPORT
This is a verse from the Padma Purana.
Madhya 20.146
TEXT 146
TEXT
mukhya-gauna-vrtti, kimva anvaya-vyatireke
vedera pratijna kevala kahaye krsnake
SYNONYMS
mukhya -- chief; gauna -- secondary; vrtti -- meaning; kimva -- or;
anvaya-vyatireke -- directly or indirectly; vedera pratijna -- ultimate
declaration of the Vedas; kevala -- only; kahaye -- speaks; krsnake --
about Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"When one accepts Vedic literature by interpretation or even by
dictionary meaning, directly or indirectly the ultimate declaration of
Vedic knowledge points to Lord Krsna.
Madhya 20.147-148
TEXTS 147-148
TEXT
kim vidhatte kim acaste
kim anudya vikalpayet
ity asya hrdayam loke
nanyo mad veda kascana
mam vidhatte 'bhidhatte mam
vikalpyapohyate hy aham
etavan sarva-vedarthah
sabda asthaya mam bhidam
maya-matram anudyante
pratisidhya prasidati
SYNONYMS
kim -- what; vidhatte -- direct; kim -- what; acaste -- declare; kim --
what; anudya -- taking as the object; vikalpayet -- may conjecture; iti -
- thus; asyah -- of the Vedic literature; hrdayam -- intention; loke --
in this world; na -- not; anyah -- other; mat -- than Me; veda -- knows;
kascana -- anyone; mam -- Me; vidhatte -- they ordain; abhidhatte -- set
forth; mam -- Me; vikalpya -- speculating; aphyate -- am fixed; hi --
certainly; aham -- I; etavan -- of such measures; sarva-veda-arthah --
the purport of the Vedas; sabdah -- the Vedas; asthaya -- taking shelter
of; mam -- Me; bhidam -- different; maya -- illusory energy; matram --
only; anudya -- saying; ante -- at the end; pratisidhya -- driving away;
prasidati -- gets satisfaction.
TRANSLATION
" 'What is the direction of all Vedic literatures? On
whom do they set focus? Who is the purpose of all speculation? Outside
of Me no one knows these things. Now you should know that all these
activities are aimed at ordaining and setting forth Me. The purpose of
Vedic literature is to know Me by different speculations, either by
indirect understanding or by dictionary understanding. Everyone is
speculating about Me. The essence of all Vedic literatures is to
distinguish Me from maya. By considering the illusory energy, one comes
to the platform of understanding Me. In this way one becomes free from
speculation about the Vedas and comes to Me as the conclusion. Thus one
is satisfied.'
PURPORT
These two verses are quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.21.42,43). When
Uddhava asked Krsna about the purpose of Vedic speculation, the Lord
informed him of the process of understanding Vedic literature. The
Vedas are composed of karma-kanda, jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda. If
one analytically studies the purpose of the Vedas, he understands that
by karma-kanda, sacrificial activity, one comes to the conclusion of
jnana-kanda, speculative knowledge. After speculation, one
comes to the conclusion that worship of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead is the ultimate. When one comes to this conclusion, he becomes
fully satisfied.
Madhya 20.149
TEXT 149
TEXT
krsnera svarupa -- ananta, vaibhava -- apara
cic-chakti, maya-sakti, jiva-sakti ara
SYNONYMS
krsnera sva-rupa -- the transcendental form of Krsna; ananta --
unlimitedly expanded; vaibhava -- opulence; apara -- unlimited; cit-
sakti -- internal potency; maya-sakti -- external potency; jiva-sakti --
marginal potency; ara -- and.
TRANSLATION
"The transcendental form of Lord Krsna is unlimited and also has
unlimited opulence. He possesses the internal potency, external potency
and marginal potency.
Madhya 20.150
TEXT 150
TEXT
vaikuntha, brahmanda-gana -- sakti-karya ha ya
svarupa-sakti sakti-karyera -- krsna samasraya
SYNONYMS
vaikuntha -- the spiritual world; brahmanda-gana -- universes of the
material world; sakti-karya haya -- they are all activities of Krsna's
potencies; svarupa-sakti -- of the internal potency; sakti-karyera -- of
the activities of the external potency; krsna -- Lord Krsna; samasraya --
the original source.
TRANSLATION
"Both the material and spiritual world are transformations of Krsna'
s internal and external potencies. Therefore Krsna is the
original source of both material and spiritual manifestations.
Madhya 20.151
TEXT 151
TEXT
dasame dasamam laksyam
asritasraya-vigraham
sri-krsnakhyam param dhama
jagad-dhama namami tat
SYNONYMS
dasame -- in the Tenth Canto; dasamam -- the tenth subject matter;
laksyam -- to be seen; asrita -- of the sheltered; asraya -- of the
shelter; vigraham -- who is the form; sri-krsna-akhyam -- known as Lord
Sri Krsna; param -- supreme; dhama -- abode; jagat-dhama -- the abode of
the universes; namami -- I offer my obeisances; tat -- to Him.
TRANSLATION
" 'The Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam reveals the tenth object, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the shelter of all surrendered
souls. He is known as Sri Krsna, and He is the ultimate source of all
the universes. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Bhavartha-dipika, Sridhara Svami's
commentary on the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.1.1). In the Tenth Canto of
Srimad-Bhagavatam there is a description of the asraya-tattva, Sri Krsna.
There are two tattvas -- asraya-tattva and asrita-tattva. Asraya-tattva
is the objective, and asrita-tattva is the subjective. Since the lotus
feet of Lord Sri Krsna are the shelter of all devotees, Sri Krsna is
called param dhama. In Bhagavad-gita it is stated: param
brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan. Everything is resting under
the lotus feet of Krsna. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.58) it is stated:
samasrita ye pada-pallava-plavam
mahat-padam punya-yaso-murareh
Under the lotus feet of Sri Krsna, the entire mahat-tattva is existing.
Since everything is under Sri Krsna's protection, Sri Krsna is called
asraya-tattva. Everything else is called asrita-tattva. The material
creation is also called asrita-tattva. Liberation from material bondage
and the attainment of the spiritual platform are also asrita-tattva.
Krsna is the only asraya-tattva. In the beginning of the creation there
are Maha-Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu. They are
also asraya-tattva. Krsna is the cause of all causes (sarva-karana-
karanam). To understand Krsna perfectly, one has to make an
analytical study of asraya-tattva and asrita-tattva.
Madhya 20.152
TEXT 152
TEXT
krsnera svarupa-vicara suna, sanatana
advaya-jnana-tattva, vraje vrajendra-nandana
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; svarupa-vicara -- consideration of the eternal
form; suna -- please hear; sanatana -- My dear Sanatana; advaya-jnana-
tattva -- the Absolute Truth without duality; vraje -- in Vrndavana;
vrajendra-nandana -- the son of Nanda Maharaja.
TRANSLATION
"O Sanatana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Krsna. He is the
Absolute Truth, devoid of duality but present in Vrndavana as the son of
Nanda Maharaja.
Madhya 20.153
TEXT 153
TEXT
sarva-adi, sarva-amsi, kisora-sekhara
cid-ananda-deha, sarvasraya, sarvesvara
SYNONYMS
sarva-adi -- origin of everything; sarva-amsi -- sum total of all parts
and parcels; kisora-sekhara -- the supreme youth; cit-ananda-deha -- a
body of spiritual blissfulness; sarva-asraya -- shelter of everyone;
sarva-isvara -- master of everyone.
TRANSLATION
"Krsna is the original source of everything and the sum total of
everything. He appears as the supreme youth, and His whole body is
composed of spiritual bliss. He is the shelter of everything and master
of everyone.
PURPORT
Krsna is the origin of all visnu-tattvas, including Maha-Visnu,
Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu. He is the ultimate goal of
Vaisnava philosophy. Everything emanates from Him. His body is
completely spiritual and is the source of all spiritual being. Although
He is the source of everything, He Himself has no source. Advaitam
acyutam anadim ananta-rupam, adyam purana-purusam nava-yauvanam ca
. Although He is the supreme source of everyone, He is still always
a fresh youth.
Madhya 20.154
TEXT 154
TEXT
isvarah paramah krsnah
sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah
anadir adir govindah
sarva-karana-karanam
SYNONYMS
isvarah -- the controller; paramah -- supreme; krsnah -- Lord Krsna; sat
-- eternal existence; cit -- absolute knowledge; ananda -- absolute
bliss; vigrahah -- whose form; anadih -- without beginning; adih -- the
origin; govindah -- Lord Govinda; sarva-karana-karanam -- the cause of
all causes.
TRANSLATION
" 'Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an
eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no
other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.'
PURPORT
This is the first verse of the Fifth Chapter of Brahma-samhita.
Madhya 20.155
TEXT 155
TEXT
svayam bhagavan krsna, 'govinda' para nama
sarvaisvarya-purna yanra goloka -- nitya-dhama
SYNONYMS
svayam -- personally; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
krsna -- Krsna; govinda -- Govinda; para nama -- another name; sarva-
aisvarya-purna -- full of all opulences; yanra -- whose; goloka --
Goloka Vrndavana; nitya-dhama -- eternal abode.
TRANSLATION
"The original Supreme Personality of Godhead is Krsna. His original name
is Govinda. He is full of all opulences, and His eternal abode is known
as Goloka Vrndavana.
Madhya 20.156
TEXT 156
TEXT
ete camsa-kalah pumsah
krsnas tu bhagavan svayam
indrari-vyakulam lokam
mrdayanti yuge yuge
SYNONYMS
ete -- these; ca -- and; amsa -- plenary portions; kalah -- parts of
plenary portions; pumsah -- of the purusa-avataras; krsnah -- Lord Krsna;
tu -- but; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam --
Himself; indra-ari -- the enemies of Lord Indra; vyakulam -- full of;
lokam -- the world; mrdayanti -- make happy; yuge yuge -- at the right
time in each age.
TRANSLATION
" 'All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or
parts of the plenary portions of the purusa-avataras. But Krsna is the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the
world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the
enemies of Indra.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28). See also Adi-lila,
Chapter Two, verse 67.
Madhya 20.157
TEXT 157
TEXT
jnana, yoga, bhakti, -- tina sadhanera vase
brahma, atma, bhagavan -- trividha prakase
SYNONYMS
jnana -- knowledge; yoga -- mystic power; bhakti -- devotional service;
tina -- three; sadhanera -- of the processes of spiritual life; vase --
under the control; brahma -- impersonal Brahman; atma -- localized
Paramatma; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tri-vidha
prakase -- three kinds of manifestation.
TRANSLATION
"There are three kinds of spiritual processes for understanding the
Absolute Truth -- the processes of speculative knowledge, mystic yoga
and bhakti-yoga. According to these three processes, the Absolute Truth
is manifested as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan.
Madhya 20.158
TEXT 158
TEXT
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvam yaj jnanam advayam
brahmeti paramatmeti
bhagavan iti sabdyate
SYNONYMS
vadanti -- they say; tat -- that; tattva-vidah -- learned souls; tattvam
-- the Absolute Truth; yat -- which; jnanam -- knowledge; advayam --
nondual; brahma -- Brahman; iti -- thus; paramatma -- Paramatma; iti --
thus; bhagavan -- Bhagavan; iti -- thus; sabdyate -- is known.
TRANSLATION
" 'Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this
nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11). For an explanation,
see also Adi-lila, Chapter Two, verse 11.
Those who are interested in the impersonal Brahman effulgence which is
not different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can attain that
goal by speculative knowledge. Those who are interested in practicing
mystic yoga can attain the localized aspect of Paramatma. As stated in
Bhagavad-gita, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna
tisthati: the Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated within the
heart as Paramatma. He witnesses the activities of the living entities
and gives them permission to act.
Madhya 20.159
TEXT 159
TEXT
brahma -- anga-kanti tanra, nirvisesa prakase
surya yena carma-cakse jyotirmaya bhase
SYNONYMS
brahma -- the impersonal Brahman effulgence; anga-kanti -- the bodily
rays; tanra -- of Him; nirvisesa -- without varieties; prakase --
manifestation; surya yena -- exactly like the sun; carma-cakse -- with
our ordinary material eyes; jyotih-maya -- simply effulgent; bhase --
appears.
TRANSLATION
"The manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is
without variety, is the rays of Krsna's bodily effulgence. It is exactly
like the sun. When the sun is seen by our ordinary eyes, it simply
appears to consist of effulgence.
Madhya 20.160
TEXT 160
TEXT
yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-
kotisv asesa-vasudhadi-vibhuti-bhinnam
tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
SYNONYMS
yasya -- of whom; prabha -- the effulgence; prabhavatah -- of one who
excels in power; jagat-anda -- of universes; koti-kotisu -- in millions
and millions; asesa -- unlimited; vasudha-adi -- with planets and other
manifestations; vibhuti -- with opulences; bhinnam -- becoming
variegated; tat -- that; brahma -- Brahman; niskalam -- without parts;
anantam -- unlimited; asesa-bhutam -- being complete; govindam -- Lord
Govinda; adi-purusam -- the original person; tam -- Him; aham -- I;
bhajami -- worship.
TRANSLATION
" 'I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is endowed with great power.
The glowing effulgence of His transcendental form is the impersonal
Brahman, which is absolute, complete and unlimited and which displays
the varieties of countless planets, with their different opulences, in
millions and millions of universes.'
PURPORT
This verse is quoted from Brahma-samhita (5.40). For an explanation,
refer to Adi-lila, Chapter Two, verse 14.
Madhya 20.161
TEXT 161
TEXT
paramatma yenho, tenho krsnera eka amsa
atmara 'atma' haya krsna sarva-avatamsa
SYNONYMS
paramatma -- the Supersoul within the heart; yenho -- who; tenho -- He;
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; eka -- one; amsa -- plenary portion; atmara --
of the soul; atma -- the soul; haya -- is; krsna -- Lord Krsna; sarva --
of everything; avatamsa -- source.
TRANSLATION
"The Paramatma, the Supersoul feature, is the partial plenary portion of
the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the original source of all
living entities. It is also Krsna who is the original source of
Paramatma.
Madhya 20.162
TEXT 162
TEXT
krsnam enam avehi tvam
atmanam akhilatmanam
jagad-dhitaya so 'py atra
dehivabhati mayaya
SYNONYMS
krsnam -- in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; enam -- this; avehi --
just try to understand; tvam -- you; atmanam -- the soul; akhila-atmanam
-- of all living entities; jagat-hitaya -- the benefit of the whole
universe; sah -- He; api -- certainly; atra -- here; dehi -- a human
being; iva -- like; abhati -- appears; mayaya -- by His internal potency.
TRANSLATION
" 'You should know Krsna as the original soul of all atmas [living
entities]. For the benefit of the whole universe, He has, out of His
causeless mercy, appeared as an ordinary human being. He has done this
with the strength of His own internal potency.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.55). Pariksit Maharaja
asked Sukadeva Gosvami why Krsna was so beloved by the residents of
Vrndavana, who loved Him even more than their own offspring or life
itself. At that time Sukadeva Gosvami replied that everyone's atma, or
soul, is very, very dear, especially to all living entities who have
accepted material bodies. However, that atma, the spirit soul, is part
and parcel of Krsna. For this reason, Krsna is very dear to every living
entity. Everyone's body is very dear to oneself, and one wants to
protect the body by all means because within the body the soul is living.
Due to the intimate relationship between the soul and the body, the
body is important and dear to everyone. Similarly, the soul, being part
and parcel of Krsna, the Supreme Lord, is very, very dear to all living
entities. Unfortunately, the soul forgets his constitutional position
and thinks he is only the body (deha-atma-buddhi). Thus the soul is
subjected to the rules and regulations of material nature. When a living
entity, by his intelligence, reawakens his attraction for Krsna, he can
understand that he is not the body but part and parcel of Krsna. Thus
filled with knowledge, he no longer labors under attachment to the body
and everything related to the body. Janasya moho 'yam aham mameti
. Material existence, wherein one thinks, "I am the body, and this
belongs to me," is also illusory. One must redirect his attraction to
Krsna. Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.7) states:
vasudeve bhagavati
bhakti-yogah prayojitah
janayaty asu vairagyam
jnanam ca yad ahaitukam
"By rendering devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead, Sri
Krsna, one immediately acquires causeless knowledge and detachment from
the world."
Madhya 20.163
TEXT 163
TEXT
athava bahunaitena
kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam
ekamsena sthito jagat
SYNONYMS
athava -- or; bahuna -- much; etena -- with this; kim -- what use;
jnatena -- being known; tava -- by you; arjuna -- O Arjuna; vistabhya --
pervading; aham -- I; idam -- this; krtsnam -- entire; eka-amsena --
with one portion; sthitah -- situated; jagat -- universe.
TRANSLATION
" 'But what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With
a single fragment of Myself, I pervade and support this entire universe.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Bhagavad-gita (10.42).
Madhya 20.164
TEXT 164
TEXT
'bhaktye' bhagavanera anubhava -- purna-rupa
eka-i vigrahe tanra ananta svarupa
SYNONYMS
bhaktye -- by devotional service; bhagavanera -- of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; anubhava -- perception; purna-rupa -- perfectly;
eka-i -- one; vigrahe -- in the transcendental form; tanra -- His;
ananta -- unlimited; sva-rupa -- expansions of plenary portions.
TRANSLATION
"Only by devotional activity can one understand the transcendental form
of the Lord, which is perfect in all respects. Although His form is one,
He can expand His form into unlimited numbers by His supreme will.
Madhya 20.165
TEXT 165
TEXT
svayam-rupa, tad-ekatma-rupa, avesa -- nama
prathamei tina-rupe rahena bhagavan
SYNONYMS
svayam-rupa -- the personal form; tat-ekatma-rupa -- the same form,
non-different from svayam-rupa; avesa -- especially empowered;
nama -- named; prathamei -- in the beginning; tina-rupe -- in three
forms; rahena -- remains; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead exists in three principal forms --
svayam-rupa, tad-ekatma-rupa, and avesa-rupa.
PURPORT
Srila Rupa Gosvami has described svayam-rupa in his Laghu-
bhagavatamrta, Purva-khanda, verse 12, ananyapeksi yad rupam svayam-
rupah sa ucyate: the original form of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead does not depend on other forms. The original form is called
svayam-rupa, and it is described in
Srimad-Bhagavatam: krsnas tu bhagavan svayam (1.3.28). Krsna's
original form
as a cowherd boy in Vrndavana is called
svayam-rupa. It is confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.1):
isvarah paramah krsnah
sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah
anadir adir govindah
sarva-karana-karanam
There is nothing superior to Govinda. He is the ultimate source and the
cause of all causes. In Bhagavad-gita (7.7)
the Lord says, mattah parataram nanyat: "There is no truth
superior to Me."
The tad-ekatma-rupa is also described in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta,
Purva-khanda, verse 14:
yad rupam tad-abhedena
svarupena virajate
akrtyadibhir anyadrk
sa tad-ekatma-rupakah
The tad-ekatma-rupa forms exist simultaneously with the svayam-rupa
form and are nondifferent. At the same time, the bodily features and
specific activities appear to be different. This tad-ekatma-rupa is
also divided into two categories -- svamsa and vilasa.
His avesa form is also explained in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta,
verse 18:
jnana-saktyadi-kalaya
yatravisto janardanah
ta avesa nigadyante
jiva eva mahattamah
A living entity who is specifically empowered by the Lord with
knowledge or strength is technically called avesa-rupa. As stated in
the Caitanya-caritamrta (Antya 7.11), krsna-sakti vina nahe tara
pravartana: unless a devotee is specifically empowered by the Lord, he
cannot preach the holy name of the Lord all over the world. This is an
explanation of the word avesa-rupa.
Madhya 20.166
TEXT 166
TEXT
'svayam-rupa' 'svayam-prakasa', -- dui rupe sphurti
svayam-rupe -- eka 'krsna' vraje gopa-murti
SYNONYMS
svayam-rupa -- the original form of the Lord; svayam-prakasa -- the
personal manifestation; dui rupe -- in two forms; sphurti -- exhibition;
svayam-rupe -- in the original form; eka -- one; krsna -- Krsna, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; vraje -- in Vrndavana; gopa-murti -- the
cowherd boy.
TRANSLATION
"The original form of the Lord [svayam-rupa] is exhibited in two forms --
svayam-rupa and svayam-prakasa. In His original form as svayam-rupa,
Krsna is observed as a cowherd boy in Vrndavana.
Madhya 20.167
TEXT 167
TEXT
'prabhava-vaibhava'-rupe dvividha prakase
eka-vapu bahu rupa yaiche haila rase
SYNONYMS
prabhava -- prabhava; vaibhava -- vaibhava; rupe -- in forms; dvi-vidha
prakase -- twofold manifestations; eka-vapu -- the same original form;
bahu rupa -- expanded into unlimited numbers; yaiche -- like; haila --
it was; rase -- while dancing in the rasa dance with the gopis.
TRANSLATION
"In His original form, Krsna manifests Himself in two features --
prabhava and vaibhava. He expands His one original form into many, as He
did during the rasa-lila dance.
Madhya 20.168
TEXT 168
TEXT
mahisi-vivahe haila bahu-vidha murti
'prabhava prakasa' -- ei sastra-parasiddhi
SYNONYMS
mahisi-vivahe -- in the matter of marrying 16,108 wives at Dvaraka;
haila -- there were; bahu-vidha murti -- many forms; prabhava prakasa --
called prabhava-prakasa; ei -- this; sastra-parasiddhi -- determined by
reference to the revealed scriptures.
TRANSLATION
"When the Lord married 16,108 wives at Dvaraka, He expanded Himself into
many forms. These expansions and the expansions at the rasa dance are
called prabhava-prakasa, according to the directions of revealed
scriptures.
Madhya 20.169
TEXT 169
TEXT
saubhary-adi-praya sei kaya-vyuha naya
kaya-vyuha haile naradera vismaya na haya
SYNONYMS
saubhari-adi -- beginning with the sage named Saubhari; praya -- like;
sei -- that; kaya-vyuha -- the expansion of one's body; naya -- is not;
kaya-vyuha -- expansions of the body; haile -- if there are; naradera --
of Narada Muni; vismaya -- the astonishment; na haya -- there cannot be.
TRANSLATION
"The prabhava-prakasa expansions of Lord Krsna are not like the
expansions of the sage Saubhari. Had they been so, Narada would not have
been astonished to see them.
Madhya 20.170
TEXT 170
TEXT
citram bataitad ekena
vapusa yugapat prthak
grhesu dvy-asta-sahasram
striya eka udavahat
SYNONYMS
citram -- wonderful; bata -- oh; etat -- this; ekena -- with one; vapusa
-- form; yugapat -- simultaneously; prthak -- separately; grhesu -- in
the houses; dvi-asta-sahasram -- sixteen thousand; striyah -- all the
queens; ekah -- the one Sri Krsna; udavahat -- married.
TRANSLATION
" 'It is astounding that Lord Sri Krsna, who is one without a second,
expanded Himself in sixteen thousand similar forms to marry sixteen
thousand queens in their respective homes.'
PURPORT
This verse is spoken by Narada Muni in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.2).
Madhya 20.171
TEXT 171
TEXT
sei vapu, sei akrti prthak yadi bhase
bhavavesa-bhede nama 'vaibhava-prakase'
SYNONYMS
sei vapu -- that form; sei akrti -- that feature; prthak -- different;
yadi -- if; bhase -- appears; bhava-avesa -- of the ecstatic emotion;
bhede -- according to varieties; nama -- named; vaibhava-prakase --
vaibhava-prakasa.
TRANSLATION
"If one form or feature is differently manifested according to different
emotional features, it is called vaibhava-prakasa.
Madhya 20.172
TEXT 172
TEXT
ananta prakase krsnera nahi murti-bheda
akara-varna-astra-bhede nama-vibheda
SYNONYMS
ananta prakase -- in innumerable manifestations; krsnera -- of Lord
Krsna; nahi -- there is not; murti-bheda -- difference of form; akara --
of features; varna -- of color; astra -- of weapons; bhede -- according
to differentiation; nama-vibheda -- difference of names.
TRANSLATION
"When the Lord expands Himself in innumerable forms, there is no
difference in the forms, but due to different features, bodily colors
and weapons, the names are different.
Madhya 20.173
TEXT 173
TEXT
anye ca samskrtatmano
vidhinabhihitena te
yajanti tvan-mayas tvam vai
bahu-murtyeka-murtikam
SYNONYMS
anye -- different persons; ca -- also; samskrta-atmanah -- persons who
are purified; vidhina -- by the regulative principles; abhihitena --
stated in the revealed scriptures; te -- such persons; yajanti --
worship; tvat-mayah -- being absorbed in You; tvam -- You; vai --
certainly; bahu-murti -- having many forms; eka-murtikam -- although one.
TRANSLATION
" 'In different Vedic scriptures, there are prescribed rules and
regulative principles for worshiping different types of forms. When one
is purified by these rules and regulations, he worships You, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Although manifest in many forms, You are one.'
PURPORT
This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.40.7). In the Vedas it
is stated that the one becomes many (eko bahu syam). The Supreme
Personality of Godhead expands Himself in various forms -- visnu-tattva,
jiva-tattva and sakti-tattva.
According to the Vedic literatures, there are different regulative
principles for the worship of each of these forms. If one takes
advantage of the Vedic literatures and purifies himself by following the
rules and regulations, ultimately he worships the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Krsna. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (4.11): mama
vartmanuvartante manusyah partha sarvasah. Worship of the demigods is in
a sense worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but such worship
is said to be avidhi-purvakam, improper. Actually demigod worship is
meant for unintelligent men. One who is intelligent considers the words
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: sarva dharman parityajya mam ekam
saranam vraja. One who worships demigods worships the
Supreme Lord indirectly, but according to the revealed scriptures, there
is no need to worship Him indirectly. One can worship Him directly.
Madhya 20.174
TEXT 174
TEXT
vaibhava-prakasa krsnera -- sri-balarama
varna-matra-bheda, saba -- krsnera samana
SYNONYMS
vaibhava-prakasa -- manifestation of the vaibhava feature; krsnera -- of
Lord Krsna; sri-balarama -- Sri Balarama; varna-matra -- color only;
bheda -- difference; saba -- everything; krsnera samana -- equal to
Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"The first manifestation of the vaibhava feature of Krsna is Sri
Balaramaji. Sri Balarama and Krsna have different bodily colors, but
otherwise Sri Balarama is equal to Krsna in all respects.
PURPORT
To understand the difference between svayam-rupa, tad-ekatma-rupa, avesa,
prabhava and vaibhava, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has given the
following description. In the beginning, Krsna has three bodily features:
(1) svayam-rupa, as a cowherd boy in Vrndavana; (2) tad-ekatma-rupa,
which is divided into svamsaka and vilasa; and (3) avesa-rupa. The
svamsaka, or expansions of the personal potency, are (1) Karanodakasayi,
Garbhodakasayi, Ksirodakasayi and (2) incarnations such as the fish,
tortoise, boar and Nrsimha. The vilasa-rupa has a prabhava division,
including Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. There is also a
vaibhava division in which there are twenty-four forms, including the
second Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. For each of these,
there are three forms; therefore there are twelve forms altogether.
These twelve forms constitute the predominant names for the twelve
months of the year as well as the twelve tilaka marks on the body. Each
of the four Personalities of Godhead expands into two other forms; thus
there are eight forms, such as Purusottama, Acyuta, etc. The four forms (
Vasudeva, etc.), the twelve (Kesava, etc.), and the eight (Purusottama,
etc.) all together constitute twenty-four forms. All the forms are
differently named in accordance with the weapons They
hold in Their four hands.
Madhya 20.175
TEXT 175
TEXT
vaibhava-prakasa yaiche devaki-tanuja
dvibhuja-svarupa kabhu, kabhu haya caturbhuja
SYNONYMS
vaibhava-prakasa -- the feature of vaibhava-prakasa; yaiche -- just as;
devaki-tanuja -- the son of Devaki; dvi-bhuja -- two-handed; svarupa --
form; kabhu -- sometimes; kabhu -- sometimes; haya -- is; catuh-bhuja --
four-handed.
TRANSLATION
"An example of vaibhava-prakasa is the son of Devaki. He sometimes has
two hands and sometimes four hands.
PURPORT
When Lord Krsna took His birth, He appeared outside the womb as four-
handed Visnu. Then Devaki and Vasudeva offered their prayers to Him and
asked Him to assume His two-handed form. The Lord immediately assumed
His two-handed form and ordered that He be transferred to Gokula on the
other side of the River Yamuna.
Madhya 20.176
TEXT 176
TEXT
ye-kale dvibhuja, nama -- vaibhava-prakasa
caturbhuja haile, nama -- prabhava-prakasa
SYNONYMS
ye-kale dvi-bhuja -- when the Lord appears as two-handed; nama -- named;
vaibhava-prakasa -- vaibhava-prakasa; catuh-bhuja haile -- when He
becomes four-handed; nama -- named; prabhava-prakasa -- prabhava-prakasa.
TRANSLATION
"When the Lord is two-handed, He is called vaibhava-prakasa, and when He
is four-handed He is called prabhava-prakasa.
Madhya 20.177
TEXT 177
TEXT
svayam-rupera gopa-vesa, gopa-abhimana
vasudevera ksatriya-vesa, 'ami -- ksatriya'-jnana
SYNONYMS
svayam-rupera -- of the original form; gopa-vesa -- the dress of a
cowherd boy; gopa-abhimana -- thinking Himself a cowherd boy; vasudevera
-- of Vasudeva, the son of Vasudeva and Devaki; ksatriya-vesa -- the
dress is like that of a ksatriya; ami -- I; ksatriya -- a ksatriya;
jnana -- knowledge.
TRANSLATION
"In His original form, the Lord dresses like a cowherd boy and thinks
Himself one of them. When He appears as Vasudeva, the son of Vasudeva
and Devaki, His dress and consciousness are those of a ksatriya, a
warrior.
Madhya 20.178
TEXT 178
TEXT
saundarya, aisvarya, madhurya, vaidagdhya-vilasa
vrajendra-nandane iha adhika ullasa
SYNONYMS
saundarya -- the beauty; aisvarya -- the opulence; madhurya -- the
sweetness; vaidagdhya-vilasa -- the intellectual pastimes; vrajendra-
nandane -- of the son of Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda; iha -- all these;
adhika ullasa -- more jubilant.
TRANSLATION
"When one compares the beauty, opulence, sweetness and intellectual
pastimes of Vasudeva, the warrior, to Krsna, the cowherd boy, son of
Nanda Maharaja, one sees that Krsna's attributes are more pleasant.
Madhya 20.179
TEXT 179
TEXT
govindera madhuri dekhi' vasudevera ksobha
se madhuri asvadite upajaya lobha
SYNONYMS
govindera -- of Lord Govinda; madhuri -- the sweetness; dekhi' -- seeing;
vasudevera -- of Vasudeva; ksobha -- agitation; se -- that; madhuri --
sweetness; asvadite -- to taste; upajaya -- awakens; lobha -- greed.
TRANSLATION
"Indeed, Vasudeva is agitated just to see the sweetness of Govinda, and
a transcendental greed awakens in Him to enjoy that sweetness.
Madhya 20.180
TEXT 180
TEXT
udgirnadbhuta-madhuri-parimalasyabhira-lilasya me
dvaitam hanta samiksayan muhur asau citriyate caranah
cetah keli-kutuhalottaralitam satyam sakhe mamakam
yasya preksya svarupatam vraja-vadhu-sarupyam anvicchati
SYNONYMS
udgirna -- overflowing; adbhuta -- wonderful; madhuri -- sweetness;
parimalasya -- whose fragrance; abhira -- of a cowherd boy; lilasya --
who has pastimes; me -- My; dvaitam -- second form; hanta -- alas;
samiksayan -- showing; muhuh -- again and again; asau -- that; citriyate
-- is acting like a picture; caranah -- dramatic actor; cetah -- heart;
keli-kutuhala -- by longing for pastimes; uttaralitam -- greatly excited;
satyam -- actually; sakhe -- O dear friend; mamakam -- My; yasya -- of
whom; preksya -- by seeing; sva-rupatam -- similarity to My form;
vraja-vadhu -- of the damsels of Vrajabhumi; sarupyam -- a form like the
forms; anvicchati -- desires.
TRANSLATION
" 'My dear friend, this dramatic actor appears like a second form of My
own self. Like a picture, He displays My pastimes as a cowherd boy
overflowing with wonderfully attractive sweetness and fragrance, which
are so dear to the damsels of Vraja. When I see such a display, My heart
becomes greatly excited. I long for such pastimes and desire a form
exactly like the damsels of Vraja.'
PURPORT
This verse is found in the Lalita-madhava (4.19).
Madhya 20.181
TEXT 181
TEXT
mathuraya yaiche gandharva-nrtya-darasane
punah dvarakate yaiche citra-vilokane
SYNONYMS
mathuraya -- at Mathura; yaiche -- just as; gandharva-nrtya -- the dance
of the Gandharvas; darasane -- by seeing; punah -- again; dvarakate --
at Dvaraka; yaiche -- just as; citra-vilokane -- by seeing a picture of
Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"One instance of Vasudeva's attraction to Krsna occurred when Vasudeva
saw the Gandharva dance at Mathura. Another instance occurred in Dvaraka
when Vasudeva was surprised to see a picture of Krsna.
Madhya 20.182
TEXT 182
TEXT
aparikalita-purvah kas camatkara-kari
sphuratu mama gariyan esa madhurya-purah
ayam aham api hanta preksya yam lubdha-cetah
sarabhasam upabhoktum kamaye radhikeva
SYNONYMS
aparikalita -- not experienced; purvah -- previously; kah -- who;
camatkara-kari -- causing wonder; sphuratu -- manifests; mama -- My;
gariyan -- more great; esah -- this; madhurya-purah -- abundance of
sweetness; ayam -- this; aham -- I; api -- even; hanta -- alas; preksya -
- seeing; yam -- which; lubdha-cetah -- My mind being bewildered;
sa-rabhasam -- impetuously; upabhoktum -- to enjoy; kamaye --
desire; radhika iva -- like Srimati Radharani.
TRANSLATION
" 'Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has
never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I
Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire
to enjoy it like Srimati Radharani.'
PURPORT
This verse spoken by Vasudeva in Dvaraka is recorded by Srila Rupa
Gosvami in his Lalita-madhava (8.34).
Madhya 20.183
TEXT 183
TEXT
sei vapu bhinnabhase kichu bhinnakara
bhavavesakrti-bhede 'tad-ekatma' nama tanra
SYNONYMS
sei vapu -- that body; bhinna-abhase -- manifested differently; kichu --
some; bhinna-akara -- bodily differences; bhava-avesa-akrti -- forms and
transcendental emotions; bhede -- by different; tat-ekatma nama -- the
name is tad-ekatma; tanra -- of Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"When that body is a little differently manifest and its features
a little different in transcendental emotion and form, it is called tad-
ekatma.
Madhya 20.184
TEXT 184
TEXT
tad-ekatma-rupe 'vilasa', 'svamsa' -- dui bheda
vilasa, svamsera bhede vividha vibheda
SYNONYMS
tat-ekatma-rupe -- in the form of tad-ekatma; vilasa -- pastime; svamsa -
- personal expansion; dui bheda -- two divisions; vilasa -- of the
pastime expansion; svamsera -- of the personal expansion; bhede -- by
differences; vividha -- various; vibheda -- distinctions.
TRANSLATION
"In the tad-ekatma-rupa there are pastime expansions [vilasa] and
personal expansions [svamsa]. Consequently there are two divisions.
According to pastime and personal expansion, there are various
differences.
Madhya 20.185
TEXT 185
TEXT
prabhava-vaibhava-bhede vilasa -- dvidhakara
vilasera vilasa-bheda -- ananta prakara
SYNONYMS
prabhava-vaibhava-bhede -- by the differences between prabhava and
vaibhava; vilasa -- pastime expansion; dvidha-akara -- twofold; vilasera
-- of pastime forms; vilasa-bheda -- by the different pastimes; ananta
prakara -- unlimited varieties.
TRANSLATION
"Again the vilasa forms are divided into twofold categories -- prabhava
and vaibhava. Again the pastimes of these forms are of unlimited variety.
PURPORT
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta, Purva-khanda, verse 17, it is stated:
tadrso nyuna-saktim yo
vyanakti svamsa iritah
sankarsanadir matsyadir
yatha tat-tat-svadhamasu
When a form of Krsna is nondifferent from the original form but is less
important and exhibits less potency, it is called svamsa. Examples of
the svamsa expansion can be found in the quadruple forms of the Lord
residing in their respective places, beginning with Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha and including the purusa-avataras, lila-avataras,
manvantara-avataras and yuga-avataras.
Madhya 20.186
TEXT 186
TEXT
prabhava-vilasa -- vasudeva, sankarsana
pradyumna, aniruddha, -- mukhya cari-jana
SYNONYMS
prabhava-vilasa -- the prabhava-vilasa forms; vasudeva -- Vasudeva;
sankarsana -- Sankarsana; pradyumna -- Pradyumna; aniruddha -- Aniruddha;
mukhya cari-jana -- the four chief expansions.
TRANSLATION
"The chief quadruple expansions are named Vasudeva, Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are called prabhava-vilasa.
Madhya 20.187
TEXT 187
TEXT
vraje gopa-bhava ramera, pure ksatriya-bhavana
varna-vesa-bheda, tate 'vilasa' tanra nama
SYNONYMS
vraje -- in Vrndavana; gopa-bhava -- emotion of a cowherd boy; ramera --
of Balarama; pure -- in Dvaraka; ksatriya-bhavana -- the emotion of a
ksatriya; varna-vesa-bheda -- by differences of dress and color; tate --
therefore; vilasa -- pastime expansion; tanra nama -- His name.
TRANSLATION
"Balarama, who has the same original form of Krsna, is Himself a cowherd
boy in Vrndavana, and He also considers Himself to belong to the
ksatriya race in Dvaraka. Thus His color and dress are different, and He
is called a pastime form of Krsna.
Madhya 20.188
TEXT 188
TEXT
vaibhava-prakase ara prabhava-vilase
eka-i murtye baladeva bhava-bhede bhase
SYNONYMS
vaibhava-prakase -- in vaibhava manifestation; ara -- and; prabhava-
vilase -- in the prabhava pastime form; eka-i murtye -- in one form;
baladeva -- Lord Baladeva; bhava-bhede -- according to different
emotions; bhase -- exists.
TRANSLATION
"Sri Balarama is a vaibhava-prakasa manifestation of Krsna. He is also
manifest in the original quadruple expansion of Vasudeva, Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are prabhava-vilasa expansions with
different emotions.
Madhya 20.189
TEXT 189
TEXT
adi-catur-vyuha -- inhara keha nahi sama
ananta caturvyuha-ganera prakatya-karana
SYNONYMS
adi-catuh-vyuha -- the original quadruple group; inhara -- of this; keha
nahi -- no one; sama -- equal; ananta -- unlimited; catuh-vyuha-ganera --
of the quadruple expansions; prakatya -- of manifestation; karana --
the cause.
TRANSLATION
"The first expansion of the caturvyuha, quadruple forms, is unique.
There is nothing to compare with Them. These quadruple forms are the
source of unlimited quadruple forms.
Madhya 20.190
TEXT 190
TEXT
krsnera ei cari prabhava-vilasa
dvaraka-mathura-pure nitya inhara vasa
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; ei -- these; cari -- four; prabhava-vilasa --
prabhava pastime forms; dvaraka-mathura-pure -- in the two cities
Dvaraka and Mathura; nitya -- eternal; inhara -- of Them; vasa -- the
residential quarters.
TRANSLATION
"These four prabhava pastime forms of Lord Krsna reside eternally in
Dvaraka and Mathura.
Madhya 20.191
TEXT 191
TEXT
ei cari haite cabbisa murti parakasa
astra-bhede nama-bheda -- vaibhava-vilasa
SYNONYMS
ei cari haite -- from these four; cabbisa -- twenty-four; murti -- forms;
parakasa -- manifestation; astra-bhede -- according to the different
weapons; nama-bheda -- the difference of names; vaibhava-vilasa -- the
vaibhava pastime expansions.
TRANSLATION
"From the original quadruple expansion, twenty-four forms are
manifest. They differ according to the placement of weapons in
Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilasa.
Madhya 20.192
TEXT 192
TEXT
punah krsna catur-vyuha lana purva-rupe
paravyoma-madhye vaise narayana-rupe
SYNONYMS
punah -- again; krsna -- Krsna; catuh-vyuha -- the quadruple expansions;
lana -- taking; purva-rupe -- as previously; paravyoma-madhye -- in the
paravyoma area; vaise -- resides; narayana-rupe -- in the form of four-
handed Narayana.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna again expands, and within the paravyoma, the spiritual sky,
He is situated in fullness as the four-handed Narayana, accompanied by
expansions of the original quadruple form.
PURPORT
At the top of the paravyoma, the spiritual sky, there is Goloka
Vrndavana, which is divided into three parts. Two of the parts, called
Mathura and Dvaraka, are the residences of Krsna in His prabhava-vilasa
forms. Balarama, Krsna's vaibhava-prakasa, is eternally situated in
Gokula. From the quadruple prabhava-vilasa, twenty-four forms of the
vaibhava-vilasa are expanded. Each has four hands holding weapons in
different positions. The topmost planet in the spiritual sky is Goloka
Vrndavana, and below that planet is the spiritual sky itself. In that
spiritual sky, Krsna Himself is four-handed and is situated as Narayana.
Madhya 20.193
TEXT 193
TEXT
tanha haite punah catur-vyuha-parakasa
avarana-rupe cari-dike yanra vasa
SYNONYMS
tanha haite -- from that original catur-vyuha; punah -- again; catuh-
vyuha-parakasa -- manifestation of quadruple expansions; avarana-rupe --
in the form of a covering; cari-dike -- in four directions; yanra --
whose; vasa -- residence.
TRANSLATION
"Thus the original quadruple forms again manifest Themselves in a second
quadruple expansion. The residences of these second quadruple
expansions cover the four directions.
Madhya 20.194
TEXT 194
TEXT
cari-janera punah prthak tina tina murti
kesavadi yaha haite vilasera purti
SYNONYMS
cari-janera -- of the original of the four expansions; punah -- again;
prthak -- separate; tina tina -- three each; murti -- forms; kesava-adi -
- beginning with Lord Kesava; yaha haite -- from which; vilasera purti --
the vilasa expansions are fulfilled.
TRANSLATION
"Again these quadruple forms expand three times, beginning with Kesava.
That is the fulfillment of the pastime forms.
Madhya 20.195
TEXT 195
TEXT
cakradi-dharana-bhede nama-bheda saba
vasudevera murti -- kesava, narayana, madhava
SYNONYMS
cakra-adi -- of the disc and other weapons; dharana -- of holding; bhede
-- by differences; nama -- of names; bheda -- differences; saba -- all;
vasudevera murti -- the expansions of Vasudeva; kesava -- Kesava;
narayana -- Narayana; madhava -- Madhava.
TRANSLATION
"Out of the catur-vyuha, there are three expansions of each and every
form, and they are named differently according to the position of the
weapons. The Vasudeva expansions are Kesava, Narayana and Madhava.
Madhya 20.196
TEXT 196
TEXT
sankarsanera murti -- govinda, visnu, madhusudana
e anya govinda -- nahe vrajendra-nandana
SYNONYMS
sankarsanera murti -- the expansions of Sankarsana; govinda -- Govinda;
visnu -- Visnu; madhu-sudana -- Madhusudana; e -- this; anya --
another; govinda -- Govinda; nahe vrajendra-nandana -- not the son of
Nanda Maharaja.
TRANSLATION
"The expansions of Sankarsana are Govinda, Visnu and Madhusudana. This
Govinda is different from the original Govinda, for He is not the son of
Maharaja Nanda.
Madhya 20.197
TEXT 197
TEXT
pradyumnera murti -- trivikrama, vamana, sridhara
aniruddhera murti -- hrsikesa, padmanabha, damodara
SYNONYMS
pradyumnera murti -- expansions of the form of Pradyumna; tri-
vikrama -- Trivikrama; vamana -- Vamana; sridhara -- Sridhara;
aniruddhera murti -- expansions of Aniruddha; hrsikesa -- Hrsikesa;
padmanabha -- Padmanabha; damodara -- Damodara.
TRANSLATION
"The expansions of Pradyumna are Trivikrama, Vamana and Sridhara. The
expansions of Aniruddha are Hrsikesa, Padmanabha and Damodara.
Madhya 20.198
TEXT 198
TEXT
dvadasa-masera devata -- ei-bara jana
marga-sirse -- kesava, pause -- narayana
SYNONYMS
dvadasa-masera -- of the twelve months; devata -- predominating Deities;
ei -- these; bara jana -- twelve Personalities of Godhead; marga-sirse --
the month of Agrahayana (November-December); kesava -- Kesava; pause --
the month of Pausa (December-January); narayana -- Narayana.
TRANSLATION
"These twelve are the predominating Deities of the twelve months. Kesava
is the predominating Deity of Agrahayana, and Narayana is the
predominating Deity of Pausa.
Madhya 20.199
TEXT 199
TEXT
maghera devata -- madhava, govinda -- phalgune
caitre -- visnu, vaisakhe -- sri-madhusudana
SYNONYMS
maghera devata -- the predominating Deity of the month of Magha (January-
February); madhava -- Madhava; govinda -- Govinda; phalgune -- in the
month of Phalguna (February-March); caitre -- in the month of Caitra (
March-April); visnu -- Lord Visnu; vaisakhe -- in the month of Vaisakha (
April-May); sri-madhusudana -- Madhusudana.
TRANSLATION
"The predominating Deity for the month of Magha is Madhava, and the
predominating Deity for the month of Phalguna is Govinda. Visnu is the
predominating Deity for Caitra, and Madhusudana is the predominating
Deity for Vaisakha.
Madhya 20.200
TEXT 200
TEXT
jyaisthe -- trivikrama, asadhe -- vamana devesa
sravane -- sridhara, bhadre -- deva hrsikesa
SYNONYMS
jyaisthe -- in the month of Jyaistha (May-June); trivikrama --
Trivikrama; asadhe -- in the month of Asadha (June-July); vamana deva-
isa -- Lord Vamana; sravane -- in the month of Sravana (July-August);
sridhara -- Sridhara; bhadre -- in the month of Bhadra (August-September)
; deva hrsikesa -- Lord Hrsikesa.
TRANSLATION
"In the month of Jyaistha, the predominating Deity is Trivikrama. In
Asadha the Deity is Vamana, in Sravana the Deity is Sridhara, and in
Bhadra the Deity is Hrsikesa.
Madhya 20.201
TEXT 201
TEXT
asvine -- padmanabha, kartike damodara
'radha-damodara' anya vrajendra-konara
SYNONYMS
asvine -- in the month of Asvina (September-October); padma-nabha --
Padmanabha; kartike -- in the month of Karttika (October-November);
damodara -- Damodara; radha-damodara -- the Damodara of Srimati
Radharani; anya -- another; vrajendra-konara -- the son of Maharaja
Nanda.
TRANSLATION
"In the month of Asvina, the predominating Deity is Padmanabha, and in
Karttika it is Damodara. This Damodara is different from Radha-Damodara,
the son of Nanda Maharaja in Vrndavana.
Madhya 20.202
TEXT 202
TEXT
dvadasa-tilaka-mantra ei dvadasa nama
acamane ei name sparsi tat-tat-sthana
SYNONYMS
dvadasa-tilaka -- for twelve marks of tilaka; mantra -- the mantra; ei --
these; dvadasa nama -- twelve names; acamane -- in washing with water;
ei name -- with these names; sparsi -- we touch; tat-tat-sthana -- the
respective places.
TRANSLATION
"When putting the twelve tilaka marks on the twelve places of the body,
one has to chant the mantra consisting of these twelve Visnu names.
After daily worship, when one anoints the different parts of the body
with water, these names should be chanted as one touches each part of
the body.
PURPORT
While marking the body with tilaka, one should chant the following
mantra, which consists of the twelve names of Lord Visnu.
lalate kesavam dhyayen
narayanam athodare
vaksah-sthale madhavam tu
govindam kantha-kupake
visnum ca daksine kuksau
bahau ca madhusudanam
trivikramam kandhare tu
vamanam vama-parsvake
sridharam vama-bahau tu
hrsikesam tu kandhare
prsthe ca padmanabham ca
katyam damodaram nyaset
"When one marks the forehead with tilaka, he must remember Kesava. When
one marks the lower abdomen, he must remember Narayana. For the chest,
one should remember Madhava, and when marking the hollow of the neck one
should remember Govinda. Lord Visnu should be remembered while marking
the right side of the belly, and Madhusudana should be remembered when
marking the right arm. Trivikrama should be remembered when marking the
right shoulder, and Vamana should be remembered when marking the left
side of the belly. Sridhara should be remembered while marking the left
arm, and Hrsikesa should be remembered when marking the left shoulder.
Padmanabha and Damodara should be remembered when marking the back."
Madhya 20.203
TEXT 203
TEXT
ei cari-janera vilasa-murti ara asta jana
tan sabara nama kahi, suna sanatana
SYNONYMS
ei cari-janera -- of the four personalities; vilasa-murti -- pastime
forms; ara -- more; asta jana -- eight personalities; tan sabara -- of
all of them; nama -- the holy names; kahi -- I shall mention; suna --
hear; sanatana -- O Sanatana.
TRANSLATION
"From Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, there are eight
additional pastime expansions. O Sanatana, please hear Me as I mention
Their names.
Madhya 20.204
TEXT 204
TEXT
purusottama, acyuta, nrsimha, janardana
hari, krsna, adhoksaja, upendra, -- asta-jana
SYNONYMS
purusottama -- Purusottama; acyuta -- Acyuta; nrsimha -- Nrsimha;
janardana -- Janardana; hari -- Hari; krsna -- Krsna; adhoksaja --
Adhoksaja; upendra -- Upendra; asta-jana -- eight persons.
TRANSLATION
"The eight pastime expansions are Purusottama, Acyuta, Nrsimha,
Janardana, Hari, Krsna, Adhoksaja and Upendra.
Madhya 20.205
TEXT 205
TEXT
vasudevera vilasa dui -- adhoksaja, purusottama
sankarsanera vilasa -- upendra, acyuta dui-jana
SYNONYMS
vasudevera vilasa -- the pastime expansions of Vasudeva; dui -- two;
adhoksaja -- Adhoksaja; purusottama -- Purusottama; sankarsanera vilasa -
- the pastime expansions of Sankarsana; upendra -- Upendra; acyuta --
Acyuta; dui-jana -- the two persons.
TRANSLATION
"Of these eight expansions, two are pastime forms of Vasudeva. Their
names are Adhoksaja and Purusottama. The two pastime forms of Sankarsana
are Upendra and Acyuta.
Madhya 20.206
TEXT 206
TEXT
pradyumnera vilasa -- nrsimha, janardana
aniruddhera vilasa -- hari, krsna dui-jana
SYNONYMS
pradyumnera vilasa -- the pastime forms of Pradyumna; nrsimha -- Nrsimha;
janardana -- Janardana; aniruddhera vilasa -- the pastime forms of
Aniruddha; hari -- Hari; krsna -- Krsna; dui-jana -- the two persons.
TRANSLATION
"The pastime forms of Pradyumna are Nrsimha and Janardana, and the
pastime forms of Aniruddha are Hari and Krsna.
Madhya 20.207
TEXT 207
TEXT
ei cabbisa murti -- prabhava-vilasa pradhana
astra-dharana-bhede dhare bhinna bhinna nama
SYNONYMS
ei cabbisa murti -- all of these twenty-four forms; prabhava-vilasa --
pastime forms of the prabhava expansions; pradhana -- chief; astra-
dharana -- of holding the weapons; bhede -- in terms of differences;
dhare -- accept; bhinna bhinna -- separate from one another; nama --
names.
TRANSLATION
"All these twenty-four forms constitute the chief prabhava-vilasa
pastime forms of the Lord. They are named differently according to the
position of weapons in Their hands.
Madhya 20.208
TEXT 208
TEXT
inhara madhye yahara haya akara-vesa-bheda
sei sei haya vilasa-vaibhava-vibheda
SYNONYMS
inhara madhye -- out of Them all; yahara -- of whom; haya -- there is;
akara -- of bodily features; vesa -- of dress; bheda -- difference; sei
sei haya -- they are; vilasa-vaibhava -- of vaibhava-vilasa; vibheda --
the difference.
TRANSLATION
"Of all these, the forms that differ in dress and features are
distinguished as vaibhava-vilasa.
Madhya 20.209
TEXT 209
TEXT
padmanabha, trivikrama, nrsimha, vamana
hari, krsna adi haya 'akare' vilaksana
SYNONYMS
padmanabha -- Padmanabha; trivikrama -- Trivikrama; nrsimha -- Nrsimha;
vamana -- Vamana; hari -- Hari; krsna -- Krsna; adi -- and so on; haya --
are; akare vilaksana -- different in bodily feature.
TRANSLATION
"Of them, Padmanabha, Trivikrama, Nrsimha, Vamana, Hari, Krsna, and so
on all have different bodily features.
Madhya 20.210
TEXT 210
TEXT
krsnera prabhava-vilasa -- vasudevadi cari jana
sei cari-janara vilasa -- vimsati ganana
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; prabhava-vilasa -- prabhava pastime forms;
vasudeva-adi -- Vasudeva and others; cari jana -- quadruple expansions;
sei -- those; cari-janara -- of the four-personalities; vilasa --
pastime forms; vimsati ganana -- counted as twenty.
TRANSLATION
"Vasudeva and the three others are direct prabhava pastime forms of Lord
Krsna. Of these quadruple forms, the pastime expansions are twenty in
number.
Madhya 20.211
TEXT 211
TEXT
inha-sabara prthak vaikuntha -- paravyoma-dhame
purvadi asta-dike tina tina krame
SYNONYMS
inha -- of them; sabara -- of all; prthak -- separate; vaikuntha -- a
Vaikuntha planet; paravyoma-dhame -- in the spiritual world; purva-adi --
beginning from the east; asta-dike -- in the eight directions; tina
tina -- three in each; krame -- in consecutive order.
TRANSLATION
"All these forms preside over different Vaikuntha planets in the
spiritual world, beginning from the east in consecutive order. In each
of eight directions, there are three different forms.
Madhya 20.212
TEXT 212
TEXT
yadyapi paravyoma sabakara nitya-dhama
tathapi brahmande karo kanho sannidhana
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; paravyoma -- the spiritual sky; sabakara -- of all
of Them; nitya-dhama -- the eternal abode; tathapi -- still; brahmande --
in the material universes; karo -- of some of Them; kanho -- somewhere;
sannidhana -- the residential places.
TRANSLATION
"Although They all have Their residences eternally in the spiritual sky,
some of Them are situated within the material universes.
Madhya 20.213
TEXT 213
TEXT
paravyoma-madhye narayanera nitya-sthiti
paravyoma-upari krsnalokera vibhuti
SYNONYMS
paravyoma-madhye -- in the spiritual sky; narayanera -- of Narayana;
nitya-sthiti -- eternal residence; paravyoma-upari -- in the upper
portion of the spiritual sky; krsna-lokera vibhuti -- the opulence of
the Krsnaloka planet.
TRANSLATION
"There is an eternal residence of Narayana in the spiritual sky. In the
upper portion of the spiritual sky is a planet known as Krsnaloka, which
is filled with all opulences.
Madhya 20.214
TEXT 214
TEXT
eka 'krsnaloka' haya trividha-prakara
gokulakhya, mathurakhya, dvarakakhya ara
SYNONYMS
eka -- one; krsna-loka -- the planet known as Krsnaloka; haya -- there
is; trividha-prakara -- in three different divisions; gokula-akhya
-- Gokula; mathura-akhya -- Mathura; dvaraka-akhya -- Dvaraka; ara --
and.
TRANSLATION
"The planet of Krsnaloka is divided into three sections -- Gokula,
Mathura and Dvaraka.
Madhya 20.215
TEXT 215
TEXT
mathurate kesavera nitya sannidhana
nilacale purusottama -- 'jagannatha' nama
SYNONYMS
mathurate -- in Mathura; kesavera -- of Lord Kesava; nitya -- eternal;
sannidhana -- residence; nilacale -- in Nilacala (Jagannatha Puri);
purusottama -- Purusottama; jagannatha nama -- also known as Jagannatha.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Kesava eternally resides at Mathura, and Lord Purusottama, known
by the name Jagannatha, eternally resides at Nilacala.
Madhya 20.216
TEXT 216
TEXT
prayage madhava, mandare sri-madhusudana
anandaranye vasudeva, padmanabha janardana
SYNONYMS
prayage -- at Prayaga; madhava -- Bindu Madhava; mandare -- at Mandara-
parvata; sri-madhusudana -- Sri Madhusudana; ananda-aranye -- at the
place known as Anandaranya; vasudeva -- Lord Vasudeva; padmanabha --
Lord Padmanabha; janardana -- Lord Janardana.
TRANSLATION
"At Prayaga, the Lord is situated as Bindu Madhava, and at Mandara-
parvata, the Lord is known as Madhusudana. Vasudeva, Padmnabha and
Janardana reside at Anandaranya.
Madhya 20.217
TEXT 217
TEXT
visnu-kancite visnu, hari rahe, mayapure
aiche ara nana murti brahmanda-bhitare
SYNONYMS
visnu-kancite -- at Visnu-kanci; visnu -- Lord Visnu; hari -- Lord Hari;
rahe -- remains; mayapure -- at Mayapur; aiche -- similarly; ara -- also;
nana -- various; murti -- forms; brahmanda-bhitare -- throughout the
universe.
TRANSLATION
"At Visnu-kanci there is Lord Visnu, at Mayapur Lord Hari, and
throughout the universe a variety of other forms.
PURPORT
All of these forms are murti forms, and They are worshiped in the
temples. Their names are Kesava at Mathura, Purusottama or Jagannatha at
Nilacala, Sri Bindu Madhava at Prayaga, Madhusudana at Mandara, and
Vasudeva, Padmanabha and Janardana at Anandaranya, which is situated in
Kerala, South India. At Visnu-kanci, which is situated in the Barada
state, there is Lord Visnu, and Hari is situated at Mayapur, Lord
Caitanya's birthsite. Thus in different places throughout the
universe there are various Deities in temples bestowing Their causeless
mercy upon the devotees. All these Deity forms are nondifferent from the
murtis in the spiritual world of the Vaikunthas. Although the arca-murti,
the worshipable Deity form of the Lord, appears to be made of material
elements, it is as good as the spiritual forms found in the spiritual
Vaikunthalokas. The Deity in the temple, however, is visible to the
material eyes of the devotee. It is not possible for one in material
conditional life to see the spiritual form of the Lord. To bestow
causeless mercy upon us, the Lord appears as arca-murti so that we
can see Him. It is forbidden to consider the arca-murti to be made of
stone or wood. In the Padma Purana it is said:
arcye visnau sila-dhir gurusu nara-matir vaisnave jati-buddhir
visnor va vaisnavanam kali-mala-mathane pada-tirthe 'mbu-buddhih
sri-visnor namni mantre sakala-kalusa-he sabde-samanya-buddhir
visnau sarvesvarese tad-itara-sama-dhir yasya va naraki sah
No one should consider the Deity in the temple to be made of stone or
wood, nor should one consider the spiritual master an ordinary human
being. No one should consider a Vaisnava to belong to a particular caste
or creed, and no one should consider caranamrta or Ganges water to be
like ordinary water. Nor should anyone consider the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra to be a material vibration. All these expansions of Krsna in the
material world are simply demonstrations of the Lord's mercy and
willingness to give facility to His devotees who are engaged in His
devotional service within the material world.
Madhya 20.218
TEXT 218
TEXT
ei-mata brahmanda-madhye sabara 'parakasa'
sapta-dvipe nava-khande yanhara vilasa
SYNONYMS
ei-mata -- in this way; brahmanda-madhye -- within this universe; sabara
-- of all of Them; parakasa -- manifestations; sapta-dvipe -- on seven
islands; nava-khande -- in different sections, nine in number; yanhara
vilasa -- the pastimes of whom.
TRANSLATION
"Within the universe the Lord is situated in different spiritual
manifestations. These are situated on seven islands in nine sections.
Thus Their pastimes are going on.
PURPORT
The seven islands are mentioned in the Siddhanta-siromani:
bhumer ardham ksira-sindhor udaka-stham
jambu-dvipam prahur acarya-varyah
ardhe 'nyasmin dvipa-satkasya yamye
ksara-ksirady-ambudhinam nivesah
sakam tatah salmala-matra kausam
krauncam ca go-medaka-puskare ca
dvayor dvayor antaram ekam ekam
samudrayor dvipam udaharanti
The seven islands (dvipas) are known as (1) Jambu, (2) Saka, (3) Salmali,
(4) Kusa, (5) Kraunca, (6) Gomeda, or Plaksa, and (7) Puskara. The
planets are called dvipa. Outer space is like an ocean of air. Just as
there are islands in the watery ocean, these planets in the ocean of
space are called dvipas, or islands in outer space. There are nine
khandas, known as (1) Bharata, (2) Kinnara, (3) Hari, (4) Kuru, (5)
Hiranmaya, (6) Ramyaka, (7) Ilavrta, (8) Bhadrasva and (9) Ketumala.
These are different parts of the Jambudvipa. A valley between two
mountains is called a khanda or varsa.
Madhya 20.219
TEXT 219
TEXT
sarvatra prakasa tanra -- bhakte sukha dite
jagatera adharma nasi' dharma sthapite
SYNONYMS
sarvatra -- everywhere; prakasa -- manifestations; tanra -- His; bhakte -
- to the devotees; sukha dite -- to give happiness; jagatera -- of the
material world; adharma -- irreligious principles; nasi' -- destroying;
dharma -- religious principles; sthapite -- to establish.
TRANSLATION
"The Lord is situated in all the universes in different forms just to
please His devotees. Thus the Lord destroys irreligious principles and
establishes religious principles.
PURPORT
In the material world the Lord is situated in different arca-murtis (
Deities) in the temples, just to decrease the material activities of the
conditioned soul and increase his spiritual activities. Particularly in
India there are many temples throughout the country. Devotees may take
advantage of them and go see the Lord at Jagannatha Puri, Vrndavana,
Prayaga, Mathura, Hardwar and Visnu-kanci. When the devotees travel to
these places and see the Lord, they become very happy in devotional
service.
Madhya 20.220
TEXT 220
TEXT
inhara madhye karo haya 'avatare' ganana
yaiche visnu, trivikrama, nrsimha, vamana
SYNONYMS
inhara madhye -- of Them; karo -- of some; haya -- there is; avatare --
as incarnations; ganana -- counting; yaiche -- as; visnu -- Lord Visnu;
trivikrama -- Lord Trivikrama; nrsimha -- Lord Nrsimha; vamana -- Lord
Vamana.
TRANSLATION
"Of these forms, some are considered incarnations. Examples are Lord
Visnu, Lord Trivikrama, Lord Nrsimha and Lord Vamana.
Madhya 20.221
TEXT 221
TEXT
astra-dhrti-bheda -- nama-bhedera karana
cakradi-dharana-bheda suna, sanatana
SYNONYMS
astra-dhrti -- of holding the weapon; bheda -- difference; nama-bhedera
-- of differences of names; karana -- the cause; cakra-adi -- of weapons,
beginning with the disc; dharana -- of holding; bheda -- differences;
suna -- please hear; sanatana -- O Sanatana.
TRANSLATION
"My dear Sanatana, just hear from Me as I tell you how the different
visnu-murtis hold Their weapons, beginning with the disc, and how They
are named differently according to the placement of objects in
Their hands.
Madhya 20.222
TEXT 222
TEXT
daksinadho hasta haite vamadhah paryanta
cakradi astra-dharana-gananara anta
SYNONYMS
daksina-adhah -- the lower right; hasta -- hand; haite -- from; vama-
adhah -- the lower left hand; paryanta -- up to; cakra-adi -- beginning
with the disc; astra-dharana -- of holding the weapons; gananara -- of
counting; anta -- the end.
TRANSLATION
"The procedure for counting begins with the lower right hand and goes to
the upper right hand, the upper left hand, and the lower left hand. Lord
Visnu is named according to the order the objects are held in His
hands.
Madhya 20.223
TEXT 223
TEXT
siddhartha-samhita kare cabbisa murti ganana
tara mate kahi age cakradi-dharana
SYNONYMS
siddhartha-samhita -- the revealed scripture named Siddhartha-
samhita; kare -- does; cabbisa -- twenty-four; murti -- forms; ganana --
counting; tara mate -- according to the opinion of Siddhartha-samhita;
kahi -- I shall describe; age -- first; cakra-adi-dharana -- holding of
the weapons, beginning with the disc.
TRANSLATION
"According to the Siddhartha-samhita there are twenty-four forms of Lord
Visnu. First I shall describe, according to the opinion of that book,
the location of the weapons, beginning with the disc.
PURPORT
The twenty-four forms are (1) Vasudeva, (2) Sankarsana, (3) Pradyumna, (
4) Aniruddha, (5) Kesava, (6) Narayana, (7) Madhava, (8) Govinda, (9)
Visnu, (10) Madhusudana, (11) Trivikrama, (12) Vamana, (13) Sridhara, (
14) Hrsikesa, (15) Padmanabha, (16) Damodara, (17) Purusottama, (18)
Acyuta, (19) Nrsimha, (20) Janardana, (21) Hari, (22) Krsna, (23)
Adhoksaja and (24) Upendra.
Madhya 20.224
TEXT 224
TEXT
vasudeva -- gada-sankha-cakra-padma-dhara
sankarsana -- gada-sankha-padma-cakra-kara
SYNONYMS
vasudeva -- Vasudeva; gada -- club; sankha -- conchshell; cakra -- disc;
padma -- lotus flower; dhara -- holding; sankarsana -- Sankarsana; gada -
- club; sankha -- conchshell; padma -- lotus flower; cakra-kara -- the
disc in the hand.
TRANSLATION
"In His lower right hand, Lord Vasudeva holds a club, in the upper right
hand a conchshell, in the upper left hand a disc and in the lower left
hand a lotus flower. In His lower right hand, Sankarsana holds a club,
in His upper right hand a conchshell, in His upper left hand a lotus
flower and in His lower left hand a disc.
Madhya 20.225
TEXT 225
TEXT
pradyumna -- cakra-sankha-gada-padma-dhara
aniruddha -- cakra-gada-sankha-padma-kara
SYNONYMS
pradyumna -- Lord Pradyumna; cakra -- disc; sankha -- conch; gada --
club; padma -- lotus; dhara -- holding; aniruddha -- Lord Aniruddha;
cakra -- disc; gada -- club; sankha -- conch; padma-kara -- lotus flower
in hand.
TRANSLATION
"Pradyumna holds the disc, conch, club and lotus. Aniruddha holds the
disc, club, conch and lotus.
Madhya 20.226
TEXT 226
TEXT
paravyome vasudevadi -- nija nija astra-dhara
tanra mata kahi, ye-saba astra-kara
SYNONYMS
para-vyome -- in the spiritual sky; vasudeva-adi -- beginning with Lord
Vasudeva; nija nija -- Their own respective; astra-dhara -- holding of
different weapons; tanra mata kahi -- I am speaking the opinion of
Siddhartha-samhita; ye-saba -- all; astra-kara -- weapons in the
different hands.
TRANSLATION
"Thus in the spiritual sky the expansions, headed by Vasudeva, hold
weapons in Their own respective order. I am repeating the opinion of
Siddhartha-samhita in describing Them.
Madhya 20.227
TEXT 227
TEXT
sri-kesava -- padma-sankha-cakra-gada-dhara
narayana -- sankha-padma-gada-cakra-dhara
SYNONYMS
sri-kesava -- Lord Kesava; padma -- lotus; sankha -- conch; cakra --
disc; gada -- club; dhara -- holding; narayana -- Lord Narayana; sankha -
- conch; padma -- lotus; gada -- club; cakra -- disc; dhara -- holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Kesava holds the lotus, conch, disc and club. Lord Narayana holds
the conch, lotus, club and disc.
Madhya 20.228
TEXT 228
TEXT
sri-madhava -- gada-cakra-sankha-padma-kara
sri-govinda -- cakra-gada-padma-sankha-dhara
SYNONYMS
sri-madhava -- Lord Madhava; gada -- club; cakra -- disc; sankha --
conch; padma -- lotus; kara -- in the hands; sri-govinda -- Lord Govinda;
cakra -- disc; gada -- club; padma -- lotus; sankha -- conch; dhara --
holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Madhava holds the club, disc, conch and lotus. Lord Govinda holds
the disc, club, lotus and conch.
Madhya 20.229
TEXT 229
TEXT
visnu-murti -- gada-padma-sankha-cakra-kara
madhusudana -- cakra-sankha-padma-gada-dhara
SYNONYMS
visnu-murti -- Lord Visnu; gada -- club; padma -- lotus; sankha -- conch;
cakra -- disc; kara -- in the hands; madhusudana -- Lord Madhusudana;
cakra -- disc; sankha -- conch; padma -- lotus; gada -- club; dhara --
holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Visnu holds the club, lotus, conch and disc. Lord Madhusudana
holds the disc, conch, lotus and club.
Madhya 20.230
TEXT 230
TEXT
trivikrama -- padma-gada-cakra-sankha-kara
sri-vamana -- sankha-cakra-gada-padma-dhara
SYNONYMS
trivikrama -- Lord Trivikrama; padma -- lotus; gada -- club; cakra --
disc; sankha -- conch; kara -- in the hands; sri-vamana -- Lord Vamana;
sankha -- conch; cakra -- disc; gada -- club; padma -- lotus; dhara --
holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Trivikrama holds the lotus, club, disc and conch. Lord Vamana
holds the conch, disc, club and lotus.
Madhya 20.231
TEXT 231
TEXT
sridhara -- padma-cakra-gada-sankha-kara
hrsikesa -- gada-cakra-padma-sankha-dhara
SYNONYMS
sridhara -- Lord Sridhara; padma -- lotus; cakra -- disc; gada -- club;
sankha -- conch; kara -- in the hands; hrsikesa -- Lord Hrsikesa; gada --
club; cakra -- disc; padma -- lotus; sankha -- conch; dhara -- holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Sridhara holds the lotus, disc, club and conch. Lord Hrsikesa
holds the club, disc, lotus and conch.
Madhya 20.232
TEXT 232
TEXT
padmanabha -- sankha-padma-cakra-gada-kara
damodara -- padma-cakra-gada-sankha-dhara
SYNONYMS
padmanabha -- Lord Padmanabha; sankha -- conch; padma -- lotus; cakra --
disc; gada -- club; kara -- in the hands; damodara -- Lord Damodara;
padma -- lotus; cakra -- disc; gada -- club; sankha -- conch; dhara --
holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Padmanabha holds the conch, lotus, disc and club. Lord Damodara
holds the lotus, disc, club and conch.
Madhya 20.233
TEXT 233
TEXT
purusottama -- cakra-padma-sankha-gada-dhara
sri-acyuta -- gada-padma-cakra-sankha-dhara
SYNONYMS
purusottama -- Lord Purusottama; cakra -- disc; padma -- lotus; sankha --
conch; gada -- club; dhara -- holding; sri-acyuta -- Lord Acyuta; gada -
- club; padma -- lotus; cakra -- disc; sankha -- conch; dhara -- holding.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Purusottama holds the disc, lotus, conch and club. Lord Acyuta
holds the club, lotus, disc and conch.
Madhya 20.234
TEXT 234
TEXT
sri-nrsimha -- cakra-padma-gada-sankha-dhara
janardana -- padma-cakra-sankha-gada-kara
SYNONYMS
sri-nrsimha -- Lord Nrsimha; cakra -- disc; padma -- lotus; gada -- club;
sankha -- conch; dhara -- holding; janardana -- Lord Janardana; padma --
lotus; cakra -- disc; sankha -- conch; gada -- club; kara -- in the
hands.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Nrsimha holds the disc, lotus, club and conch. Lord Janardana
holds the lotus, disc, conch and club.
Madhya 20.235
TEXT 235
TEXT
sri-hari -- sankha-cakra-padma-gada-kara
sri-krsna -- sankha-gada-padma-cakra-kara
SYNONYMS
sri-hari -- Lord Hari; sankha -- conch; cakra -- disc; padma -- lotus;
gada -- club; kara -- in the hand; sri-krsna -- Lord Krsna; sankha --
conch; gada -- club; padma -- lotus; cakra -- disc; kara -- in the hands.
TRANSLATION
"Sri Hari holds the conch, disc, lotus and club. Lord Sri Krsna holds
the conch, club, lotus and disc.
Madhya 20.236
TEXT 236
TEXT
adhoksaja -- padma-gada-sankha-cakra-kara
upendra -- sankha-gada-cakra-padma-kara
SYNONYMS
adhoksaja -- Lord Adhoksaja; padma -- lotus; gada -- club; sankha --
conch; cakra -- disc; kara -- in hand; upendra -- Lord Upendra;
sankha -- conch; gada -- club; cakra -- disc; padma -- lotus; kara -- in
hand.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Adhoksaja holds the lotus, club, conch and disc. Lord Upendra
holds the conch, club, disc and lotus.
Madhya 20.237
TEXT 237
TEXT
hayasirsa-pancaratre kahe sola-jana
tara mate kahi ebe cakradi-dharana
SYNONYMS
hayasirsa-pancaratre -- the revealed scripture named the Hayasirsa-
pancaratra; kahe -- says; sola-jana -- sixteen personalities; tara mate -
- according to this opinion; kahi -- I shall describe; ebe -- now; cakra-
adi-dharana -- the holding of weapons, beginning with the disc.
TRANSLATION
"According to the Hayasirsa-pancaratra, there are sixteen personalities.
I shall now describe that opinion of how They hold the weapons.
PURPORT
The sixteen personalities are as follows: (1) Vasudeva, (2) Sankarsana, (
3) Pradyumna, (4) Aniruddha, (5) Kesava, (6) Narayana, (7) Madhava, (8)
Govinda, (9) Visnu, (10) Madhusudana, (11) Trivikrama, (12) Vamana, (13)
Sridhara, (14) Hrsikesa, (15) Padmanabha, (16) Damodara.
Madhya 20.238
TEXT 238
TEXT
kesava-bhede padma-sankha-gada-cakra-dhara
madhava-bhede cakra-gada-sankha-padma-kara
SYNONYMS
kesava-bhede -- according to the different opinion about Lord Kesava;
padma -- lotus; sankha -- conch; gada -- club; cakra -- and disc; dhara -
- holding; madhava-bhede -- according to the different opinion about the
bodily features of Lord Madhava; cakra -- disc; gada -- club; sankha --
conch; padma -- lotus; kara -- in the hands.
TRANSLATION
"Kesava is described differently as holding the lotus, conch, club and
disc, and Madhava is described as holding disc, club, conch and
lotus in His hands.
Madhya 20.239
TEXT 239
TEXT
narayana-bhede nana astra-bheda-dhara
ityadika bheda ei saba astra-kara
SYNONYMS
narayana-bhede -- according to the different opinion about the bodily
features of Lord Narayana; nana -- various; astra -- of weapons; bheda-
dhara -- differences in holding; iti-adika -- in this way; bheda --
differentiated; ei saba -- all these; astra-kara -- weapons in the hands.
TRANSLATION
"According to the Hayasirsa Pancaratra, Narayana and others are also
presented differently as holding the weapons in different hands.
Madhya 20.240
TEXT 240
TEXT
'svayam bhagavan', ara 'lila-purusottama'
ei dui nama dhare vrajendra-nandana
SYNONYMS
svayam bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ara -- and; lila-
purusottama -- the Lord Purusottama of pastimes; ei dui -- these two;
nama -- names; dhare -- takes; vrajendra-nandana -- Krsna, the son of
Nanda Maharaja.
TRANSLATION
"Krsna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, indicated as the
son of Maharaja Nanda, has two names. One is svayam bhagavan, and the
other is lila-purusottama.
Madhya 20.241
TEXT 241
TEXT
purira avarana-rupe purira nava-dese
nava-vyuha-rupe nava-murti parakase
SYNONYMS
purira -- of Dvaraka Puri; avarana-rupe -- as a covering for the four
sides; purira nava-dese -- in nine different parts of the city; nava-
vyuha-rupe -- in nine Deities; nava-murti -- nine forms; parakase --
manifests.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna personally surrounds Dvaraka Puri as its protector. In
different parts of the Puri, in nine places, He expands in nine
different forms.
Madhya 20.242
TEXT 242
TEXT
catvaro vasudevadya
narayana-nrsimhakau
hayagrivo mahakrodo
brahma ceti navoditah
SYNONYMS
catvarah -- four principal protectors; vasudeva-adyah -- Vasudeva,
Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha; narayana -- including Lord Narayana;
nrsimhakau -- as well as Lord Nrsimha; hayagrivah -- Lord Hayagriva;
mahakrodah -- Lord Varaha; brahma -- Lord Brahma; ca -- also; iti --
thus; nava-uditah -- nine personalities.
TRANSLATION
" 'The nine personalities mentioned are Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna,
Aniruddha, Narayana, Nrsimha, Hayagriva, Varaha and Brahma.'
PURPORT
This verse is found in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (1.451). The Brahma
mentioned herein is not a living entity. Sometimes, when there is a
scarcity of living entities to take charge of Brahma's post, Maha-Visnu
expands Himself as Lord Brahma. This Brahma is not considered to be a
living entity; He is an expansion of Visnu.
Madhya 20.243
TEXT 243
TEXT
prakasa-vilasera ei kailun vivarana
svamsera bheda ebe suna, sanatana
SYNONYMS
prakasa-vilasera -- of pastime forms and manifestations; ei -- this;
kailun -- I have made; vivarana -- description; svamsera -- of personal
expansions; bhede -- the differences; ebe -- now; suna -- please hear;
sanatana -- O Sanatana Gosvami.
TRANSLATION
"I have already described the pastime and prakasa forms. Now please hear
about the different personal expansions.
Madhya 20.244
TEXT 244
TEXT
sankarsana, matsyadika, -- dui bheda tanra
sankarsana -- purusavatara, lilavatara ara
SYNONYMS
sankarsana -- Sankarsana; matsya-adika -- and incarnations such as the
fish; dui -- two; bheda -- differentiations; tanra -- His; sankarsana --
Sankarsana; purusa-avatara -- incarnations of Visnu; lila-avatara --
pastime incarnations; ara -- and.
TRANSLATION
"The first personal expansion is Sankarsana, and the others are
incarnations like the fish incarnation. Sankarsana is an expansion of
the Purusa, or Visnu. The incarnations such as Matsya, the fish
incarnation, appear in different yugas for specific pastimes.
PURPORT
The purusa-avataras are the Lords of the universal creation. These are
the Karanodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu.
There are also lila-avataras, and these include (1) Catuhsana
, (2) Narada, (3) Varaha, (4) Matsya, (5) Yajna, (6) Nara-
Narayana, (7) Kardami Kapila, (8) Dattatreya, (9) Hayasirsa, (10) Hamsa,
(11) Dhruvapriya, or Prsnigarbha, (12) Rsabha, (13) Prthu, (14) Nrsimha,
(15) Kurma, (16) Dhanvantari, (17) Mohini, (18) Vamana, (19) Bhargava
Parasurama, (20) Raghavendra, (21) Vyasa, (22) Pralambari Balarama, (23)
Krsna, (24) Buddha and (25) Kalki.
These twenty-five Personalities of Godhead are known as lila-avataras.
Because they appear in each day of Brahma, or in each kalpa (millennium),
they are sometimes known as kalpa-avataras. Of these incarnations,
Hamsa and Mohini are not very permanent or well known, but
They are listed among the prabhava-avataras. Kapila, Dattatreya, Rsabha,
Dhanvantari and Vyasa are eternally situated and very widely known. They
are also counted among the prabhava incarnations. Kurma, Matsya,
Narayana, Varaha, Hayagriva, Prsnigarbha, and Baladeva, the killer of
Pralambasura, are counted among the vaibhava-avataras.
Madhya 20.245
TEXT 245
TEXT
avatara haya krsnera sad-vidha prakara
purusavatara eka, lilavatara ara
SYNONYMS
avatara -- incarnations; haya -- there are; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna;
sat-vidha prakara -- six kinds; purusa-avatara -- incarnations of Visnu;
eka -- one; lila-avatara -- incarnations for the execution of pastimes;
ara -- also.
TRANSLATION
"There are six types of incarnations [avataras] of Krsna. One is
the incarnations of Visnu [purusa-avataras], and another is the
incarnations meant for the performance of pastimes [lila-avataras].
Madhya 20.246
TEXT 246
TEXT
gunavatara, ara manvantaravatara
yugavatara, ara saktyavesavatara
SYNONYMS
guna-avatara -- the incarnations to control the material qualities; ara
-- also; manu-antara-avatara -- the incarnations of the
Manus; yuga-avatara -- the incarnations according to
different yugas; ara -- and; sakti-avesa-avatara -- empowered
incarnations.
TRANSLATION
"There are incarnations that control the material qualities [guna-
avataras], incarnations of the Manus [
manvantara-avataras], incarnations in different millenniums [yuga-
avataras] and incarnations of empowered living entities [saktyavesa-
avataras].
PURPORT
The guna-avataras are three -- Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and Lord Visnu (
Bhag. 10.88.3). The avataras of Manu,
or manvantara-avataras, are listed as follows in Srimad-Bhagavatam
(8.1.5,13): (1) Yajna, (2) Vibhu, (3)
Satyasena, (4) Hari, (5) Vaikuntha, (6) Ajita, (7) Vamana, (8)
Sarvabhauma, (9) Rsabha, (10) Visvaksena, (11) Dharmasetu, (12) Sudhama,
(13) Yogesvara and (14) Brhadbhanu. Altogether these are
fourteen in number, and of these, both Yajna and Vamana are also counted
among the lila-avataras. All these Manu incarnations are sometimes
called vaibhava-avataras.
The four yuga-avataras are (1) sukla (white) in the Satya-yuga (Bhag. 11.
5.21), (2) rakta (red) in the Treta-yuga (Bhag. 11.5.24), (3) syama (
dark blue) in the Dvapara-yuga (Bhag. 11.5.27), and (4) generally krsna (
black) but in special cases pita (yellow) as Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the
Kali-yuga, (Bhag. 11.5.32 and 10.8.13).
The saktyavesa-avatara is categorized into (1) forms of divine
absorption (bhagavad-avesa) like Kapiladeva or Rsabhadeva and (2)
divinely empowered forms (saktyavesa), of whom there are seven: (1)
Sesa Naga in the Vaikuntha world, empowered for the personal service of
the Supreme Lord (sva-sevana-sakti), (2) Anantadeva, empowered to bear
all the planets within the universe (bhu-dharana-sakti), (3) Lord Brahma,
empowered with the energy to create the cosmic manifestation (srsti-
sakti), (4) Catuhsana, or the Kumaras, specifically empowered to
distribute transcendental knowledge (jnana-sakti), (5) Narada Muni,
empowered to distribute devotional service (bhakti-sakti), (6) Maharaja
Prthu, specifically empowered to rule and maintain the living entities (
palana-sakti) and (7) Parasurama, specifically empowered to cut down
rogues and demons (dusta-damana-sakti).
Madhya 20.247
TEXT 247
TEXT
balya, pauganda haya vigrahera dharma
eta-rupe lila karena vrajendra-nandana
SYNONYMS
balya -- childhood; pauganda -- boyhood; haya -- there are; vigrahera --
of the Deity; dharma -- characteristics; eta-rupe -- in so many forms;
lila -- pastimes; karena -- executes; vrajendra-nandana -- Krsna, the
son of Nanda Maharaja.
TRANSLATION
"Childhood and boyhood are the typical ages of the Deity. Krsna, the son
of Maharaja Nanda, performed His pastimes as a child and as a boy.
Madhya 20.248
TEXT 248
TEXT
ananta avatara krsnera, nahika ganana
sakha-candra-nyaya kari dig-darasana
SYNONYMS
ananta -- unlimited; avatara -- incarnations; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna;
nahika ganana -- there is no possibility of counting; sakha-candra-nyaya
-- by the analogy of the moon and the branches of a tree; kari -- I make;
dik-darasana -- a slight indication.
TRANSLATION
"There are innumerable incarnations of Krsna, and there is no
possibility of counting them. We can simply indicate them by giving the
example of the moon and the branches of a tree.
PURPORT
Although the moon appears to be located in the branches of a tree, it is
actually situated very far away. Similarly, none of the avataras, or
incarnations, of Lord Krsna are within this material world, but they are
visible by the causeless mercy of the Lord. We should not consider them
to belong to this material world. As stated in
Bhagavad-gita:
avajananti mam mudha
manusim tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto
mama bhuta-mahesvaram
"Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My
transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." (Bg. 9.
11)
Avataras descend of their own free will, and although they may act like
ordinary human beings, they do not belong to this material world. Lord
Krsna and His avataras can be understood only by the grace of the Lord.
nayam atma pravacanena labhyo
na medhaya na bahuna srutena
yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyas
tasyaisa atma vivrnute tanum svam
(Katha Upanisad 1.2.23)
athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-
prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi
janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno
na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan
(Bhag. 10.14.29)
Madhya 20.249
TEXT 249
TEXT
avatara hy asankhyeya
hareh sattva-nidher dvijah
yatha 'vidasinah kulyah
sarasah syuh sahasrasah
SYNONYMS
avatarah -- all the incarnations; hi -- certainly; asankhyeyah -- beyond
counting; hareh -- from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sattva-
nidheh -- who is the reservoir of spiritual energy; dvijah -- O
brahmanas; yatha -- as; avidasinah -- containing a great reservoir of
water; kulyah -- small ponds; sarasah -- from a lake; syuh -- must be;
sahasrasah -- by hundreds and thousands of times.
TRANSLATION
" 'O learned brahmanas, just as hundreds and thousands of small ponds
issue from great reservoirs of water, innumerable incarnations flow from
Sri Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the reservoir of all
power.'
PURPORT
This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.26).
Madhya 20.250
TEXT 250
TEXT
prathamei kare krsna 'purusavatara'
seita purusa haya trividha prakara
SYNONYMS
prathamei -- in the beginning; kare -- does; krsna -- Lord Krsna; purusa-
avatara -- the incarnation of the three Visnus (Maha-Visnu,
Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu); seita -- that; purusa --
Visnu; haya -- becomes; tri-vidha prakara -- three different
manifestations.
TRANSLATION
"In the beginning, Krsna incarnates Himself as purusa-avataras, or
Visnu incarnations. These are of three types.
PURPORT
Up to this verse, the many types of expansions have been described. Now
the manifestations of the Lord's different potencies will be described.
Madhya 20.251
TEXT 251
TEXT
visnos tu trini rupani
purusakhyany atho viduh
ekam tu mahatah srastr
dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam
trtiyam sarva-bhuta-stham
tani jnatva vimucyate
SYNONYMS
visnoh -- of Lord Visnu; tu -- certainly; trini -- three; rupani --
forms; purusa-akhyani -- celebrated as the purusa; atho -- how; viduh --
they know; ekam -- one of them; tu -- but; mahatah srastr -- the
creator of the total material energy; dvitiyam -- the second; tu -- but;
anda-samsthitam -- situated within the universe; trtiyam -- the third;
sarva-bhuta-stham -- within the hearts of all living entities; tani --
these three; jnatva -- knowing; vimucyate -- one becomes liberated.
TRANSLATION
" 'Visnu has three forms called purusas. The first, Maha-Visnu, is the
creator of the total material energy [mahat], the second is Garbhodasayi,
who is situated within each universe, and the third is Ksirodasayi, who
lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three
becomes liberated from the clutches of maya.'
PURPORT
This verse appears in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva-khanda 33), where
it has been quoted from the Satvata-tantra.
Madhya 20.252
TEXT 252
TEXT
ananta-sakti-madhye krsnera tina sakti pradhana
'iccha-sakti', 'jnana-sakti', 'kriya-sakti' nama
SYNONYMS
ananta-sakti -- of unlimited potencies; madhye -- in the midst; krsnera -
- of Lord Krsna; tina -- three; sakti -- potencies; pradhana -- are
chief; iccha-sakti -- willpower; jnana-sakti -- the power of knowledge;
kriya-sakti -- the creative energy; nama -- named.
TRANSLATION
"Krsna has unlimited potencies, out of which three are chief --
willpower, the power of knowledge and the creative energy.
Madhya 20.253
TEXT 253
TEXT
iccha-sakti-pradhana krsna -- icchaya sarva-karta
jnana-sakti-pradhana vasudeva adhisthata
SYNONYMS
iccha-sakti -- of willpower; pradhana -- predominator; krsna -- Lord
Krsna; icchaya -- simply by willing; sarva-karta -- the creator of
everything; jnana-sakti-pradhana -- the predominator of the power of
knowledge; vasudeva -- Lord Vasudeva; adhisthata -- reservoir.
TRANSLATION
"The predominator of the willing potency is Lord Krsna, for by His
supreme will everything comes into existence. In willing, there is a
need for knowledge, and that knowledge is expressed through Vasudeva.
Madhya 20.254
TEXT 254
TEXT
iccha-jnana-kriya vina na haya srjana
tinera tina-sakti meli' prapanca-racana
SYNONYMS
iccha-jnana-kriya -- thinking, feeling, willing, knowledge and activity;
vina -- without; na -- not; haya -- there is; srjana -- creation; tinera
-- of the three; tina-sakti -- three potencies; meli' -- being
amalgamated; prapanca-racana -- there is the cosmic manifestation.
TRANSLATION
"There is no possibility of creation without thinking, feeling, willing,
knowledge and activity. The combination of the supreme will, knowledge
and action brings about the cosmic manifestation.
Madhya 20.255
TEXT 255
TEXT
kriya-sakti-pradhana sankarsana balarama
prakrtaprakrta-srsti karena nirmana
SYNONYMS
kriya-sakti-pradhana -- the predominator of the creative energy;
sankarsana -- Lord Sankarsana; balarama -- Lord Balarama; prakrta --
material; aprakrta -- spiritual; srsti -- worlds; karena -- does;
nirmana -- creation.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Sankarsana is Lord Balarama. Being the predominator of the
creative energy, He creates both the material and spiritual worlds.
Madhya 20.256
TEXT 256
TEXT
ahankarera adhisthata krsnera icchaya
goloka, vaikuntha srje cic-chakti-dvaraya
SYNONYMS
ahankarera -- of egotism; adhisthata -- the source or predominating
Deity; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; icchaya -- by the will; goloka -- the
supreme spiritual planet, known as Goloka; vaikuntha -- other, lower
planets, known as Vaikunthas; srje -- creates; cit-sakti-dvaraya -- by
the spiritual energy.
TRANSLATION
"That original Sankarsana [Lord Balarama] is the cause of both the
material and spiritual creation. He is the predominating deity of
egotism, and by the will of Krsna and the power of the spiritual energy,
He creates the spiritual world, which consists of the planet Goloka
Vrndavana and the Vaikuntha planets.
Madhya 20.257
TEXT 257
TEXT
yadyapi asrjya nitya cic-chakti-vilasa
tathapi sankarsana-icchaya tahara prakasa
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; asrjya -- there is no question of creation; nitya --
eternal; cit-sakti-vilasa -- pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy;
tathapi -- still; sankarsana-icchaya -- by the will of Sankarsana;
tahara -- of the spiritual world; prakasa -- manifestation.
TRANSLATION
"Although there is no question of creation as far as the spiritual world
is concerned, the spiritual world is nonetheless manifest by the
supreme will of Sankarsana. The spiritual world is the abode of the
pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy.
Madhya 20.258
TEXT 258
TEXT
sahasra-patram kamalam
gokulakhyam mahat-padam
tat-karnikaram tad-dhama
tad anantamsa-sambhavam
SYNONYMS
sahasra-patram -- with thousands of petals; kamalam -- resembling a
lotus flower; gokula-akhyam -- named Gokula; mahat-padam -- the supreme
abode; tat-karnikaram -- the whorl of that lotus flower; tat-dhama --
the abode of the Lord; tat -- that; ananta-amsa -- from the expansion of
energy of Ananta; sambhavam -- creation.
TRANSLATION
" 'Gokula, the supreme abode and planet, appears like a lotus flower
that has a thousand petals. The whorl of that lotus is the abode of the
Supreme Lord, Krsna. This lotus-shaped supreme abode is created by the
will of Lord Ananta.'
PURPORT
This verse is quoted from Brahma-samhita (5.2)
Madhya 20.259
TEXT 259
TEXT
maya-dvare srje tenho brahmandera gana
jada-rupa prakrti nahe brahmanda-karana
SYNONYMS
maya-dvare -- by the agency of the external energy; srje -- creates;
tenho -- Lord Sankarsana; brahmandera gana -- all the groups of
universes; jada-rupa -- appearing dull; prakrti -- the material energy;
nahe -- is not; brahmanda-karana -- the cause of the cosmic
manifestation.
TRANSLATION
"By the agency of the material energy, this same Lord Sankarsana creates
all the universes. The dull material energy -- known in modern language
as nature -- is not the cause of the material universe.
Madhya 20.260
TEXT 260
TEXT
jada haite srsti nahe isvara-sakti vine
tahatei sankarsana kare saktira adhane
SYNONYMS
jada haite -- from the dull material energy; srsti nahe -- the cosmic
manifestation is not possible; isvara-sakti vine -- without the help of
the energy of the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead; tahatei --
in the material energy; sankarsana -- Lord Sankarsana; kare -- does;
saktira -- of the spiritual energy; adhane -- empowering.
TRANSLATION
"Without the Supreme Personality of Godhead's energy, dull matter cannot
create the cosmic manifestation. Its power does not arise from the
material energy itself but is endowed by Sankarsana.
Madhya 20.261
TEXT 261
TEXT
isvarera saktye srsti karaye prakrti
lauha yena agni-saktye paya daha-sakti
SYNONYMS
isvarera saktye -- by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
srsti -- creation; karaye -- does; prakrti -- material energy; lauha --
iron; yena -- as; agni-saktye -- by the power of fire; paya -- gets;
daha-sakti -- the power to burn.
TRANSLATION
"Dull matter alone cannot create anything. The material energy produces
the creation by the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Iron
itself has no power to burn, but when iron is placed in fire, it is
empowered to burn.
Madhya 20.262
TEXT 262
TEXT
etau hi visvasya ca bija-yoni
ramo mukundah purusah pradhanam
anviya bhutesu vilaksanasya
jnanasya cesata imau puranau
SYNONYMS
etau -- these two, namely Rama and Krsna; hi -- certainly; visvasya --
of the universe; ca -- and; bija-yoni -- both the cause and ingredient;
ramah -- Balarama; mukundah -- Krsna; purusah -- the original Maha-Visnu;
pradhanam -- material energy; anviya -- after entering; bhutesu -- into
the material elements; vilaksanasya -- of varieties of manifestation;
jnanasya -- of knowledge; ca -- also; isate -- are the controlling power;
imau -- both of Them; puranau -- are the original cause.
TRANSLATION
" 'Balarama and Krsna are the original efficient and material causes of
the material world. As Maha-Visnu and the material energy, They enter
into the material elements and create the diversities by multi-energies.
Thus They are the cause of all causes.'
PURPORT
This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.31).
Madhya 20.263
TEXT 263
TEXT
srsti-hetu yei murti prapance avatare
sei isvara-murti 'avatara' nama dhare
SYNONYMS
srsti-hetu -- for the purpose of creation; yei murti -- which form of
the Lord; prapance -- in the material world; avatare -- descends; sei --
that; isvara-murti -- form of the Lord; avatara -- incarnation; nama
dhare -- takes the name.
TRANSLATION
"The form of the Lord that descends into the material world to create is
called an avatara, or incarnation.
Madhya 20.264
TEXT 264
TEXT
mayatita paravyome sabara avasthana
visve avatari' dhare 'avatara' nama
SYNONYMS
maya-atita -- beyond the material nature; para-vyome -- in the spiritual
sky; sabara -- all of them; avasthana -- residence; visve -- within the
material universe; avatari' -- coming down; dhare -- take; avatara nama -
- the name avatara.
TRANSLATION
"All the expansions of Lord Krsna are actually residents of the
spiritual world. However, when they descend into the material world,
they are called incarnations [avataras].
Madhya 20.265
TEXT 265
TEXT
sei maya avalokite sri-sankarsana
purusa-rupe avatirna ha-ila prathama
SYNONYMS
sei maya -- that material energy; avalokite -- just to glance over; sri-
sankarsana -- Sankarsana; purusa-rupe -- in the original form of Maha-
Visnu; avatirna -- incarnated; ha-ila -- became; prathama -- at first.
TRANSLATION
"To glance over that material energy and empower her, Lord Sankarsana
first incarnates as Lord Maha-Visnu.
Madhya 20.266
TEXT 266
TEXT
jagrhe paurusam rupam
bhagavan mahad-adibhih
sambhutam sodasa-kalam
adau loka-sisrksaya
SYNONYMS
jagrhe -- accepted; paurusam rupam -- the form of the purusa incarnation;
bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahat-adibhih -- with
the material energy, etc.; sambhutam -- created; sodasa -- sixteen;
kalam -- elements; adau -- in the beginning; loka -- of the material
worlds; sisrksaya -- with a desire for the creation.
TRANSLATION
" 'In the beginning of the creation, the Lord expanded Himself in the
form of the purusa incarnation, accompanied by all the ingredients of
material creation. First He created the sixteen principal energies
suitable for creation. This was for the purpose of manifesting the
material universes.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.1). For an explanation,
refer to Adi-lila, Chapter Five, verse 84.
Madhya 20.267
TEXT 267
TEXT
adyo 'vatarah purusah parasya
kalah svabhavah sad-asan-manas ca
dravyam vikaro guna indriyani
virat svarat sthasnu carisnu bhumnah
SYNONYMS
adyah avatarah -- the original incarnation; purusah -- the
Lord; parasya -- of the Supreme; kalah -- time; svabhavah --
nature; sat-asat -- cause and effect; manah ca -- as well as the mind;
dravyam -- the five elements; vikarah -- transformation or the false ego;
gunah -- modes of nature; indriyani -- senses; virat -- the universal
form; svarat -- complete independence; sthasnu -- immovable;
carisnu -- movable; bhumnah -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
" 'Karanabdhisayi Visnu [Maha-Visnu] is the first incarnation of the
Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and
effects, mind, elements, material ego, modes of nature,
senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, and
the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42). For an explanation,
refer to Adi-lila, Chapter Five, verse 83.
Madhya 20.268
TEXT 268
TEXT
sei purusa virajate karena sayana
'karanabdhisayi' nama jagat-karana
SYNONYMS
sei purusa -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; virajate -- on the
border known as Viraja; karena sayana -- lies down; karana-abdhi-sayi --
Karanabdhisayi; nama -- named; jagat-karana -- is the original cause of
material creation.
TRANSLATION
"That original Personality of Godhead, named Sankarsana, first lies down
in the River Viraja, which serves as a border between the material and
spiritual worlds. As Karanabdhisayi Visnu, He is the original cause
of the material creation.
Madhya 20.269
TEXT 269
TEXT
karanabdhi-pare mayara nitya avasthiti
virajara pare paravyome nahi gati
SYNONYMS
karana-abdhi-pare -- on one bank of the Causal Ocean; mayara -- of the
material energy; nitya -- eternal; avasthiti -- position; virajara pare -
- on the other bank of the Viraja, or the Causal Ocean; para-vyome -- in
the spiritual world or sky; nahi -- there is not; gati -- admission.
TRANSLATION
"The Viraja, or Causal Ocean, is the border between the spiritual and
material worlds. The material energy is situated on one shore of
that ocean, and it cannot enter onto the other shore, which is the
spiritual sky.
Madhya 20.270
TEXT 270
TEXT
pravartate yatra rajas tamas tayoh
sattvam ca misram na ca kala-vikramah
na yatra maya kim utapare harer
anuvrata yatra surasurarcitah
SYNONYMS
pravartate -- exists; yatra -- where; rajah -- the mode of passion;
tamah -- the mode of ignorance; tayoh -- of both of them; sattvam ca --
and the mode of goodness; misram -- mixture; na -- not; ca -- also; kala-
vikramah -- the influence of time or annihilation; na -- not; yatra --
where; maya -- external energy; kim -- what; uta -- to speak; apare --
others; hareh -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anuvratah --
strict followers; yatra -- where; sura -- by demigods; asura -- and by
demons; arcitah -- being worshiped.
TRANSLATION
" 'In the spiritual world, there is neither the mode of passion, the
mode of ignorance nor a mixture of both, nor is there adulterated
goodness, nor the influence of time or maya itself. Only the pure
devotees of the Lord, who are worshiped both by demigods and by demons,
reside in the spiritual world as the Lord's associates.'
PURPORT
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.10) was spoken by Srila Sukadeva
Gosvami. He was answering the questions of Pariksit Maharaja, who asked
how the living entity falls down into the material world. Sukadeva
Gosvami explained the cream of Srimad-Bhagavatam in four verses, which
had been explained to Lord Brahma at the end of the severe austerities
he performed for one thousand celestial years. At that time, Brahma was
shown the spiritual world and its transcendental nature.
Madhya 20.271
TEXT 271
TEXT
mayara ye dui vrtti -- 'maya' ara 'pradhana'
'maya' nimitta-hetu, visvera upadana 'pradhana'
SYNONYMS
mayara -- of the material nature; ye -- which; dui -- two; vrtti --
functions; maya -- called maya; ara -- and; pradhana -- ingredients;
maya -- the word maya; nimitta-hetu -- the efficient cause; visvera --
of the material universe; upadana -- ingredients; pradhana -- is called
pradhana.
TRANSLATION
"Maya has two functions. One is called maya, and the other is called
pradhana. Maya refers to the efficient cause, and pradhana refers to the
ingredients that create the cosmic manifestation.
PURPORT
For a further explanation, see Adi-lila, Chapter Five, verse 58.
Madhya 20.272
TEXT 272
TEXT
sei purusa maya-pane kare avadhana
prakrti ksobhita kari' kare viryera adhana
SYNONYMS
sei purusa -- that Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-pane -- toward
maya; kare avadhana -- glances; prakrti -- the material nature; ksobhita
kari' -- making agitated; kare -- impregnates; viryera -- of the semina;
adhana -- injection.
TRANSLATION
"When the Supreme Personality of Godhead glances over the material
energy, she becomes agitated. At that time, the Lord injects the
original semina of the living entities.
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita (7.10), Krsna says, bijam mam sarva-bhutanam: "I am
the original seed of all existences." This is also confirmed in another
verse in Bhagavad-gita (14.4):
sarva-yonisu kaunteya
murtayah sambhavanti yah
tasam brahma mahad-yonir
aham bija-pradah pita
"It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kunti, are
made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-
giving father."
For a further explanation, one may refer to Brahma-samhita (Chap