\\psf\Home\Desktop\Cc-1975\Madhya 8 -- 1975.TXT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
28
29
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
43
43
43
44
45
46
47
47
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
59
59
59
60
61
62
63
63
63
64
65
66
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
79
79
79
80
81
82
83
83
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
95
95
95
95
96
97
98
99
99
99
100
101
102
103
103
103
103
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
109
109
109
110
111
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
117
117
117
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
131
131
131
131
132
133
134
135
135
135
135
136
137
138
139
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
151
151
151
151
152
153
154
155
155
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
167
167
168
169
170
171
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
183
183
183
184
185
186
187
187
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
199
199
199
200
201
202
203
203
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
215
215
215
216
217
218
219
219
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
231
231
232
233
234
235
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
247
247
247
248
249
250
251
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
263
263
264
265
266
267
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
279
279
279
280
281
282
283
283
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
295
295
295
296
297
298
299
299
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
311
311
311
312
313
314
315
315
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
327
327
328
329
330
331
331
331
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
343
343
344
345
346
347
347
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
359
359
359
360
361
362
363
363
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
375
375
376
377
378
379
379
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
391
391
391
392
393
394
395
395
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
407
407
408
409
410
411
411
412
413
414
415
415
415
415
415
415
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
427
427
427
428
429
430
431
431
431
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
443
443
443
444
445
446
447
447
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
459
459
459
460
461
462
463
463
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
475
475
476
477
478
479
479
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
491
491
491
492
493
494
495
495
495
496
497
498
499
499
499
499
499
499
499
499
499
499
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
511
511
511
512
513
514
515
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
527
527
528
529
530
531
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
543
543
544
545
546
547
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
559
559
559
560
561
562
563
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
575
575
576
577
578
579
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
591
591
591
592
593
594
595
595
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
607
607
607
608
609
610
611
611
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
623
623
623
624
625
626
627
627
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
637
637
638
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
639
640
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
647
647
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
659
659
659
660
661
662
663
663
663
664
665
666
667
667
667
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
679
679
680
681
682
683
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
693
693
693
694
695
695
695
695
695
696
697
698
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
711
711
711
712
713
714
715
715
715
716
717
718
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
733
733
733
733
734
735
736
737
737
737
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
753
753
753
754
755
756
757
757
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
769
769
770
771
772
773
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
785
785
785
786
787
788
789
789
789
789
790
791
792
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
805
805
805
806
807
808
809
809
809
810
811
812
813
813
813
813
813
813
813
813
813
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
819
819
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
831
831
831
832
833
834
835
835
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
847
847
848
849
850
851
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
863
863
863
864
865
866
867
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
879
879
879
879
880
881
882
883
883
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
895
895
895
896
897
898
899
899
899
900
901
902
903
903
903
903
903
903
903
903
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
915
915
916
917
918
919
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
933
933
933
933
933
933
934
935
936
937
937
937
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
949
949
949
950
951
952
953
953
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
965
965
965
966
967
968
969
969
969
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
981
981
981
982
983
984
985
985
985
986
987
988
989
989
989
989
989
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1001
1001
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1005
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1021
1021
1021
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1025
1025
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1029
1030
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1061
1061
1061
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1065
1065
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1069
1069
1069
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1075
1075
1075
1076
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1077
1078
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1091
1091
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1095
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1109
1109
1109
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1113
1113
1113
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1117
1118
1119
1119
1119
1119
1119
1119
1119
1119
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1125
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1137
1137
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1141
1141
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1159
1159
1159
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1163
1163
1163
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1177
1177
1177
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1181
1181
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1189
1189
1189
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1195
1195
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1207
1207
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1211
1211
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1229
1229
1229
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1233
1233
1233
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1237
1237
1237
1237
1237
1237
1237
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1249
1249
1249
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1253
1253
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1287
1287
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1291
1291
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1301
1301
1301
1302
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1317
1317
1317
1317
1317
1317
1317
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1321
1321
1321
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1335
1335
1335
1335
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1339
1339
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1355
1355
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1359
1359
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1377
1377
1377
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1381
1381
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1385
1385
1385
1385
1385
1385
1385
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1399
1399
1399
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1403
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1419
1419
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1423
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1441
1441
1441
1441
1441
1441
1441
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1445
1445
1445
1445
1445
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1449
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1461
1461
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1465
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1469
1469
1469
1469
1469
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1483
1483
1483
1483
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1487
1487
1487
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1501
1501
1501
1501
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1505
1505
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1509
1509
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1521
1521
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1525
1525
1525
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1547
1547
1547
1547
1547
1547
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1551
1551
1551
1551
1551
1551
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1565
1565
1565
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1569
1569
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1573
1573
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1585
1585
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1589
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1601
1601
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1605
1605
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1609
1609
1609
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1615
1616
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1617
1618
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1619
1620
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1621
1622
1623
1623
1623
1623
1623
1623
1623
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1637
1637
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1641
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1657
1657
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1661
1661
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1673
1673
1673
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1677
1677
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1689
1689
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1693
1693
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1705
1705
1705
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1709
1709
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1713
1714
1715
1715
1715
1715
1715
1715
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1729
1729
1729
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1733
1733
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1737
1737
1737
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1749
1749
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1753
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1757
1758
1759
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1763
1763
1763
1763
1764
1765
1765
1765
1765
1765
1765
1765
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1771
1771
1772
1773
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1779
1779
1779
1780
1781
1781
1781
1781
1781
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1787
1787
1787
1788
1789
1789
1789
1789
1789
1789
1789
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1795
1795
1795
1795
1795
1795
1795
1795
1796
1797
1797
1797
1797
1797
1797
1798
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1799
1800
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1801
1802
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1803
1804
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1819
1819
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1823
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1835
1835
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1839
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1853
1853
1853
1853
1853
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1857
1857
1857
1857
1857
1857
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1869
1869
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1873
1873
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1877
1877
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1891
1891
1891
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1895
1895
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1907
1907
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1911
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1923
1923
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1927
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1939
1939
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1943
1943
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1957
1957
1957
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1961
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1965
1965
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1983
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1987
1987
1987
1987
1987
1987
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1999
1999
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2003
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2015
2015
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2019
2019
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2023
2023
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2035
2035
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2039
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2051
2051
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2055
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2067
2067
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2071
2071
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2085
2085
2085
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2089
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2103
2103
2103
2103
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2107
2107
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2123
2123
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2139
2139
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2143
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2155
2155
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2159
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2173
2173
2173
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2177
2177
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2181
2181
2181
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2193
2193
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2197
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2209
2209
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2225
2225
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2229
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2241
2241
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2245
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2257
2257
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2261
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2273
2273
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2277
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2289
2289
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2293
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2305
2305
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2309
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2321
2321
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2337
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2353
2353
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2357
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2369
2369
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2385
2385
2385
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2389
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2401
2401
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2405
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2417
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2421
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2433
2433
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2437
2437
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2453
2453
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2457
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2462
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2475
2475
2475
2475
2475
2476
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2493
2493
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2497
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2511
2511
2511
2511
2511
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2515
2515
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2519
2519
2519
2520
2520
2520
2520
2520
2520
2520
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2532
2532
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2548
2548
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2564
2564
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2568
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2580
2580
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2584
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2596
2596
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2600
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2614
2614
2614
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2618
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2634
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2638
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2664
2664
2665
2666
2666
2666
2667
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2668
2669
2670
2670
2670
2670
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2682
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2698
2698
2698
2698
2698
2698
2698
2698
2699
2700
2700
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2712
2712
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2716
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2720
2720
2720
2720
2720
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2726
2726
2726
2727
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2734
2734
2734
2734
2735
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2742
2742
2743
2744
2744
2744
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2750
2750
2751
2752
2752
2752
2752
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2758
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2764
2764
2765
2766
2766
2766
2766
2766
2766
2767
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2768
2769
2770
2770
2770
2770
2770
2770
2770
2770
2771
2772
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2780
2780
2780
2780
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2786
2786
2787
2788
2788
2788
2788
2788
2788
2788
2788
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2802
2802
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2806
2806
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2822
2822
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2826
2826
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2840
2840
2840
2840
2840
2840
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2844
2844
2844
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2848
2848
2848
2848
2848
2849
2850
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2862
2862
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2866
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2880
2880
2880
2880
2880
2880
2880
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2884
2884
2884
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2900
2900
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2904
2904
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2918
2918
2918
2918
2918
2918
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2922
2922
2922
2922
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2926
2926
2927
2928
2928
2928
2928
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2942
2942
2942
2942
2942
2942
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2946
2946
2946
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2962
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2980
2980
2980
2980
2980
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2984
2984
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3000
3000
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3004
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3016
3016
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3020
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3032
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3036
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3050
3050
3050
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3054
3054
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3070
3070
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3074
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3086
3086
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3104
3104
3104
3104
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3124
3124
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3140
3140
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3144
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3156
3156
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3160
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3172
3172
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3176
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3190
3190
3190
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3194
3194
3194
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3210
3210
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3214
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3228
3228
3228
3228
3228
3228
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3232
3232
3232
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3248
3248
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3264
3264
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3280
3280
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3284
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3288
3289
3290
3290
3290
3290
3290
3290
3290
3290
3290
3291
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3304
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3312
3312
3312
3312
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3324
3324
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3328
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3332
3332
3332
3332
3332
3332
3332
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3344
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3348
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3360
3360
3360
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3364
3364
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3376
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3392
3392
3392
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3396
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3408
3408
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3412
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3424
3424
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3428
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3440
3440
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3444
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3448
3448
3448
3448
3448
3448
3448
3449
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3462
3462
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3478
3478
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3482
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3486
3486
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3498
3498
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3502
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3514
3514
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3518
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3530
3530
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3534
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3546
3546
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3550
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3568
3568
3568
3568
3568
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3572
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3586
3586
3586
3586
3586
3586
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3590
3590
3590
3590
3590
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3602
3602
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3606
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3618
3618
3618
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3622
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3634
3634
3634
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3638
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3656
3656
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3660
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3676
3676
3676
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3680
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3698
3698
3698
3698
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3714
3714
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3718
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3730
3730
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3734
3734
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3750
3750
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3754
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3758
3759
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3760
3761
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3808
3808
3808
3808
3808
3808
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3824
3824
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3828
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3840
3840
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3844
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3856
3856
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3860
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3872
3872
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3888
3888
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3892
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3902
3902
3902
3902
3902
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3908
3908
3908
3908
3908
3908
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3914
3914
3914
3915
3916
3916
3916
3916
3916
3916
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3928
3928
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3932
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3944
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3948
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3960
3960
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3964
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3978
3978
3978
3978
3978
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3982
3982
3982
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3986
3986
3986
3986
3986
3986
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3993
3993
3993
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4009
4010
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4011
4012
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4031
4031
4031
4031
4031
4031
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4047
4047
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4063
4063
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4079
4079
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4095
4095
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4099
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4103
4103
4103
4103
4103
4103
4103
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4121
4121
4121
4121
4121
4121
4121
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4137
4137
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4141
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4153
4153
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4157
4157
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4169
4169
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4173
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4177
4177
4177
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4189
4189
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4193
4193
4193
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4211
4211
4211
4211
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4215
4215
4215
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4231
4231
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4235
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4247
4247
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4251
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4265
4265
4265
4265
4265
4265
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4269
4269
4269
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4285
4285
4285
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4289
4289
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4301
4301
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4305
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4321
4321
4321
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4325
4325
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4337
4337
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4341
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4379
4379
4379
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4383
4383
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4395
4395
4395
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4399
4399
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4413
4413
4413
4413
4413
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4417
4417
4417
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4421
4421
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4433
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4437
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4449
4449
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4453
4453
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4457
4457
4457
4457
4457
4457
4458
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4459
4460
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4473
4473
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4477
4477
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4493
4493
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4497
4497
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4515
4515
4515
4515
4515
4515
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4531
4531
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4547
4547
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4563
4563
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4567
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4579
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4583
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4595
4595
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4611
4611
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4627
4627
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4631
4631
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4635
4635
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4647
4647
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4663
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4679
4679
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4695
4695
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4699
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4711
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4715
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4727
4727
4727
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4731
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4752
4752
4752
4752
4752
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4764
4764
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4768
4768
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4778
4778
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4786
4787
4788
4788
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4808
4809
4810
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4816
4816
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4824
4824
4825
4826
4826
4827
4828
4828
4828
4829
4830
4830
4830
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4838
4838
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4846
4846
4846
4846
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4852
4852
4852
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4864
4864
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4868
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4872
4872
4872
4872
4872
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4878
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4890
4890
4890
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4894
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4904
4904
4904
4904
4905
4906
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4912
4912
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4924
4924
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4928
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4938
4938
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4950
4950
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4954
4954
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4964
4965
4966
4966
4966
4966
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4978
4978
4978
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4982
4982
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4992
4992
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5004
5004
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5008
5008
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5018
5018
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5030
5030
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5034
5034
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5044
5044
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5056
5056
5056
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5060
5060
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5070
5070
5070
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5082
5082
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5086
5086
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5096
5096
5096
5097
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5110
5110
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5114
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5136
5136
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5140
5140
5140
5140
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5150
5150
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5162
5162
5162
5162
5162
5162
5162
5163
5164
5164
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5176
5176
5176
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5180
5180
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5184
5184
5184
5184
5184
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5196
5196
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5200
5200
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5212
5212
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5216
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5228
5228
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5244
5244
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5248
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5260
5260
5260
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5264
5264
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5276
5276
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5280
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5284
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5290
5290
5290
5290
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5302
5302
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5306
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5310
5310
5310
5310
5310
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5316
5316
5316
5316
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5350
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5354
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5366
5366
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5370
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5382
5382
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5390
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5402
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5418
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5434
5434
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5438
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5450
5450
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5454
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5466
5466
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5470
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5474
5474
5474
5475
5476
5476
5476
5476
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5482
5482
5483
5484
5484
5484
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5488
5488
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5494
5494
5495
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5500
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5514
5514
5514
5514
5514
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5518
5518
5518
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5532
5532
5532
5532
5532
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5536
5536
5536
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5540
5540
5540
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5560
5560
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5564
5564
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5576
5576
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5592
5592
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5596
5596
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5608
5608
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5612
5612
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5624
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5628
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5640
5640
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5644
5644
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5648
5648
5648
5648
5648
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5656
5656
5656
5656
5656
5656
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5668
5668
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5684
5684
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5688
5688
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5700
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711
5712
5712
5712
5713
5714
5714
5714
5714
5714
5714
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5726
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5730
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5742
5742
5742
5743
5744
5745
5746
5746
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5758
5758
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5778
5778
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5782
5782
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5794
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5798
5798
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5810
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5824
5824
5825
5826
5826
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5838
5838
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5854
5854
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5858
5858
5858
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870
5870
5870
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5874
5874
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5878
5879
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5892
5892
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5896
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5908
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5912
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5924
5924
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5928
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5940
5940
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5956
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971
5972
5972
5972
5972
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976
5976
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5980
5980
5980
5980
5980
5980
5980
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5992
5992
5992
5993
5994
5995
5995
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6007
6007
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011
6011
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6023
6023
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
6027
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6039
6039
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043
6043
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6055
6055
6055
6056
6057
6058
6059
6059
6059
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6071
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6075
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6087
6087
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6091
6091
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6103
6103
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6107
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6119
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
6123
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134
6135
6135
6135
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6139
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6143
6144
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6152
6152
6152
6152
6152
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6164
6164
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6168
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6180
6180
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6184
6184
6185
6186
6187
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6195
6195
6196
6197
6197
6197
6197
6197
6197
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6209
6209
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6213
6213
6214
6215
6215
6215
6216
Madhya 8-1975: Talks Between Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya
Chapter 8
Talks Between Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya
The summary of the Eighth Chapter is given by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura
in the Amrta-pravaha-bhasya.
After visiting the temple of Jiyada-nrsimha,
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to the banks of the River Godavari to a
place known as Vidyanagara. When Srila Ramananda Raya went there to take
his bath, they both met. After being introduced, Sri Ramananda
Raya requested Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to remain in the village for some
days. Honoring his request, Caitanya Mahaprabhu stayed there in the home
of some Vedic brahmanas. In the evening, Srila Ramananda Raya used to
come to see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Ramananda Raya, who was clothed in
ordinary dress, offered the Lord respectful obeisances. Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu questioned him on the object and process of worship and also
asked him to recite verses from Vedic literature.
First of all, Srila Ramananda Raya enunciated the system of the
varnasrama institution. He recited various verses about karmarpana,
stating that everything should be dedicated to the Lord. He then spoke
of detached action, knowledge mixed with devotional service, and finally
the spontaneous loving service of the Lord. After hearing Srila
Ramananda Raya recite some verses, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the
principle of pure devotional service devoid of all the kinds of
speculation. After this, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Ramananda Raya to
explain the higher platform of devotional service. Then Srila Ramananda
Raya explained unalloyed devotional service, love of Godhead,
serving the Lord with pure servitude as well as in
fraternity and parental love. Finally he spoke of serving the Lord in
conjugal love. He then spoke of how conjugal love can be developed in
various ways. This conjugal love attains its highest perfection in
Srimati Radharani's love for Krsna. He next described the position of
Srimati Radharani and the transcendental mellows of love of God. Srila
Ramananda Raya then recited one verse of his own concerning the platform
of ecstatic vision, technically called prema-vilasa-vivarta. Srila
Ramananda Raya also explained that all stages of conjugal love can be
attained through the mercy of the residents of Vrndavana, especially by
the mercy of the gopis. All these subject matters were thus vividly
described. Gradually Ramananda Raya could understand the position of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and when Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu exhibited His real
form, Ramananda Raya fell unconscious. After some days, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu asked Ramananda Raya to retire from government service and
come to Jagannatha Puri. These descriptions of the meetings between
Ramananda Raya and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are taken from the notebook
of Svarupa Damodara Gosvami.
Madhya 8.1
TEXT 1
TEXT
sancarya ramabhidha-bhakta-meghe
sva-bhakti-siddhanta-cayamrtani
gaurabdhir etair amuna vitirnais
taj-jnatva-ratnalayatam prayati
SYNONYMS
sancarya -- by empowering; rama-abhidha -- of the name Rama; bhakta-
meghe -- in the cloudlike devotee Raya; sva-bhakti -- of His own
devotional service; siddhanta -- of conclusions; caya -- all collections;
amrtani -- nectar; gaura-abdhih -- the ocean known as Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; etaih -- by these; amuna -- by the cloud known as Ramananda
Raya; vitirnaih -- distributed; tat-jnatva -- of knowledge of devotional
service; ratna-alayatam -- the quality of being an ocean containing
valuable jewels; prayati -- achieved.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is known as Gauranga, is the reservoir of
all conclusive knowledge in devotional service. He empowered Sri
Ramananda Raya, who may be likened to a cloud of devotional service.
This cloud was filled with all the conclusive purports of
devotional service and was empowered by the ocean to spread this water
over the sea. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself was the ocean of
knowledge of
pure devotional service.
Madhya 8.2
TEXT 2
TEXT
jaya jaya sri-caitanya jaya nityananda
jayadvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories; sri-caitanya -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
jaya -- all glories; nityananda -- to Lord Nityananda; jaya advaita-
candra -- all glories to Advaita Acarya; jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda -- all
glories to the devotees of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TRANSLATION
All glories to Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu! All glories to Lord
Nityananda! All glories to Advaita Acarya! And all glories to all the
devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu!
Madhya 8.3
TEXT 3
TEXT
purva-rite prabhu age gamana karila
'jiyada-nrsimha'-ksetre kata-dine gela
SYNONYMS
purva-rite -- according to His previous program; prabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; age -- ahead; gamana -- going; karila -- did;
jiyada-nrsimha -- of the name Jiyada-nrsimha; ksetre -- at the place of
pilgrimage; kata-dine -- after some days; gela -- arrived.
TRANSLATION
According to His previous program, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went
forward on His tour and after some days arrived at the place of
pilgrimage known as Jiyada-nrsimha.
PURPORT
The Jiyada-nrsimha temple is situated on the top of a hill about five
miles away from Visakha-pattana. There is a railway station on the
South Indian Railway known as Simhacala. The temple known as Simhacala
is the best temple in the vicinity of Visakha-pattana. This temple
is very affluent and is a typical example of the architecture of the
area. In one stone tablet it is mentioned that formerly a queen covered
the Deity with gold plate. This is mentioned in the Visakha-
pattana Gazetteer. About the temple, there are residential quarters for
the priests and devotees. Indeed, at the present moment there are many
residential quarters to accommodate visiting devotees. The original
Deity is situated within the depths of the temple, but there is another
Deity, a duplicate, known as the vijaya-murti. This smaller Deity can be
moved from the temple and taken on public processions. Priests who
generally belong to the Ramanuja-sampradaya are in charge of the Deity
worship.
Madhya 8.4
TEXT 4
TEXT
nrsimha dekhiya kaila dandavat-pranati
premavese kaila bahu nrtya-gita-stuti
SYNONYMS
nrsimha dekhiya -- by seeing Lord Nrsimha in the temple; kaila -- did;
dandavat-pranati -- offering of obeisances, falling flat before the
Deity; premavese -- in ecstatic love; kaila -- did; bahu -- all kinds of;
nrtya -- dancing; gita -- chanting; stuti -- and offering of prayers.
TRANSLATION
After seeing the Deity Lord Nrsimha in the temple, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu offered His respectful obeisances by falling flat. Then, in
ecstatic love, He performed various dances, chanted and offered prayers.
Madhya 8.5
TEXT 5
TEXT
"sri-nrsimha, jaya nrsimha, jaya jaya nrsimha
prahladesa jaya padma-mukha-padma-bhrnga"
SYNONYMS
sri-nrsimha -- Lord Nrsimha with Laksmi; jaya nrsimha -- all glories to
Lord Nrsimha; jaya jaya -- again and again glories; nrsimha -- to
Nrsimhadeva; prahlada-isa -- to the Lord of Prahlada Maharaja; jaya --
all glories; padma -- of the goddess of fortune; mukha-padma -- of the
lotuslike face; bhrnga -- the bee.
TRANSLATION
"All glories to Nrsimhadeva! All glories to Nrsimhadeva, who is the
Lord of Prahlada Maharaja and, like the honeybee, is always engaged in
beholding the lotuslike face of the goddess of fortune.
PURPORT
The goddess of fortune is always embraced by Lord Nrsimhadeva. This is
mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam in the First and Tenth
Cantos by the great commentator Srila Sridhara Svami. The following
verse was composed by Sridhara Svami in his commentary on
Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.1).
vag-isa yasya vadane
laksmir yasya ca vaksasi
yasyaste hrdaye samvit
tam nrsimham aham bhaje
"Lord Nrsimhadeva is always assisted by Sarasvati, the goddess of
learning, and He is always embracing to His chest the goddess of fortune
. The Lord is always complete in knowledge within Himself.
Let us offer obeisances unto Nrsimhadeva."
Similarly, in his commentary on the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.
1.1), Sridhara Svami describes Lord Nrsimhadeva in this way:
prahlada-hrdayahladam
bhaktavidya-vidaranam
sarad-indu-rucim vande
parindra-vadanam harim
"Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Nrsimhadeva, who is always
enlightening Prahlada Maharaja within his heart and who always kills the
nescience that attacks the devotees. His mercy is distributed like
moonshine, and His face is like that of a lion. Let me offer my
obeisances unto Him again and again."
Madhya 8.6
TEXT 6
TEXT
ugro 'py anugra evayam
sva-bhaktanam nr-kesari
kesariva sva-potanam
anyesam ugra-vikramah
SYNONYMS
ugrah -- ferocious; api -- although; anugrah -- not ferocious; eva --
certainly; ayam -- this; sva-bhaktanam -- to His pure devotees; nr-
kesari -- having the body of a human being and a lion; kesari iva --
like a lioness; sva-potanam -- to her young cubs; anyesam -- to others;
ugra -- ferocious; vikramah -- whose strength.
TRANSLATION
"Although very ferocious, the lioness is very kind to her cubs.
Similarly, although very ferocious to nondevotees like Hiranyakasipu,
Lord Nrsimhadeva is very, very soft and kind to devotees like Prahlada
Maharaja."
PURPORT
This verse was composed by Sridhara Svami in his commentary on
Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.1).
Madhya 8.7
TEXT 7
TEXT
ei-mata nana sloka padi' stuti kaila
nrsimha-sevaka mala-prasada ani' dila
SYNONYMS
ei-mata -- in this way; nana -- various; sloka -- verses; padi' --
reciting; stuti -- prayers; kaila -- offered; nrsimha-sevaka -- the
priest of Lord Nrsimhadeva in the temple; mala -- garlands; prasada --
and remnants of the food of Lord Nrsimhadeva; ani' -- bringing; dila --
offered.
TRANSLATION
In this way Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu recited different verses from
the sastra. The priest of Lord Nrsimhadeva then brought garlands and the
remnants of the Lord's food and offered them to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Madhya 8.8
TEXT 8
TEXT
purvavat kona vipre kaila nimantrana
sei ratri tahan rahi' karila gamana
SYNONYMS
purva-vat -- as previously; kona -- some; vipre -- brahmana; kaila --
made; nimantrana -- invitation; sei ratri -- that night; tahan -- there;
rahi' -- staying; karila -- did; gamana -- touring.
TRANSLATION
As usual, a brahmana offered Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu an invitation. The
Lord passed the night in the temple and then commenced His tour again.
Madhya 8.9
TEXT 9
TEXT
prabhate uthiya prabhu calila premavese
dig-vidik nahi jnana ratri-divase
SYNONYMS
prabhate -- in the morning; uthiya -- rising; prabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; calila -- went; prema-avese -- in great ecstatic
love; dik-vidik -- the right or wrong direction; nahi -- there was not;
jnana -- knowledge; ratri-divase -- day and night.
TRANSLATION
The next morning, in the great ecstasy of love, Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu started on His tour with no knowledge of the proper direction,
and He continued the whole day and night.
Madhya 8.10
TEXT 10
TEXT
purvavat 'vaisnava' kari' sarva loka-gane
godavari-tire prabhu aila kata-dine
SYNONYMS
purva-vat -- as previously; vaisnava -- devotees; kari' -- making; sarva
-- all; loka-gane -- the people; godavari-tire -- on the bank of the
River Godavari; prabhu -- the Lord; aila -- arrived; kata-dine -- after
some days.
TRANSLATION
As previously, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu converted to Vaisnavism many
people He met on the road. After some days, the Lord reached the banks
of the River Godavari.
Madhya 8.11
TEXT 11
TEXT
godavari dekhi' ha-ila 'yamuna'-smarana
tire vana dekhi' smrti haila vrndavana
SYNONYMS
godavari -- the River Godavari; dekhi' -- seeing; ha-ila -- there was;
yamuna-smarana -- remembrance of the River Yamuna; tire -- on the banks;
vana -- the forests; dekhi' -- seeing; smrti -- remembrance; haila --
there was; vrndavana -- Sri Vrndavana.
TRANSLATION
When He saw the River Godavari, the Lord remembered the River Yamuna,
and when He saw the forest on the banks of the river, He remembered Sri
Vrndavana-dhama.
Madhya 8.12
TEXT 12
TEXT
sei vane kata-ksana kari' nrtya-gana
godavari para hana tahan kaila snana
SYNONYMS
sei vane -- in that forest; kata-ksana -- for some time; kari' --
performing; nrtya-gana -- dancing and chanting; godavari -- the river;
para hana -- crossing; tahan -- there; kaila -- took; snana -- bath.
TRANSLATION
After performing His usual chanting and dancing for some time in this
forest, the Lord crossed the river and took His bath on the other bank.
Madhya 8.13
TEXT 13
TEXT
ghata chadi' kata-dure jala-sannidhane
vasi' prabhu kare krsna-nama-sankirtane
SYNONYMS
ghata chadi' -- leaving the bathing place; kata-dure -- a short distance
away; jala-sannidhane -- near the water; vasi' -- sitting; prabhu -- the
Lord; kare -- does; krsna-nama-sankirtane -- chanting of the holy name
of Lord Krsna.
TRANSLATION
After bathing in the river, the Lord walked a little distance from the
bathing place and engaged in chanting the holy name of Krsna.
Madhya 8.14
TEXT 14
TEXT
hena-kale dolaya cadi' ramananda raya
snana karibare aila, bajana bajaya
SYNONYMS
hena-kale -- at this time; dolaya cadi' -- riding on a palanquin;
ramananda raya -- Srila Ramananda Raya; snana -- bath; karibare -- to
take; aila -- came there; bajana bajaya -- accompanied by a musical band.
TRANSLATION
At that time, accompanied by the sounds of music, Ramananda Raya came
there mounted on a palanquin to take his bath.
Madhya 8.15
TEXT 15
TEXT
tanra sange bahu aila vaidika brahmana
vidhi-mate kaila tenho snanadi-tarpana
SYNONYMS
tanra sange -- with him; bahu -- many; aila -- came; vaidika --
following the Vedic principles; brahmana -- brahmanas; vidhi-mate --
according to ritualistic ceremonies; kaila -- did; tenho -- he, Srila
Ramananda Raya; snana-adi-tarpana -- bathing and offering oblations, etc.
TRANSLATION
Many brahmanas, following the Vedic principles, accompanied Ramananda
Raya. According to the Vedic rituals, Ramananda Raya took his bath and
offered oblations to his forefathers.
Madhya 8.16
TEXT 16
TEXT
prabhu tanre dekhi' janila -- ei rama-raya
tanhare milite prabhura mana uthi' dhaya
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre -- him; dekhi' -- seeing;
janila -- could understand; ei -- this; rama-raya -- Srila Ramananda
Raya; tanhare -- him; milite -- to meet; prabhura -- of Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; mana -- mind; uthi' -- rising; dhaya -- runs after.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu could understand that the person who had come to
bathe in the river was Ramananda Raya. The Lord wanted so much to meet
him that His mind immediately began running after him.
Madhya 8.17
TEXT 17
TEXT
tathapi dhairya dhari' prabhu rahila vasiya
ramananda aila apurva sannyasi dekhiya
SYNONYMS
tathapi -- still; dhariya dhari' -- keeping patient; prabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rahila -- remained; vasiya -- sitting; ramananda --
Srila Ramananda Raya; aila -- arrived; apurva -- wonderful; sannyasi --
renunciate; dekhiya -- seeing.
TRANSLATION
Although Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was running after him mentally, He
patiently remained sitting. Ramananda Raya, seeing the wonderful
sannyasi, then came to see Him.
Madhya 8.18
TEXT 18
TEXT
surya-sata-sama kanti, aruna vasana
subalita prakanda deha, kamala-locana
SYNONYMS
surya-sata -- hundreds of suns; sama -- like; kanti -- luster; aruna --
saffron; vasana -- garments; subalita -- very strongly built; prakanda --
big; deha -- body; kamala-locana -- eyes like lotus petals.
TRANSLATION
Srila Ramananda Raya then saw Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as brilliant
as a hundred suns. The Lord was covered by a saffron garment. He was
large in body and very strongly built, and His eyes were like lotus
petals.
Madhya 8.19
TEXT 19
TEXT
dekhiya tanhara mane haila camatkara
asiya karila dandavat namaskara
SYNONYMS
dekhiya -- seeing; tanhara -- his; mane -- in the mind; haila -- there
was; camatkara -- wonder; asiya -- coming there; karila -- did; danda-
vat -- like a rod; namaskara -- obeisances.
TRANSLATION
When Ramananda Raya saw the wonderful sannyasi, he was struck with
wonder. He went to Him and immediately offered his respectful obeisances,
falling down flat like a rod.
Madhya 8.20
TEXT 20
TEXT
uthi' prabhu kahe, -- utha, kaha 'krsna' 'krsna'
tare alingite prabhura hrdaya satrsna
SYNONYMS
uthi' -- rising; prabhu -- the Lord; kahe -- said; utha -- get up; kaha -
- chant; krsna krsna -- the holy name of Lord Krsna; tare -- him;
alingite -- to embrace; prabhura -- of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
hrdaya -- the heart; sa-trsna -- very much eager.
TRANSLATION
The Lord stood up and asked Ramananda Raya to arise and chant the holy
name of Krsna. Indeed, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very eager to embrace
him.
Madhya 8.21
TEXT 21
TEXT
tathapi puchila, -- tumi raya ramananda?
tenho kahe, -- sei hana dasa sudra manda
SYNONYMS
tathapi -- still; puchila -- He inquired; tumi -- you; raya ramananda --
Ramananda Raya; tenho kahe -- he replied; sei hana -- I am that; dasa --
servant; sudra -- belonging to the sudra community; manda -- very low.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then inquired whether he was Ramananda Raya, and
he replied, "Yes, I am Your very low servant, and I belong to the sudra
community."
Madhya 8.22
TEXT 22
TEXT
tabe tare kaila prabhu drdha alingana
premavese prabhu-bhrtya donhe acetana
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; tare -- him; kaila -- did; prabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; drdha -- firm; alingana -- embracing; prema-avese --
in ecstatic love; prabhu-bhrtya -- the servant and the master; donhe --
both; acetana -- unconscious.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then embraced Sri Ramananda Raya very firmly.
Indeed, both the master and the servant almost lost consciousness due to
ecstatic love.
Madhya 8.23
TEXT 23
TEXT
svabhavika prema donhara udaya karila
dunha alingiya dunhe bhumite padila
SYNONYMS
svabhavika -- natural; prema -- love; donhara -- of both of them; udaya -
- awakening; karila -- there was; dunha -- both; alingiya -- embracing;
dunhe -- both of them; bhumite -- on the ground; padila -- fell down.
TRANSLATION
Their natural love for one another was awakened in them both, and they
both embraced and fell down on the ground.
PURPORT
Srila Ramananda Raya was an incarnation of the gopi Visakha. Since Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu was Lord Krsna Himself, there was naturally an
awakening of love between Visakha and Krsna. Sri Krsna Caitanya
Mahaprabhu is the combination of Srimati Radharani and Krsna. The
gopi Visakha is a principal gopi assisting Srimati Radharani.
Ramananda Raya and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu embraced
since their natural love also was awakened.
Madhya 8.24
TEXT 24
TEXT
stambha, sveda, asru, kampa, pulaka, vaivarnya
dunhara mukhete suni' gadgada 'krsna' varna
SYNONYMS
stambha -- paralysis; sveda -- perspiration; asru -- tears; kampa --
shivering; pulaka -- palpitations; vaivarnya -- paleness; dunhara -- of
both of them; mukhete -- in the mouth; suni' -- hearing; gadgada --
faltering; krsna varna -- Krsna's name.
TRANSLATION
When they embraced one another, ecstatic symptoms -- paralysis,
perspiration, tears, shivering, palpitations and paleness
-- appeared. The word "Krsna" came from their mouths
falteringly.
Madhya 8.25
TEXT 25
TEXT
dekhiya brahmana-ganera haila camatkara
vaidika brahmana saba karena vicara
SYNONYMS
dekhiya -- seeing this; brahmana-ganera -- of the ritualistic brahmanas;
haila -- there was; camatkara -- wonder; vaidika -- followers of Vedic
ritualistic ceremonies; brahmana -- the brahmanas; saba -- all; karena --
did; vicara -- consideration.
TRANSLATION
When the stereotyped, ritualistic brahmanas who were following the Vedic
principles saw this ecstatic manifestation of love, they were struck
with wonder. All these brahmanas began to reflect as follows.
Madhya 8.26
TEXT 26
TEXT
ei ta' sannyasira teja dekhi brahma-sama
sudre alingiya kene karena krandana
SYNONYMS
ei ta' -- this indeed; sannyasira -- of the sannyasi, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; teja -- bodily effulgence; dekhi -- we see; brahma-sama --
exactly like Brahman; sudre -- a sudra, or worker; alingiya -- embracing;
kene -- why; karena -- does; krandana -- crying.
TRANSLATION
These brahmanas began to think, "We can see that this sannyasi has a
luster like the effulgence of Brahman, but how is it He is crying upon
embracing a sudra, a member of the fourth caste in the social order?"
Madhya 8.27
TEXT 27
TEXT
ei maharaja -- maha-pandita, gambhira
sannyasira sparse matta ha-ila asthira
SYNONYMS
ei maharaja -- this Ramananda Raya, who is the Governor; maha-pandita --
a very learned person; gambhira -- grave; sannyasira sparse -- by
touching a sannyasi; matta -- mad; ha-ila -- became; asthira -- restless.
TRANSLATION
They thought, "This Ramananda Raya is the Governor of Madras, a highly
learned and grave person, a maha-pandita, but upon touching this
sannyasi he has become restless like a madman."
Madhya 8.28
TEXT 28
TEXT
ei-mata vipra-gana bhave mane mana
vijatiya loka dekhi, prabhu kaila samvarana
SYNONYMS
ei-mata -- in this way; vipra-gana -- all the brahmanas; bhave -- think;
mane mana -- within their minds; vijatiya loka -- outside people; dekhi -
- seeing; prabhu -- Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kaila -- did; samvarana --
restraining.
TRANSLATION
While the brahmanas were thinking in this way about the activities of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw
the brahmanas and restrained His transcendental emotions.
PURPORT
Ramananda Raya was intimately related to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
therefore he can be accepted as a sajatiya, a person within the intimate
circle of the Lord. The brahmanas, however, were followers of the Vedic
rituals and were not able to have an intimate connection with Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Consequently they are called vijatiya-loka. In
other words, they were not pure devotees. One may be a highly learned
brahmana, but if he is not a pure devotee he is a vijatiya, an outcaste,
one outside devotional service -- in other words, a nondevotee. Although
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya were embracing in ecstasy,
the Lord restrained His transcendental emotions upon seeing the outsider
brahmanas.
Madhya 8.29
TEXT 29
TEXT
sustha hana dunhe sei sthanete vasila
tabe hasi' mahaprabhu kahite lagila
SYNONYMS
su-stha hana -- becoming steady; dunhe -- both of them; sei -- that;
sthanete -- in the place; vasila -- sat down; tabe -- then; hasi' --
smiling; mahaprabhu -- Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kahite -- to speak; lagila --
began.
TRANSLATION
When they regained their sanity, they both sat down, and Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu began to smile and speak as follows.
Madhya 8.30
TEXT 30
TEXT
'sarvabhauma bhattacarya kahila tomara gune
tomare milite more karila yatane
SYNONYMS
sarvabhauma bhattacarya -- of the name Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; kahila --
has spoken; tomara -- your; gune -- good qualities; tomare -- you;
milite -- to meet; more -- Me; karila -- made; yatane -- endeavor.
TRANSLATION
"Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya has spoken of your good qualities, and he has
made a great endeavor to convince Me to meet you.
Madhya 8.31
TEXT 31
TEXT
toma milibare mora etha agamana
bhala haila, anayase pailun darasana'
SYNONYMS
toma -- you; milibare -- to meet; mora -- My; etha -- here; agamana --
coming; bhala haila -- it was very good; anayase -- without difficulty;
pailun -- I have gotten; darasana -- interview.
TRANSLATION
"Indeed, I have come here just to meet you. It is very good that even
without making an effort I have gotten your interview here."
Madhya 8.32
TEXT 32
TEXT
raya kahe, -- sarvabhauma kare bhrtya-jnana
parokseha mora hite haya savadhana
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; sarvabhauma -- Sarvabhauma
Bhattacarya; kare -- does; bhrtya-jnana -- thinks of me as his servant;
parokseha -- in my absence; mora -- of me; hite -- for the benefit; haya
-- is; savadhana -- always careful.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya replied, "Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya thinks of me as his
servant. Even in my absence he is very careful to do me good.
Madhya 8.33
TEXT 33
TEXT
tanra krpaya painu tomara darasana
aji saphala haila mora manusya-janama
SYNONYMS
tanra krpaya -- by his mercy; painu -- I have gotten; tomara -- Your;
darasana -- interview; aji -- today; sa-phala -- successful; haila --
has become; mora -- my; manusya-janama -- birth as a human being.
TRANSLATION
"By his mercy I have received Your interview here. Consequently I
consider that today I have become a successful human being.
Madhya 8.34
TEXT 34
TEXT
sarvabhaume tomara krpa, -- tara ei cihna
asprsya sparsile hana tanra premadhina
SYNONYMS
sarvabhaume -- unto Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; tomara -- Your; krpa --
mercy; tara -- of such mercy; ei -- this; cihna -- the symptom; asprsya -
- untouchable; sparsile -- You have touched; hana -- becoming; tanra --
his; prema-adhina -- influenced by love.
TRANSLATION
"I can see that You have bestowed special mercy upon Sarvabhauma
Bhattacarya. Therefore You have touched me, although I am untouchable.
This is due only to his love for You.
Madhya 8.35
TEXT 35
TEXT
kahan tumi -- saksat isvara narayana
kahan muni -- raja-sevi visayi sudradhama
SYNONYMS
kahan -- whereas; tumi -- You; saksat -- directly; isvara narayana --
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kahan -- whereas; muni -- I; raja-
sevi -- government servant; visayi -- materialist; sudra-adhama -- worse
than a sudra, or fourth-class man.
TRANSLATION
"You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana Himself, and I am
only a government servant interested in materialistic activities. Indeed,
I am the lowest amongst men of the fourth caste.
Madhya 8.36
TEXT 36
TEXT
mora sparse na karile ghrna, veda-bhaya
mora darsana toma vede nisedhaya
SYNONYMS
mora -- of me; sparse -- by the touch; na -- not; karile -- You did;
ghrna -- hatred; veda-bhaya -- afraid of injunctions of the Vedas;
mora -- of me; darsana -- seeing; toma -- You; vede -- the Vedic
injunctions; nisedhaya -- forbid.
TRANSLATION
"You do not fear the Vedic injunctions stating that You should not
associate with a sudra. You were not contemptuous of my touch, although
in the Vedas You are forbidden to associate with sudras.
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita (9.32) the Lord says:
mam hi partha vyapasritya
ye 'pi syuh papa-yonayah
striyo vaisyas tatha sudras
te 'pi yanti param gatim
"O son of Prtha, those who take shelter in Me, though they be of lower
birth -- women, vaisyas [merchants], as well as sudras [workers] -- can
approach the supreme destination."
The word papa-yonayah means "born of lower caste women." The vaisyas
are merchants, and the sudras or workers are servants. According
to Vedic classifications, they belong to a lower
social order. A low life means a life without Krsna consciousness. High
and low positions in society were calculated by considering a person's
Krsna consciousness. A brahmana is considered to be on the highest
platform because he knows Brahman, the Absolute Truth. The second caste,
the ksatriya caste, also know Brahman, but not as well as the brahmanas.
The vaisyas and sudras do not clearly understand God consciousness, but
if they take to Krsna consciousness by the mercy of Krsna and the
spiritual master, they do not remain in the lower castes (papa-yonayah).
It is clearly stated: te 'pi yanti param gatim.
Unless one has attained the highest standard of life, one cannot return
home, back to Godhead. One may be a sudra, vaisya or woman, but if he
is situated in the service of the Lord in Krsna consciousness, he
should not be considered stri, sudra, vaisya or one lower than a sudra.
A person engaged in the
Lord's service -- though from a lowborn family -- should never be
considered to belong to a lowborn family. The Padma Purana forbids:
viksate jati-samanyat/ sa yati narakam dhruvam. A person goes to hell
quickly when he considers a devotee of the Lord in terms of birth.
Although Sri Ramananda Raya supposedly took birth in a sudra family, he
is not to be considered a sudra, for he was a great advanced devotee.
Indeed, he was on the transcendental platform. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
therefore embraced him. Out of spiritual humility, Sri Ramananda Raya
presented himself as a sudra (raja-sevi visayi sudradhama). Even though
one may engage in government service or in any other pound-shilling-
pence business -- in short, in materialistic life -- he need only take
to Krsna consciousness. Krsna consciousness is a very simple process.
One need only chant the holy names of the Lord and strictly follow the
principles forbidding sinful activity. In this way one can no longer be
considered an untouchable, a visayi or a sudra. One who is advanced in
spiritual life should not associate with nondevotees -- namely men in
government service and men engaged in materialistic activity for sense
gratification or in the service of others. Such men are considered
visayi, materialistic. It is said:
niskincanasya bhagavad-bhajanonmukhasya
param param jigamisor bhava-sagarasya
sandarsanam visayinam atha yositam ca
ha hanta hanta visa-bhaksanato 'py asadhu
"A person who is very seriously engaged in cultivating devotional
service with a view to crossing the ocean of nescience and who has
completely abandoned all material activities should never see a sudra, a
vaisya or a woman." (Sri Caitanya-candrodaya-nataka 8.23)
Madhya 8.37
TEXT 37
TEXT
tomara krpaya tomaya karaya nindya-karma
saksat isvara tumi, ke jane tomara marma
SYNONYMS
tomara krpaya -- Your mercy; tomaya -- unto You; karaya -- induces;
nindya-karma -- forbidden actions; saksat isvara -- directly the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; tumi -- You; ke jane -- who can know; tomara --
Your; marma -- purpose.
TRANSLATION
"You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself; therefore no one
can understand Your purpose. By Your mercy, You are touching me,
although this is not sanctioned by the Vedas.
PURPORT
A sannyasi is strictly forbidden to see the visayis and materialistic
people. However, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, out of His boundless and
causeless mercy, could show favor to anyone, regardless of birth and
position.
Madhya 8.38
TEXT 38
TEXT
ama nistarite tomara ihan agamana
parama-dayalu tumi patita-pavana
SYNONYMS
ama nistarite -- to deliver me; tomara -- Your; ihan -- here; agamana --
appearance; parama-dayalu -- greatly merciful; tumi -- You; patita-
pavana -- the deliverer of all fallen souls.
TRANSLATION
"You have come here specifically to deliver me. You are so merciful that
You alone can deliver all fallen souls.
PURPORT
Srila Narottama dasa Thakura sings in his Prarthana (40):
sri-krsna-caitanya-prabhu daya kara more,
toma vina ke dayalu jagat samsare
patita-pavana-hetu tava avatara,
mo-sama patita prabhu na paibe ara
"My dear Lord, please be merciful to me. Who can be more merciful than
Your Lordship within these three worlds? You appear as an incarnation
just to reclaim the conditioned, fallen souls, but I assure You that You
will not find a soul more fallen than me."
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's specific mission is to deliver fallen souls.
Of course, in this age of Kali there is hardly anyone who is not fallen
according to the calculations of Vedic behavior. In His instructions to
Rupa Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu described the so-called followers
of Vedic religion in this way (Madhya 19.146):
veda-nistha-madhye ardheka veda 'mukhe' mane
veda-nisiddha papa kare, dharma nahi gane
So-called followers of Vedic principles simply accept the Vedas formally,
but they act against Vedic principles. This is symptomatic of this age
of Kali. People claim to follow a certain type of religion, saying
formally, "I am Hindu, I am Muslim, I am Christian, I am this or
that," but actually no one follows the principles enunciated in
religious scriptures. This is the disease of this age. However, the
merciful Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has simply advised us to chant the Hare
Krsna maha-mantra: harer nama harer nama harer nama eva kevalam
. The Lord can deliver anyone and everyone, even though one
may have fallen from the injunctions of revealed scriptures. This is Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu's special mercy. Consequently He is known as patita-
pavana, the deliverer of all fallen souls.
Madhya 8.39
TEXT 39
TEXT
mahanta-svabhava ei tarite pamara
nija karya nahi tabu yana tara ghara
SYNONYMS
mahanta-svabhava -- the nature of saintly persons; ei -- this; tarite --
to deliver; pamara -- fallen souls; nija -- own; karya -- business; nahi
-- there is not; tabu -- still; yana -- goes; tara -- his; ghara --
house.
TRANSLATION
"It is the general practice of all saintly people to deliver the fallen.
Therefore they go to people's houses, although they have no personal
business there.
PURPORT
A sannyasi is supposed to beg from door to door. He does not beg simply
because he is hungry. His real purpose is to enlighten the occupant of
every house by preaching Krsna consciousness. A sannyasi does not
abandon his superior position and become a beggar just for the sake of
begging. Similarly, a person in householder life may be very important,
but he may also voluntarily take to the mendicant way of life. Rupa
Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami were ministers, but they voluntarily
accepted the mendicant's life in order to humbly preach Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu's message. It is said about them: tyaktva turnam asesa-
mandala-pati-srenim sada tucchavat bhutva dina-ganesakau karunaya
kaupina-kanthasritau. Although the Gosvamis were very aristocratic,
they became mendicants just to
deliver the fallen souls according to the order of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu. One should also consider that those who engage in the
missionary activities of Krsna consciousness are under the
guidance of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. They are not actually beggars;
their real business is to deliver fallen souls. Therefore they may go
from door to door just to introduce a book about Krsna consciousness so
that people can become enlightened by reading. Formerly brahmacaris and
sannyasis used to beg from door to door. At the present moment,
especially in the Western countries, a person may be handed over to the
police if he begs from door to door. In Western countries, begging is
considered criminal. Members of the Krsna consciousness movement have no
business begging. Instead, they work very hard to introduce some
literatures about Krsna consciousness so that people can read them and
be benefited. However, if one gives some contribution to a Krsna
conscious man, he never refuses it.
Madhya 8.40
TEXT 40
TEXT
mahad-vicalanam nrnam
grhinam dina-cetasam
nihsreyasaya bhagavan
nanyatha kalpate kvacit
SYNONYMS
mahat-vicalanam -- the wandering of saintly persons; nrnam -- of human
beings; grhinam -- who are householders; dina-cetasam -- low-minded;
nihsreyasaya -- for the ultimate benefit; bhagavan -- O my Lord; na
anyatha -- not any other purpose; kalpate -- one imagines; kvacit -- at
any time.
TRANSLATION
"'My dear Lord, sometimes great saintly persons go to the homes of
householders, although these householders are generally low-minded. When
a saintly person visits their homes, one can understand that it is for
no other purpose than to benefit the householders.'
PURPORT
This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.4).
Madhya 8.41
TEXT 41
TEXT
amara sange brahmanadi sahasreka jana
tomara darsane sabara dravi-bhuta mana
SYNONYMS
amara sange -- with me; brahmana-adi -- brahmanas and others; sahasreka -
- more than one thousand; jana -- persons; tomara -- of You; darsane --
in seeing; sabara -- of all of them; dravi-bhuta -- became melted; mana -
- the hearts.
TRANSLATION
"Along with me there are about a thousand men -- including the brahmanas
-- and all of them appear to have had their hearts melted simply by
seeing You.
Madhya 8.42
TEXT 42
TEXT
'krsna' 'krsna' nama suni sabara vadane
sabara anga -- pulakita, asru -- nayane
SYNONYMS
krsna krsna -- Krsna, Krsna; nama -- the holy name; suni -- I hear;
sabara -- of everyone; vadane -- in the mouths; sabara -- of all; anga --
the bodies; pulakita -- gladdened; asru -- tears; nayane -- in the eyes.
TRANSLATION
"I hear everyone chanting the holy name of Krsna. Everyone's body is
thrilled with ecstasy, and there are tears in everyone's eyes.
Madhya 8.43
TEXT 43
TEXT
akrtye-prakrtye tomara isvara-laksana
jive na sambhave ei aprakrta guna
SYNONYMS
akrtye -- in bodily features; prakrtye -- in behavior; tomara -- of You;
isvara -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; laksana -- the symptoms;
jive -- in an ordinary living being; na -- not; sambhave -- possible;
ei -- these; aprakrta -- transcendental; guna -- qualities.
TRANSLATION
"My dear sir, according to Your bodily features and Your behavior,
You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such behavior and features
are impossible for ordinary living beings, for they cannot possess such
transcendental qualities."
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's bodily features were uncommon. Indeed, His
body was extraordinary in its measurements. The measurement of His chest
as well as the measurement of His forearms were the same length. This
is called nyagrodha-parimandala. As far as His nature is concerned, He
was kind to everyone. No one but the Supreme Personality of Godhead can
be kind to everyone. Therefore the Lord's name is Krsna, all-attractive.
As stated in Bhagavad-gita (14.4), Krsna is kind to
everyone. In every species of life (sarva-yonisu), He is the original
father, the seed-giver (bija-pradah pita). How, then, can He be unkind
to any living entity? One may be a man, an animal or even a tree, but
the Lord is kind to everyone. That is God's qualification. He also says
in Bhagavad-gita (9.29), samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu: the Lord is
equally kind to everyone. And He advises sarva-dharman parityajya mam
ekam saranam vraja
. This instruction is meant not only for Arjuna
but for all living entities. Whoever takes advantage of this offer is
immediately immune to all sinful activity and returns home, back to
Godhead. While present on this planet, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu made the
same offer.
Madhya 8.44
TEXT 44
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- tumi maha-bhagavatottama
tomara darsane sabara drava haila mana
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord replied; tumi -- you; maha-bhagavata-uttama --
the best of the topmost devotees; tomara darsane -- by seeing you;
sabara -- of everyone; drava -- melted; haila -- became; mana -- the
heart.
TRANSLATION
The Lord replied to Ramananda Raya: "Sir, you are the best of the
topmost devotees; therefore upon seeing you everyone'
s heart has melted.
PURPORT
Unless one is a first-class devotee, he cannot be a preacher. A preacher
is generally a topmost devotee, but in order to meet the general
populace, he has to come to distinguish between devotees and nondevotees.
Otherwise, an advanced devotee makes no such distinctions. Indeed, he
always sees everyone engaged in the service of the Lord. When
one engages in preaching work, he must distinguish between people and
understand that some people are not engaged in the devotional service of
the Lord. The preacher then has to take compassion upon such innocent
people who do not know how to worship the Lord. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.
2.45), the symptoms of a topmost devotee are described as follows:
sarva-bhutesu yah pasyed
bhagavad-bhavam atmanah
bhutani bhagavaty atmany
esa bhagavatottamah
"The advanced devotee sees that all living entities are part and parcel
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone is in Krsna, and Krsna
is also within everyone. Such a vision is possible only for a person who
is very advanced in devotional service."
Madhya 8.45
TEXT 45
TEXT
anyera ki katha, ami -- 'mayavadi sannyasi'
amiha tomara sparse krsna-preme bhasi
SYNONYMS
anyera -- of others; ki katha -- what to speak; ami -- I; mayavadi
sannyasi -- a sannyasi of the Mayavadi sect; amiha -- I; tomara -- of
you; sparse -- by the touch; krsna -- of Krsna; preme -- in love; bhasi -
- float.
TRANSLATION
"Although I am a Mayavadi sannyasi, a nondevotee, I am also floating in
the ocean of love of Krsna simply by touching you. And what to speak of
others?
Madhya 8.46
TEXT 46
TEXT
ei jani' kathina mora hrdaya sodhite
sarvabhauma kahilena tomare milite
SYNONYMS
ei jani' -- knowing this; kathina -- very hard; mora -- My; hrdaya --
heart; sodhite -- to rectify; sarvabhauma -- Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya;
kahilena -- asked; tomare -- you; milite -- to meet.
TRANSLATION
"Knowing this, in order to rectify My
heart, which is very hard, Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya asked Me to meet you."
Madhya 8.47
TEXT 47
TEXT
ei-mata dunhe stuti kare dunhara guna
dunhe dunhara darasane anandita mana
SYNONYMS
ei-mata -- in this way; dunhe -- both of them; stuti -- praise; kare --
offer; dunhara -- of both of them; guna -- qualities; dunhe -- both of
them; dunhara -- of both of them; darasane -- by the seeing; anandita --
pleased; mana -- the minds.
TRANSLATION
In this way each of them praised the qualities of the other, and both of
them were pleased to see one another.
Madhya 8.48
TEXT 48
TEXT
hena-kale vaidika eka vaisnava brahmana
dandavat kari' kaila prabhure nimantrana
SYNONYMS
hena-kale -- at this time; vaidika -- a follower of the Vedic
ritualistic ceremonies; eka -- one; vaisnava brahmana -- a brahmana
following Vaisnava principles; dandavat -- obeisances offered by falling
flat; kari' -- offering; kaila -- made; prabhure -- unto Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nimantrana -- invitation.
TRANSLATION
At this time, one brahmana Vaisnava, following the Vedic principles,
came and offered obeisances. He fell flat before Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
and invited Him for lunch.
Madhya 8.49
TEXT 49
TEXT
nimantrana manila tanre vaisnava janiya
ramanande kahe prabhu isat hasiya
SYNONYMS
nimantrana -- the invitation; manila -- accepted; tanre -- him (the
brahmana); vaisnava -- a devotee; janiya -- understanding; ramanande --
unto Ramananda; kahe -- said; prabhu -- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; isat --
a little; hasiya -- smiling.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the brahmana's invitation, knowing
him to be a devotee, and, slightly smiling, spoke as follows
to Ramananda Raya.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the invitation of the Vaisnava brahmana.
Even though one is a brahmana strictly following all the rules and
regulations of brahminical culture, if he is not a devotee, a follower
of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, one should not accept his invitation. At the
present moment, people have become so degraded that they do not even
follow the Vedic principles, to say nothing of Vaisnava principles. They
eat anything and everything -- whatever they like -- and therefore the
members of this Krsna consciousness movement should be very cautious
about accepting invitations.
Madhya 8.50
TEXT 50
TEXT
tomara mukhe krsna-katha sunite haya mana
punarapi pai yena tomara darasana
SYNONYMS
tomara mukhe -- in your mouth; krsna-katha -- talks on Krsna; sunite --
to hear; haya -- there is; mana -- My mind; punarapi -- again; pai -- I
may get; yena -- if possible; tomara -- your; darasana -- interview.
TRANSLATION
"I wish to hear from you about Lord Krsna. Indeed, My mind is inclined
to desire this; therefore I wish to see you again."
Madhya 8.51-52
TEXTS 51-52
TEXT
raya kahe, aila yadi pamara sodhite
darsana-matre suddha nahe mora dusta citte
dina panca-sata rahi' karaha marjana
tabe suddha haya mora ei dusta mana
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; aila -- You have come; yadi --
although; pamara -- a fallen soul; sodhite -- to rectify; darsana-matre -
- simply seeing You; suddha nahe -- not purified; mora -- my; dusta --
polluted; citte -- consciousness; dina -- days; panca-sata -- five or
seven; rahi' -- staying; karaha -- kindly do; marjana -- cleansing; tabe
-- then; suddha -- pure; haya -- it is; mora -- my; ei -- this; dusta --
polluted; mana -- mind.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya replied, "My Lord, although You have come to correct me,
a fallen soul, my mind is not yet purified simply by seeing You. Please
stay for five or seven days and kindly cleanse my polluted mind. After
that much time, my mind will certainly be pure."
Madhya 8.53
TEXT 53
TEXT
yadyapi viccheda donhara sahana na yaya
tathapi dandavat kari' calila rama-raya
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; viccheda -- separation; donhara -- of both of them;
sahana -- toleration; na -- not; yaya -- possible; tathapi -- still;
dandavat -- obeisances; kari' -- offering; calila -- departed; rama-raya
-- Ramananda Raya.
TRANSLATION
Although neither could tolerate the other's separation,
Ramananda Raya nonetheless offered his obeisances to Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu and departed.
Madhya 8.54
TEXT 54
TEXT
prabhu yai' sei vipra-ghare bhiksa kaila
dui janara utkanthaya asi' sandhya haila
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yai' -- going; sei -- that;
vipra-ghare -- to the house of the brahmana; bhiksa -- lunch; kaila --
accepted; dui -- two; janara -- of the persons; utkanthaya -- in the
impatience; asi' -- coming; sandhya -- evening; haila -- appeared.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then went to the house of the brahmana who
had invited Him and took His lunch there. When the evening of that day
arrived, both Ramananda Raya and the Lord were eager to meet one
another again.
Madhya 8.55
TEXT 55
TEXT
prabhu snana-krtya kari' achena vasiya
eka-bhrtya-sange raya milila asiya
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- the Lord; snana-krtya -- the daily duty of bathing; kari' --
finishing; achena -- was; vasiya -- sitting; eka -- one; bhrtya --
servant; sange -- with; raya -- Raya Ramananda; milila -- met; asiya --
coming.
TRANSLATION
After finishing His evening bath, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu sat down and
waited for Ramananda Raya to come. Then Ramananda Raya, accompanied by
one servant, came to meet Him.
PURPORT
A Vaisnava who is supposed to be advanced in spiritual understanding --
be he a householder or sannyasi -- must bathe three times a day:
morning, noon and evening. When one is engaged in the service of the
Deity, he must especially follow the principles of Padma Purana and
take regular baths. He should also, after bathing, decorate his body
with the twelve tilakas.
Madhya 8.56
TEXT 56
TEXT
namaskara kaila raya, prabhu kaila alingane
dui jane krsna-katha kaya rahah-sthane
SYNONYMS
namaskara -- obeisances; kaila -- offered; raya -- Ramananda Raya;
prabhu -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kaila -- did; alingane --
embracing; dui -- two; jane -- the persons; krsna-katha -- talks about
Krsna; kaya -- discussed; rahah-sthane -- in a secluded place.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya approached Lord Sri Caitanya and offered his respectful
obeisances, and the Lord embraced him. Then they both began to discuss
Krsna in a secluded place.
PURPORT
The word rahah-sthane, "in a secluded place," is very significant. Talks
about Krsna and His pastimes -- especially His pastimes in Vrndavana and
His dealings with the gopis -- are all very confidential. They are not
subject matter for public discussion because those who have no
understanding of the transcendental nature of Krsna's pastimes always
commit great offenses, thinking Krsna to be an ordinary human being and
the gopis ordinary girls. Following the principle of Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, who never discussed the dealings between Krsna and the gopis
publicly, devotees in the Krsna consciousness movement are enjoined not
to discuss the pastimes of Lord Krsna in Vrndavana in public. For the
general public, sankirtana is the most effective method to awaken Krsna
consciousness. If possible, one should discuss the principles enunciated
in Bhagavad-gita. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu followed this principle
very strictly and discussed the philosophy of Bhagavad-gita with
learned scholars like Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya and Prakasananda Sarasvati.
However, He taught the principles of the bhakti cult to students like
Sanatana Gosvami and Rupa Gosvami, and He discussed with Sri Ramananda
Raya the topmost devotional dealings between Krsna and the gopis. For
the general populace, He performed sankirtana very vigorously. We must
also follow these principles in preaching Krsna consciousness all over
the world.
Madhya 8.57
TEXT 57
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "pada sloka sadhyera nirnaya"
raya kahe, -- "sva-dharmacarane visnu-bhakti haya"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; pada -- just recite;
sloka -- a verse from the revealed scriptures; sadhyera -- of the aim of
life; nirnaya -- an ascertainment; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied;
sva-dharma-acarane -- by executing one's occupational duty; visnu-bhakti
-- devotional service to Lord Visnu; haya -- there is.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu ordered Ramananda Raya to recite a verse
from the revealed scriptures concerning the ultimate goal of life.
Ramananda replied that if one executes the prescribed duties of his
social position, he awakens his original Krsna consciousness.
PURPORT
In this connection, Sri Ramanujacarya stated in the Vedartha-sangraha
that devotional service is naturally very dear to the living entity.
Indeed, it is life's goal. This devotional service is supreme knowledge,
or Krsna consciousness, and it brings detachment from all material
activity. In the transcendental position, a living being can perfectly
acknowledge the superiority of serving the Supreme Lord. The devotees
attain the Supreme Lord only by devotional service. Having such
knowledge, one engages in his occupational duty, and that is called
bhakti-yoga. By performing bhakti-yoga, one can rise to the platform of
pure devotional service.
A great saint, the father of Srila Vyasadeva, Parasara Muni, has
specifically mentioned that devotional service to the Lord can
ultimately be awakened in human society by the discharge of duties in
accordance with the varnasrama. The Supreme Personality of
Godhead instituted varnasrama-dharma to give human beings a chance to
return home, back to Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord
Sri Krsna, who is known in Bhagavad-gita as Purusottama -- the
greatest of all personalities -- personally came and declared that the
institution of varnasrama-dharma was founded by Him. As stated in
Bhagavad-gita (4.13):
caturvarnyam maya srstam
guna-karma-vibhagasah
tasya kartaram api mam
viddhy akartaram avyayam
Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (18.45-46) the Lord says:
sve sve karmany abhiratah
samsiddhim labhate narah
sva-karma-niratah siddhim
yatha vindati tac chrnu
yatah pravrttir bhutanam
yena sarvam idam tatam
sva-karmana tam abhyarcya
siddhim vindati manavah
Human society should be divided into four divisions -- brahmana,
ksatriya, vaisya and sudra -- and everyone should always engage in his
occupational duty. The Lord says that those engaged in their
occupational duty can attain perfection simply by rendering loving
devotional service to the Lord while executing their particular duty.
Actually the modern ideal of a classless society can be introduced only
by Krsna consciousness. Let men perform their occupational duty, and let
them give their profits to the service of the Lord. In other words, one
can attain the perfection of life by discharging one's occupational duty
and employing the results in the service of the Lord. This method is
confirmed by great personalities like Bodhayana, Tanka, Dramida,
Guhadeva, Kapardi and Bharuci. It is also confirmed by Vedanta-sutra.
Madhya 8.58
TEXT 58
TEXT
varnasramacaravata
purusena parah puman
visnur aradhyate pantha
nanyat tat-tosa-karanam
SYNONYMS
varna-asrama-acaravata -- who behaves according to the system of
four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life;
purusena -- by a man; parah -- the supreme; puman -- person; visnuh --
Lord Visnu; aradhyate -- is worshiped; pantha -- way; na -- not; anyat --
another; tat-tosa-karanam -- cause of satisfying the Lord.
TRANSLATION
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, is worshiped by the
proper execution of prescribed duties in the system of varna and asrama.
There is no other way to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One
must be situated in the institution of the four varnas and asramas."
PURPORT
This is a quotation from the Visnu Purana (3.8.9). As stated by Srila
Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya: "The purport is that
one can realize life's perfection simply by satisfying the Supreme
Personality of Godhead." This is also confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.
2.13):
atah pumbhir dvija-srestha
varnasrama-vibhagasah
svanusthitasya dharmasya
samsiddhir hari-tosanam
"O best among the twiceborn, it is therefore concluded that the
highest perfection one can achieve, by discharging his prescribed
duties [dharma] according to caste divisions and order
of life, is to please the Lord Hari."
Every man should perform his occupational duty in the light of his
particular tendency. According to his abilities, one should accept a
position in the varnasrama institution. The divisions of brahmana,
ksatriya, vaisya and sudra are natural divisions within society. Indeed,
everyone has a prescribed duty according to the varnasrama-dharma. Those
who properly execute their prescribed duties live peacefully and are not
disturbed by material conditions. The spiritual orders -- brahmacarya,
grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa -- are called asramas. If one
executes his prescribed duty in both the social and spiritual order,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead is satisfied. If one neglects his
duties, however, he becomes a transgressor and a candidate for a hellish
condition. Actually we see that different people are engaged in
different ways; therefore there must be divisions according to work. To
attain perfection, one must make devotional service the center of life.
In this way one can awaken his natural instincts by work, association
and education. One should accept the varnasrama divisions by
qualification, not by birth. Unless this system is introduced, human
activities cannot be systematically executed.
The brahmanas are the intellectuals who can understand the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. They are always engaged in the cultivation of
knowledge. It does not matter whether one is born in India or outside
India. Those who are naturally very heroic and who tend to rule over
others are called ksatriyas. Those who tend to produce food by
agricultural methods, protect cows and other animals and engage in trade
are called vaisyas, or merchants. Those who are not sufficiently
intelligent to be brahmanas, ksatriyas or vaisyas are required to serve
a master and are called sudras. Thus everyone can engage in the service
of the Lord and Krsna consciousness. If a society
does not function according to such natural divisions, the social orders
become degraded. The conclusion is that the scientific method of
varnasrama-dharma should be adopted by society.
Madhya 8.59
TEXT 59
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho bahya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, "krsne karmarpana -- sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho -- this; bahya -- external; age --
ahead; kaha -- say; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Sri Ramananda Raya said;
krsne -- unto Krsna; karma-arpana -- offering the results of activities;
sarva-sadhya-sara -- the essence of all means of perfection.
TRANSLATION
The Lord replied, "This is external. You had better tell Me of some
other means." Ramananda replied, "To offer the results of one's
activities to Krsna is the essence of all perfection."
Madhya 8.60
TEXT 60
TEXT
yat karosi yad asnasi
yaj juhosi dadasi yat
yat tapasyasi kaunteya
tat kurusva mad-arpanam
SYNONYMS
yat -- whatever; karosi -- you do; yat -- whatever; asnasi -- you eat;
yat -- whatever; juhosi -- you offer in sacrifice; dadasi -- you give in
charity; yat -- whatever; yat -- whatever; tapasyasi -- you perform as
austerity; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; tat -- that; kurusva -- just do;
mat -- unto Me; arpanam -- offering.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, "'O son of Kunti, all that you do,
all that you eat, all that you offer and
give away, as well as all
austerities that you may perform, should be done as an
offering unto Me.'"
PURPORT
The Lord has said that the varnasrama-dharma is not properly executed in
this age of Kali; therefore He ordered Ramananda Raya to go further into
the matter. Ramananda replied with this verse from Bhagavad-gita (9.
27) that while remaining in the system of varnasrama-
dharma, one may offer the results of his activities to Lord Sri Krsna in
loving service. Naturally Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was asking
Ramananda Raya about the execution of devotional service. Ramananda Raya
first enunciated the principle of varnasrama-dharma in consideration of
materialistic people. However, this conception is not transcendental. As
long as one is in the material world, he must follow the principles of
varnasrama-dharma, but devotional service is transcendental. The system
of varnasrama-dharma refers to the three modes of material nature, but
transcendental devotional service is on the absolute platform. Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu belonged to the spiritual world, and His methods for
propagating the sankirtana movement were also imported from the
spiritual world. Srila Narottama dasa Thakura has sung: golokera prema-
dhana, hari-nama-sankirtana, rati na janmila kene taya. This states that
the sankirtana movement has nothing to do with this material world. It
is imported from the spiritual world, Goloka Vrndavana. Narottama dasa
Thakura laments that mundane people do not take this sankirtana movement
seriously. Considering the position of devotional service and the
sankirtana movement, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu deemed the system of
varnasrama-dharma to be material, although it aims at elevation to the
spiritual platform. However, the sankirtana movement can raise one
immediately to the spiritual platform. Consequently it is said that
varnasrama-dharma is external, and Caitanya Mahaprabhu requested
Ramananda Raya to proceed deeper into the matter and uncover the
spiritual platform.
Sometimes materialists consider Lord Visnu a material conception.
Impersonalists think that above Lord Visnu is the impersonal Brahman.
The impersonalists misunderstand the worship of Lord Visnu. They worship
Lord Visnu to merge into His body. In order that visnu-aradhana not be
misunderstood, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu requested that Sri Ramananda Raya
proceed further and clear up the issue. Ramananda Raya quoted the verse
from Bhagavad-gita stating that the results of one's occupational
duty may be offered to Lord Visnu or Krsna. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.8)
it is also said:
dharmah svanusthitah pumsam
visvaksena-kathasu yah
notpadayed yadi ratim
srama eva hi kevalam
"If one executes the occupational duties of varnasrama-dharma but does
not cultivate his dormant Krsna consciousness, his activities are futile.
His occupation simply becomes unnecessary labor."
Madhya 8.61
TEXT 61
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho bahya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, -- "svadharma-tyaga, ei sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord replied; eho -- this; bahya -- external; age --
ahead; kaha -- speak; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied;
sva-dharma-tyaga -- relinquishing one's occupational duties; ei -- this;
sadhya-sara -- the essence of all perfection.
TRANSLATION
"This is also external," Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said. "Please proceed
and speak further on this matter." Ramananda Raya replied, "To give up
one's occupational duties in the varnasrama is the essence of perfection.
"
PURPORT
A brahmana may renounce his family and accept sannyasa. Others also --
ksatriyas and vaisyas -- may also give up their families and take to
Krsna consciousness. Such renunciation is called karma-tyaga. By such
renunciation, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is satisfied. However,
this renouncing of one's activities to Krsna is not uncontaminated and
is therefore on the material platform. Such activities are considered
within the material universe because, according to Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, they refer to the material universe and are therefore
external. To correct this, Ramananda Raya recommended that one take to
the renounced order of life in order to transcend material activities.
This is supported by the following verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.11.
32).
Madhya 8.62
TEXT 62
TEXT
ajnayaivam gunan dosan
mayadistan api svakan
dharman samtyajya yah sarvan
mam bhajet sa ca sattamah
SYNONYMS
ajnaya -- knowing perfectly; evam -- thus; gunan -- qualities; dosan --
faults; maya -- by Me; adistan -- instructed; api -- although; svakan --
own; dharman -- occupational duties; samtyajya -- giving up; yah --
anyone who; sarvan -- all; mam -- unto Me; bhajet -- may render service;
sah -- he; ca -- and; sattamah -- a first-class person.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, "'Occupational duties are described in the
religious scriptures. If one analyzes them, he can fully understand
their qualities and faults and then give them up completely to render
service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person is
considered a first-class man.'
Madhya 8.63
TEXT 63
TEXT
sarva-dharman parityajya
mam ekam saranam vraja
aham tvam sarva-papebhyo
moksayisyami ma sucah
SYNONYMS
sarva-dharman -- all kinds of occupational duties; parityajya -- giving
up; mam ekam -- unto Me only; saranam -- as shelter; vraja -- go; aham --
I; tvam -- unto you; sarva-papebhyah -- from all the reactions of
sinful life; moksayisyami -- will give liberation; ma -- don't; sucah --
worry.
TRANSLATION
"As stated in scripture [Bg. 18.66]: 'After giving up all kinds of
religious and occupational duties, if you come to Me, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, and take shelter, I will give you protection
from all of life's sinful reactions. Do not worry.' "
PURPORT
In this connection, Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami instructs in his book
Manah-siksa (2):
na dharmam nadharmam sruti-gana-niruktam kila kuru
vraje radha-krsna-pracura-paricaryam iha tanu
He has thus enjoined that we should not perform religious or irreligious
activities as prescribed in the Vedas. The best course is to engage
always in the service of Lord Krsna and Radharani. That is the
perfection of everything in this life. Similarly, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (
4.29.46) it is said by Narada Muni:
yada yasyanugrhnati
bhagavan atma-bhavitah
sa jahati matim loke
vede ca parinisthitam
"When one actually takes to the loving service of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, he gives up all duties in the material world as
well as all duties prescribed by Vedic literatures. In this way one
is fixed in the service of the Lord."
Madhya 8.64
TEXT 64
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho bahya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, -- "jnana-misra bhakti -- sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho -- this; bahya -- external; age --
ahead; kaha -- say; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Raya replied; jnana-misra
bhakti -- devotional service mixed with empiric knowledge; sadhya-sara --
is the essence of perfection.
TRANSLATION
After hearing Ramananda Raya speak in this way, Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu said, "Go ahead and say
something more." Ramananda Raya then replied, "Devotional service mixed
with empiric knowledge is the essence of perfection."
PURPORT
Devotional service mixed with non-Vedic speculative knowledge is
certainly not pure devotional service. Therefore Srila Bhaktisiddhanta
Sarasvati in his Anubhasya preached that self-realization following the
execution of ritualistic ceremonies is in the neutral stage between
liberation and conditional life. It is the place beyond this material
world in the River Viraja, where the three modes of material nature are
subdued or neutralized in the unmanifest stage. However, in the
spiritual world is a manifestation of spiritual energy, known as
Vaikunthaloka where there is no anxiety. The material world
is known as brahmanda. The material universe is the creation of the
external energy. Between the two creations -- the material creation and
the spiritual creation -- is a river known as Viraja as well as a place
known as Brahmaloka. Virajanadi and Brahmaloka are shelters for
living entities disgusted with material life and inclined to impersonal
existence by way of denying material variegatedness. Since these places
are not situated in the Vaikunthalokas or the spiritual world, Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu proclaims them to be external. In the Brahmaloka and
Virajanadi, one cannot conceive of the Vaikunthalokas. Brahmaloka
and Virajanadi are also attained after difficult austerities, but
in these realms there is no understanding of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead and His transcendental loving service. Without such spiritual
knowledge, simple detachment from material conditions is but another
side of material existence. From the spiritual point of view, it is all
external. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu rejected this proposal, Ramananda
Raya suggested that devotional service based on philosophy and logic is
a more progressed position. He therefore quoted the following verse from
Bhagavad-gita (18.54).
Madhya 8.65
TEXT 65
TEXT
brahma-bhutah prasannatma
na socati na kanksati
samah sarvesu bhutesu
mad-bhaktim labhate param
SYNONYMS
brahma-bhutah -- freed from material conceptions of life but attached to
an impersonal situation; prasanna-atma -- fully joyful; na socati -- he
does not lament; na kanksati -- he does not hanker; samah -- equally
disposed; sarvesu -- all; bhutesu -- to the living entities; mat-bhaktim
-- My devotional service; labhate -- achieves; param -- transcendental.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, "According to Bhagavad-gita: 'One who is
thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and
becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires to have anything; he
is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state he attains
pure devotional service unto Me.' "
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita it is said that a person who
accepts the theory of monism -- being always engaged in empiric
philosophical discussions about spiritual life -- becomes joyful and is
relieved from all material lamentation and hankering. At that stage, one
is equipoised. He sees all living entities as spiritual beings. After
attaining this elevated stage, one can attain pure devotional service.
The conclusion is that devotional service mixed with ritualistic
fruitive activity is inferior to spiritual service based on empiric
philosophic discussion.
Madhya 8.66
TEXT 66
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho bahya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, -- "jnana-sunya bhakti -- sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho -- this; bahya -- external; age --
ahead; kaha -- speak; ara -- further; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya
replied; jnana-sunya bhakti -- devotional service independent of logic
and empiric philosophy; sadhya-sara -- the essence of the perfection of
life.
TRANSLATION
After hearing this, the Lord, as usual, rejected it, considering it to
be external devotional service. He again asked Ramananda Raya to speak
further, and Ramananda Raya replied, "Pure devotional service without
any touch of speculative knowledge is the essence of perfection."
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura in his
Anubhasya commentary says that this stage -- devotional service mixed
with speculative knowledge -- is also external and not within the
jurisdiction of pure devotional service as practiced in Vaikunthaloka.
As soon as there is some conception of materialistic thought -- be it
positive or negative -- the service is not spiritual. It may be free
from material contamination, but because there is mental speculation the
devotional service is not pure and freed from the contamination of
material life. A living entity who wants to be completely pure must be
above this material conception. The negation of material existence does
not necessarily mean spiritual existence. After material existence is
negated, spiritual existence -- namely sac-cid-ananda -- still may not
be manifest. Until one comes to the stage of actually understanding
one's eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord, he cannot enter into
spiritual life. Spiritual life means becoming detached from material
life and engaging in the loving service of the Lord. Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu therefore asked Ramananda Raya to explain something
transcendental to devotional service mixed with speculative knowledge. A
pure devotee is completely surrendered to the lotus feet of the Lord,
and only by his love does he conquer Krsna, who cannot be conquered by
anyone. Krsna always stands victorious over everything. No one can
conquer Him. One can attain the stage of pure devotion simply by fully
surrendering. This is next corroborated by Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.3),
wherein Lord Brahma, defeated by the potency of Sri Krsna, fully
surrendered unto the Lord.
Madhya 8.67
TEXT 67
TEXT
jnane prayasam udapasya namanta eva
jivanti san-mukharitam bhavadiya-vartam
sthane sthitah sruti-gatam tanu-van-manobhir
ye prayaso 'jita jito 'py asi tais tri-lokyam
SYNONYMS
jnane -- in gaining knowledge; prayasam -- unnecessary endeavor;
udapasya -- setting far aside; namantah -- completely surrendering; eva -
- certainly; jivanti -- live; sat-mukharitam -- declared by great
realized devotees; bhavadiya-vartam -- discussions about You, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead; sthane sthitah -- situated in their own
positions; sruti-gatam -- received aurally; tanu-vak-manobhih -- by the
body, words and mind; ye -- those who; prayasah -- almost always; ajita -
- O my unconquerable Lord (beyond perception and unlimitedly independent)
; jitah -- conquered; api -- indeed; asi -- You are; taih -- by such
pure devotees; tri-lokyam -- within the three worlds.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, "Lord Brahma said, 'My dear Lord, those
devotees who have thrown away the impersonal conception of the Absolute
Truth and have therefore abandoned discussing empiric philosophical
truths should hear from self-realized devotees about Your holy name,
form, pastimes and qualities. They should completely follow the
principles of devotional service and remain free from illicit sex,
gambling, intoxication and animal slaughter. Surrendering themselves
fully with body, words and mind, they can live in any asrama or social
status. Indeed, You are conquered by such persons, although You are
always unconquerable.' "
Madhya 8.68
TEXT 68
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho haya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, -- "prema-bhakti -- sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho haya -- this is all right; age kaha
ara -- speak something more; raya kahe -- Raya replied; prema-bhakti --
ecstatic love in devotional service to the Lord; sarva-sadhya-sara --
the essence of all perfection.
TRANSLATION
At this point, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "This is all right, but
still you can speak more on the subject." Ramananda Raya then replied, "
Ecstatic love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the essence of
all perfection."
PURPORT
In this connection, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in
his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya says that after hearing Ramananda Raya,
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, eho haya, age
kaha ara. This means that this is the process accepted in devotional
service, but there is something more than this. Therefore Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu requested him to explain what was beyond. Simply
executing the duties of all varnas and asramas is not as good as
offering all the results of one's activities to the Lord. When one gives
up all fruitive activity and fully surrenders to the Lord, he attains
sva-dharma-tyaga, wherein he abandons the social order and takes to the
renounced order. That is certainly better. However, better than the
renounced order is cultivation of knowledge mixed with devotional
service. Yet all these activities are external to the activities of the
spiritual world. There is no touch of pure devotional service in them.
Pure devotional service cannot be attained by empiric philosophy, nor
can perfection be attained simply by good association. Devotional
service by self-realization is a different subject matter. It is
untouched by fruitive activity, for one surrenders the results of
activities to the Lord, abandons prescribed duties and accepts the
renounced order of life. Such devotional service is situated on a higher
platform than that of empiric philosophical speculation with a mixture
of bhakti. This is verified by Srila Rupa Gosvami in his Bhakti-rasamrta-
sindhu (1.1.11):
anyabhilasita-sunyam
jnana-karmady-anavrtam
anukulyena krsnanu-
silanam bhaktir uttama
"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord
Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through
fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure
devotional service."
Devotional activities, however, sometimes appear to be impure in the
neophyte stage, but in the mature stage they are completely pure
from material activity. Therefore Ramananda Raya replied after
hearing the last statement of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: prema-bhakti --
sarva-sadhya-sara. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu actually accepted this verse (
jnane prayasam) as the basic principle of perfection. One has to
practice this principle in order to make further progress. When further
progress is actually made, one comes to the platform of ecstatic loving
service to the Lord. This first stage is technically called sadhana-
bhakti, or devotional service in practice. The result of sadhana-bhakti
must be ecstatic love, attachment for the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
which is also called prema-bhakti. In the neophyte stage, sadhana-
bhakti includes faith, association with devotees, and practicing
devotional service. Thus one is freed from all unwanted things. One then
becomes fixed in devotional service and increases his desire to act in
devotional service. Thus one becomes attached to the Lord and His
devotional service.
Madhya 8.69
TEXT 69
TEXT
nanopacara-krta-pujanam arta-bandhoh
premnaiva bhakta-hrdayam sukha-vidrutam syat
yavat ksud asti jathare jaratha pipasa
tavat sukhaya bhavato nanu bhaksya-peye
SYNONYMS
nana-upacara -- by varieties of ingredients; krta -- performed; pujanam -
- worshiping; arta-bandhoh -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who
is the friend of all distressed persons; premna -- by ecstatic love; eva
-- indeed; bhakta-hrdayam -- the heart of a devotee; sukha-vidrutam --
melted in transcendental bliss; syat -- becomes; yavat -- as long as;
ksut -- appetite; asti -- there is; jathare -- in the stomach; jaratha --
strong; pipasa -- thirst; tavat -- so long; sukhaya -- for happiness;
bhavatah -- are; nanu -- indeed; bhaksya -- eatables; peye -- and
drinkables.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, " 'As long as there is hunger and thirst
, eating and drinking make one feel very
happy. When the Lord is worshiped with pure love,
transcendental bliss is awakened
in the heart of the devotee.'
Madhya 8.70
TEXT 70
TEXT
krsna-bhakti-rasa-bhavita matih
kriyatam yadi kuto 'pi labhyate
tatra laulyam api mulyam ekalam
janma-koti-sukrtair na labhyate
SYNONYMS
krsna-bhakti-rasa-bhavita -- absorbed in the mellows of executing
devotional service to Krsna; matih -- intelligence; kriyatam -- let it
be purchased; yadi -- if; kutah api -- somewhere; labhyate -- is
available; tatra -- there; laulyam -- greed; api -- indeed; mulyam --
price; ekalam -- only; janma-koti -- of millions of births; sukrtaih --
by pious activities; na -- not; labhyate -- is obtained.
TRANSLATION
" 'Pure devotional service in Krsna consciousness cannot be had even by
pious activity in hundreds and thousands of lives. It can be attained
only by paying one price -- that is, intense greed to obtain it. If it
is available somewhere, one must purchase it without delay.' "
PURPORT
The previous two verses are included in the Padyavali (13, 14)
by Srila Rupa Gosvami. Verse sixty-nine refers to
devotional service in faith, and verse seventy refers to devotional
service rendered out of intense greed. The first is devotional service
rendered in accordance to the regulative principles, and the second
refers to spontaneous loving service of the Lord without extraneous
endeavor. Henceforward the basic principle underlying the talks between
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya will be spontaneous loving
service to the Lord. The regulative principles according to the
injunctions of the sastras are necessary insofar as one's original
dormant Krsna consciousness is not spontaneously awakened. An example of
spontaneous action is the flowing of rivers into the ocean. Nothing can
stop this flow of water. Similarly, when one's dormant Krsna
consciousness is awakened, it spontaneously flows to the lotus feet of
Krsna without impediment. Whatever will be spoken henceforth by
Ramananda Raya based on spontaneous love will be agreeable to Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and the Lord will ask him more and more about this
subject.
Madhya 8.71
TEXT 71
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho haya, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, "dasya-prema -- sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho haya -- this is all right; age kaha
ara -- please speak more; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; dasya-
prema -- spontaneous love in the humor of servitude; sarva-sadhya-sara --
the essence of perfection.
TRANSLATION
Hearing up to the point of spontaneous love, the Lord said, "This is all
right, but if you know more, please tell Me." In reply, Ramananda Raya
said, "Spontaneous loving service in servitude -- as exchanged by master
and servant -- is the highest perfection.
PURPORT
Spontaneous loving service to the Lord is called devotional service with
an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served. This
intimacy is called mamata. Between the servitor and the served, there is
a feeling of oneness. This mamata begins with dasya-prema, service
rendered to the master by the servant. Unless there is such a
relationship, the loving affairs between the Lord and His devotee are
not actually fixed. When the devotee feels, "The Lord is my master" and
renders service unto Him, Krsna consciousness is awakened. This fixed
consciousness is on a higher platform than simple cognizance of love of
Godhead.
Madhya 8.72
TEXT 72
TEXT
yan-nama-sruti-matrena
puman bhavati nirmalah
tasya tirtha-padah kim va
dasanam avasisyate
SYNONYMS
yat -- of whom; nama -- of the name; sruti-matrena -- simply by hearing;
puman -- a person; bhavati -- becomes; nirmalah -- pure; tasya -- of Him;
tirtha-padah -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, at whose lotus
feet are all places of pilgrimage; kim -- what; va -- more; dasanam --
of the servants; avasisyate -- is remaining.
TRANSLATION
" 'A man becomes purified simply by hearing the holy name of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, whose lotus feet create the holy places of
pilgrimage. Therefore what remains to be attained by those who have
become His servants?'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (9.5.16) and is an admission
by the great sage Durvasa Muni. Durvasa Muni, a caste brahmana and great
yogi, used to hate Maharaja Ambarisa. When he decided to chastise
Maharaja Ambarisa through his yogic powers, he was chased by the
Sudarsana cakra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When things were
settled, he said, "When the holy name of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead is heard by any person, that person is immediately sanctified.
The Supreme Lord is master of the devotees, and the devotees, under His
shelter, naturally come to own His opulences."
Madhya 8.73
TEXT 73
TEXT
bhavantam evanucaran nirantarah
prasanta-nihsesa-mano-rathantarah
kadaham aikantika-nitya-kinkarah
praharsayisyami sa-natha-jivitam
SYNONYMS
bhavantam -- You; eva -- certainly; anucaran -- serving; nirantarah --
always; prasanta -- pacified; nihsesa -- all; manah-ratha -- desires;
antarah -- other; kada -- when; aham -- I; aikantika -- exclusive; nitya
-- eternal; kinkarah -- servant; praharsayisyami -- I shall become
joyful; sa-natha -- with a fitting master; jivitam -- living.
TRANSLATION
" 'By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and
is completely pacified. When shall we engage as Your permanent eternal
servants and always feel joyful to have such a perfect master?' "
PURPORT
This is a statement made by the great saintly devotee Yamunacarya in his
Stotra-ratna (43).
Madhya 8.74
TEXT 74
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho haya, kichu age ara"
raya kahe, -- "sakhya-prema -- sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho haya -- this is also right; kichu --
something; age -- ahead; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya
replied; sakhya-prema -- transcendental loving service in fraternity;
sarva-sadhya-sara -- the highest perfectional stage.
TRANSLATION
Hearing this from Ramananda Raya, the Lord again requested him to go a
step further. In reply, Ramananda Raya said, "Loving service to Krsna
rendered in fraternity is the highest perfection.
PURPORT
As long as loving service is rendered to the Lord in the master-servant
relationship, there is some fear, for the servant is always afraid of
the master, despite the intimacy of self-interest. In this stage the
servant is always afraid of the master and respectful of Him. When the
devotee is further advanced, he has nothing to fear. He considers the
Lord and himself on an equal level. At such a time, the devotee is fully
convinced that Lord Krsna is a friend and cannot at all be dissatisfied
if the devotee lives with Him on an equal level. This understanding is
called visrambha, that is, devoid of a respectful attitude. When this
attitude is chosen, it becomes sakhya-prema, or love of Godhead in
friendship. On this stage there is developed consciousness of equality
between the Lord and the devotee.
Madhya 8.75
TEXT 75
TEXT
ittham satam brahma-sukhanubhutya
dasyam gatanam para-daivatena
mayasritanam nara-darakena
sakam vijahruh krta-punya-punjah
SYNONYMS
ittham -- in this way; satam -- of persons who prefer the impersonal
feature of the Lord; brahma -- of the impersonal effulgence; sukha -- by
the happiness; anubhutya -- who is realized; dasyam -- the mode of
servitude; gatanam -- of those who have accepted; para-daivatena -- who
is the supreme worshipable Deity; maya-asritanam -- for ordinary persons
under the clutches of external energy; nara-darakena -- with He
who is like a boy of this material world; sakam -- in friendship;
vijahruh -- played; krta-punya-punjah -- those who have accumulated
volumes of pious activities.
TRANSLATION
" 'Those who are engaged in self-realization,
appreciating the Brahman effulgence of the Lord, and those engaged in
devotional service, accepting the Supreme Personality of Godhead
as master, as well as those who are under the clutches of maya,
thinking the Lord an ordinary person, cannot understand that certain
exalted personalities -- after accumulating volumes of pious activities -
- are now playing with the Lord in friendship as cowherd boys.' "
PURPORT
This is a statement made by Sukadeva Gosvami (Bhag. 10.12.11), who
appreciated the good fortune of the cowherd boys who played with Krsna
and ate with Him on the banks of the Yamuna.
Madhya 8.76
TEXT 76
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho uttama, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, "vatsalya-prema -- sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; eho uttama -- it is very good; age --
still further; kaha -- speak; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Raya replied;
vatsalya-prema -- loving service to the Lord in the stage of paternal
love; sarva-sadhya-sara -- the highest perfectional stage.
TRANSLATION
The Lord said, "This statement is very good, but please proceed even
further." Ramananda Raya then replied, "Loving service to the Lord in
the parental relationship is the highest perfectional stage."
PURPORT
The stage of loving service to the Lord in paternal affection is an
advanced stage of love in fraternity. In the fraternal relationship
there is a sense of equality, but when that sense of equality is
advanced in affection, one attains the platform of parental love. In
this connection, the following verse is cited from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.
8.46), wherein Sukadeva Gosvami voices his appreciation of Nanda
Maharaja's and mother Yasoda's intense love for Krsna.
Madhya 8.77
TEXT 77
TEXT
nandah kim akarod brahman
sreya evam mahodayam
yasoda va maha-bhaga
papau yasyah stanam harih
SYNONYMS
nandah -- Nanda Maharaja; kim -- what; akarot -- has performed; brahman -
- O brahmana; sreyah -- auspicious activities; evam -- thus; maha-udayam
-- rising to such an exalted position as the father of Krsna; yasoda --
mother Yasoda; va -- or; maha-bhaga -- most fortunate; papau -- drank;
yasyah -- of whom; stanam -- by the breasts; harih -- the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued: " 'O brahmana, what pious activities did Nanda
Maharaja perform by which he received the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Krsna as his son, and what pious activities did mother Yasoda perform
that made the Absolute Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna call her
mother and suck her breasts?'
Madhya 8.78
TEXT 78
TEXT
nemam virinco na bhavo
na srir apy anga-samsraya
prasadam lebhire gopi
yat tat prapa vimuktidat
SYNONYMS
na -- not; imam -- this (love of Godhead); virincah -- Lord Brahma; na --
not; bhavah -- Lord Siva; na -- nor; srih -- the goddess of fortune;
api -- even; anga -- on the chest of Visnu; samsraya -- who is sheltered;
prasadam -- favor; lebhire -- have obtained; gopi -- mother Yasoda; yat
-- which; tat -- that; prapa -- obtained; vimukti-dat -- from the person
who gives liberation.
TRANSLATION
" 'The favor mother Yasoda obtained from Sri Krsna, the bestower of
liberation, was never obtained even by Lord Brahma or Lord Siva, nor
even by the goddess of fortune, who always remains on the chest of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu.' "
PURPORT
This is a statement from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.20). Krsna agreed to be
bound by mother Yasoda after she had given up trying to bind Krsna with
ropes. This is another appreciation made by Sukadeva Gosvami in his
narration of the pastimes of Krsna before Maharaja Pariksit.
Madhya 8.79
TEXT 79
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- "eho uttama, age kaha ara"
raya kahe, "kanta-prema sarva-sadhya-sara"
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord replied; eho uttama -- this is very good; age --
ahead; kaha -- speak; ara -- more; raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied;
kanta-prema -- loving service between husband and wife; sarva-sadhya-
sara -- the highest perfection stage.
TRANSLATION
The Lord said, "Your statements are certainly getting better and better
one after the other, but surpassing all of them is another
transcendental mellow, and you can speak of that as the most sublime."
Ramananda Raya then replied, "Conjugal attachment for Krsna is the
topmost position in love of Godhead.
PURPORT
In general, love of Godhead is devoid of the intimacy of ownership. In
the case of love in servitude, there is a want of confidence. There is a
want of increased affection in the fraternal relationship, but when
this affection increases in the paternal relationship, there is
nonetheless a want of complete freedom. However, when one becomes a
conjugal lover of Krsna, everything lacking in the other relationships
is completely manifest. Love of Godhead lacks nothing in the conjugal
stage. The summary of this verse is that paternal love of Godhead is
certainly higher than fraternal love and that conjugal love is higher
yet. It was when Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu requested Ramananda Raya to go
further that he came to the point of the conjugal relationship, which is
the highest perfectional stage of transcendental love.
Madhya 8.80
TEXT 80
TEXT
nayam sriyo 'nga u nitanta-rateh prasadah
svar-yositam nalina-gandha-rucam kuto 'nyah
rasotsave 'sya bhuja-danda-grhita-kantha-
labdhasisam ya udagad-vraja-sundarinam
SYNONYMS
na -- not; ayam -- this; sriyah -- of the goddess of fortune; ange -- on
the chest; u -- alas; nitanta-rateh -- who is very intimately related;
prasadah -- the favor; svah -- of the heavenly planets; yositam -- of
women; nalina -- of the lotus flower; gandha -- having the aroma; rucam -
- and bodily luster; kutah -- much less; anyah -- others; rasa-utsave --
in the festival of the rasa dance; asya -- of Lord Sri Krsna; bhuja-
danda -- by the arms; grhita -- embraced; kantha -- their necks; labdha-
asisam -- who achieved such a blessing; yah -- which; udagat -- became
manifest; vraja-sundarinam -- of the beautiful gopis, the transcendental
girls of Vrajabhumi.
TRANSLATION
" 'When Lord Sri Krsna was dancing with the gopis in the rasa-lila, the
gopis were embraced by the arms of the Lord. This
transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or
the other consorts in the spiritual world. Indeed, never was such a
thing even imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets
whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the
lotus flower. And what to speak of worldly women who are very
beautiful according to the material estimation?'
PURPORT
This verse (Bhag. 10.47.60) was spoken by Uddhava when he visited Sri
Vrndavana to deliver a message from Krsna to the gopis. Uddhava remained
in Vrndavana to observe the movements of the gopis there. When he saw
the ecstatic love for Krsna in separation manifested by the gopis, he
appreciated their supreme love and therefore expressed his feelings in
this verse. He admitted that the fortune of the gopis could not be
compared even to the fortune of the goddess of fortune, to say nothing
of the beautiful girls in the heavenly planets.
Madhya 8.81
TEXT 81
TEXT
tasam avirabhuc chaurih
smayamana-mukhambujah
pitambara-dharah sragvi
saksan manmatha-manmathah
SYNONYMS
tasam -- among them; avirabhut -- appeared; saurih -- Lord Krsna;
smayamana -- smiling; mukha-ambujah -- with a face like a lotus flower;
pita-ambara-dharah -- wearing yellow garments; sragvi -- garlanded with
flowers; saksat -- directly; manmatha -- of Cupid; manmathah -- the
bewilderer.
TRANSLATION
" 'Suddenly, due to the gopis feelings of separation, Lord Krsna
appeared among them dressed in yellow garments and wearing a
flower garland. His lotus face was smiling, and He was directly
attracting the mind of Cupid.'
PURPORT
This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.2). When the rasa dance was
going on, Krsna suddenly disappeared, and the gopis became so
overwhelmed, due to His separation and their intense love for Him, that
Krsna was obliged to appear again.
Madhya 8.82
TEXT 82
TEXT
krsna-praptira upaya bahu-vidha haya
krsna-prapti-taratamya bahuta achaya
SYNONYMS
krsna-praptira -- of achieving the lotus feet of Krsna; upaya -- means;
bahu-vidha -- various; haya -- there are; krsna-prapti -- of achieving
the favor of Lord Krsna; taratamya -- comparisons; bahuta -- various;
achaya -- there are.
TRANSLATION
"There are various means and processes by which one may attain the favor
of Lord Krsna. All those transcendental processes will be studied from
the viewpoint of comparative importance.
Madhya 8.83
TEXT 83
TEXT
kintu yanra yei rasa, sei sarvottama
tata-stha hana vicarile, ache tara-tama
SYNONYMS
kintu -- nevertheless; yanra -- of some devotees; yei rasa -- whatever
the mellow of exchanges of love; sei -- that; sarva-uttama -- the best;
tata-stha -- neutral; hana -- being; vicarile -- if considering; ache --
there is; tara-tama -- lower and higher levels.
TRANSLATION
"It is true that whatever relationship a particular devotee has with the
Lord is the best for him; still, when we study all the different methods
from a neutral position, we can understand that there are higher and
lower degrees of love.
PURPORT
In this regard, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains that
this verse does not advocate the whimsical invention of some methods of
love of Godhead. Such inventions cannot be accepted as topmost. Indeed,
such concoctions are not recommended in these verses. Srila Rupa Gosvami
has said in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.101):
sruti-smrti-puranadi-
pancaratra-vidhim vina
aikantiki harer bhaktir
utpatayaiva kalpate
He clearly mentions in this verse that one must refer to the Vedic
literatures and other supplementary literatures and follow the
conclusion of the Vedas. An invented devotional attitude simply creates
disturbances in the transcendental realm. If a person overly addicted to
family life takes to Srimad-Bhagavatam or Krsna consciousness to earn a
livelihood, his activity is certainly offensive. One should not become a
caste guru and sell mantras for the benefit of mundane customers, nor
should one make disciples for a livelihood. All these activities are
offensive. One should not make a livelihood by forming a professional
band to carry out congregational chanting, nor should one perform
devotional service when one is attached to mundane society, friendship
and love. Nor should one be dependent on so-called social etiquette. All
of this is mental speculation. None of these things can be compared to
unalloyed devotional service. No one can compare unalloyed devotional
service, Krsna consciousness, to mundane activities. There are many
unauthorized parties pretending to belong to the Sri Caitanya cult, and
some are known as: aula, baula, karttabhaja, neda, daravesa, sani
, sakhibheki, smarta, jata-gosani, ativadi, cudadhari and
gauranga-nagari.
Moreover, there are those who take the caste Gosvamis opinion of such
parties as bona fide, comparing their opinions to those of the six
Gosvamis headed by Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana. This is simply another
cheating process. There are also nondevotees who compose unauthorized
songs, who establish different temples for money, who worship the Deity
as priests for salaries, who accept caste brahmanism as all in all and
who do not know the value of a pure Vaisnava. Actually the caste
brahmanas of the smarta community are opposed to the principles of the
Satvata-pancaratra. Furthermore, there are many Mayavadis and those
overly addicted to material sense enjoyment. None of these can be
compared to a person who is purely engaged in preaching Krsna
consciousness. Every Krsna conscious person is constantly endeavoring to
utilize different transcendental devices in the service of the Lord.
Such a devotee renounces all material enjoyment and completely dedicates
himself to the service of his spiritual master and Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu. He may be a perfect celibate, a restrained householder, a
regulated vanaprastha, or a tridandi-sannyasi in the renounced order. It
doesn't matter. The pseudo-transcendentalists and the pure devotees
cannot be compared, nor can one argue that a person can invent his own
way of worship.
The purport in presenting this verse necessitates explaining the
comparative positions of the transcendental mellows known as santa,
dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhurya. All these rasas, or mellows, are
situated on the transcendental platform. Pure devotees take shelter of
one of them and thus progress in spiritual life. Actually one can take
shelter of such spiritual mellows only when one is completely
uncontaminated by material attachment. When one is completely free from
material attachment, the feelings of the transcendental mellows are
awakened in the heart of the devotee. That is svarupa-siddhi, the
perfection of one's eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord. Svarupa-
siddhi, the eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord, may be situated
in one of the transcendental mellows. Each and every one of them is
as perfect as the others. However, by comparative study an unbiased
person can realize that the mellow of servitorship is better than the
mellow of neutrality. The mellow of fraternity is better than the
mellow of servitorship. Similarly, the mellow of paternity is
better than that of fraternity. Above all the mellows is
the mellow of conjugal love. However, these are all spiritually situated
on the same platform because all these relationships of perfection in
love are based on a central point -- Krsna.
These mellows cannot be compared to the feelings one derives from
demigod worship. Krsna is one, but the demigods are different. They are
material. Love for Krsna cannot be compared to material love for
different demigods. Because Mayavadis are on the material platform, they
recommend the worship of Siva or Durga and say that worship of Kali and
Krsna are the same. However, on the spiritual platform there is no
demigod worship. The only worshipable object is Krsna. Therefore
although there is no difference between a devotee in santa-rasa or dasya-
rasa, vatsalya-rasa or madhurya-rasa, one can still make a comparative
study of the intensity of love in these different transcendental
positions. For example, it may be said that dasya-rasa is better than
santa-rasa, yet transcendental love of God is there in both of them.
Similarly, we can judge that love of Godhead in fraternity is better
than love of Godhead in neutrality and servitorship. Similarly, love of
Godhead in paternal affection is better than love in fraternity. And, as
stated before, love of God in the conjugal rasa is superior to that in
the paternal rasa.
The analysis of different types of love of Godhead has been made by
expert acaryas who know all about devotional service on the
transcendental platform. Unfortunately, inexperienced and unauthorized
persons in the mundane world, not understanding the transcendental
position of pure love, try to find some material fault in the
transcendental process. This is simply impudence on the part of
spiritually inexperienced people. Such faultfinding is symptomatic of
unfortunate mundane wranglers.
Madhya 8.84
TEXT 84
TEXT
yathottaram asau svada-
visesollasa-mayy api
ratir vasanaya svadvi
bhasate kapi kasyacit
SYNONYMS
yatha uttaram -- one after another; asau -- that; svada-visesa -- of
particular tastes; ullasa -- pleasing; mayi -- empowered with; api --
although; ratih -- love; vasanaya -- by desire; svadvi -- sweet; bhasate
-- appears; ka api -- someone; kasyacit -- one of them.
TRANSLATION
" 'Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another.
But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of
desires manifests itself in the form of conjugal love.'
PURPORT
This verse is from Srila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.38),
and it also appears in the Adi-lila, Chapter Four, verse forty-five.
Madhya 8.85
TEXT 85
TEXT
purva-purva-rasera guna -- pare pare haya
dui-tina ganane panca paryanta badaya
SYNONYMS
purva-purva -- of each previous; rasera -- of the mellow; guna -- the
qualities; pare pare -- in each subsequent; haya -- there are; dui-tina -
- two and then three; ganane -- in counting; panca -- five; paryanta --
up to; badaya -- increases.
TRANSLATION
"There is a gradual order of improvement in transcendental mellows from
the initial ones to the later ones. In each subsequent mellow the
qualities of the previous mellows are manifest, counting from two,
then three and up to the point of five complete qualities.
Madhya 8.86
TEXT 86
TEXT
gunadhikye svadadhikya bade prati-rase
santa-dasya-sakhya-vatsalyera guna madhurete vaise
SYNONYMS
guna-adhikye -- by the increase of transcendental qualities; svada-
adhikya -- increase of taste; bade -- increases; prati-rase -- in each
mellow; santa -- of neutrality; dasya -- of servitude; sakhya -- of
fraternity; vatsalyera -- and of paternal affection; guna -- the
qualities; madhurete -- in the conjugal mellow; vaise -- appear.
TRANSLATION
"As the qualities increase, so the taste also increases in each and
every mellow. Therefore the qualities found in santa-rasa, dasya-rasa,
sakhya-rasa and vatsalya-rasa are all manifest in conjugal love [
madhurya-rasa].
Madhya 8.87
TEXT 87
TEXT
akasadira guna yena para-para bhute
dui-tina krame bade panca prthivite
SYNONYMS
akasa-adira -- of the sky, air, and so on; guna -- the qualities; yena --
just as; para-para -- one after another; bhute -- in the material
elements; dui-tina -- two and then three; krame -- by gradations; bade --
increase; panca -- all five; prthivite -- in earth.
TRANSLATION
"The qualities in the material elements -- sky, air, fire, water and
earth -- increase one after another by a gradual process of one, two and
three, and at the last stage, in the element earth, all five qualities
are completely visible.
Madhya 8.88
TEXT 88
TEXT
paripurna-krsna-prapti ei 'prema' haite
ei premara vasa krsna -- kahe bhagavate
SYNONYMS
paripurna -- completely full; krsna-prapti -- achievement of the lotus
feet of Lord Krsna; ei -- this; prema -- love of Godhead; haite -- from;
ei premara -- of this type of love of Godhead; vasa -- under the control;
krsna -- Lord Krsna; kahe -- it is said; bhagavate -- in Srimad-
Bhagavatam.
TRANSLATION
"Complete attainment of the lotus feet of Lord Krsna is made possible by
love of Godhead, specifically madhurya-rasa or conjugal love. Lord
Krsna is indeed captivated by this standard of love. This is also stated
in Srimad-Bhagavatam.
PURPORT
To explain the topmost quality of conjugal love, Srila Krsnadasa
Kaviraja Gosvami gives the example of the material elements -- sky, air,
fire, water and earth. In the sky (space) there is the quality of sound.
Similarly, in air there are the qualities of sound and touch. In fire,
there are three qualities -- sound, touch and form. In water there are
four qualities -- sound, touch, form and taste. Finally, in earth there
are all five qualities -- sound, touch, form, taste and also smell. Now,
one can see that the quality of the sky is in all-namely in air, fire,
water and earth. In earth we can find all the qualities of material
nature. The same can be applied to the rasa known as madhurya-rasa, or
conjugal love. In conjugal love there are the qualities of neutrality,
servitorship, fraternity and paternity as well as
conjugal love itself. The conclusion is that through conjugal love, the
Lord is completely satisfied.
Conjugal love (madhurya-rasa) is also known as srngara-rasa. It is the
conclusion of Srimad-Bhagavatam that in the complete combination of
loving service to the Lord -- namely in conjugal love -- the Supreme
Lord fully agrees to be under the control of the devotee. The highest
form of conjugal love is represented by Srimati Radharani; therefore in
the pastimes of Radha and Krsna we can see that Krsna is always
subjugated by Srimati Radharani's influence.
Madhya 8.89
TEXT 89
TEXT
mayi bhaktir hi bhutanam
amrtatvaya kalpate
distya yad asin mat-sneho
bhavatinam mad-apanah
SYNONYMS
mayi -- unto Me; bhaktih -- devotional service; hi -- certainly;
bhutanam -- of all living entities; amrtatvaya -- for becoming eternal;
kalpate -- is meant; distya -- fortunately; yat -- what; asit -- there
is; mat-snehah -- affection for Me; bhavatinam -- of all of you; mat-
apanah -- the means of getting My favor.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna told the gopis: 'The means of attaining My favor is loving
service unto Me, and fortunately you are all thus engaged. Those living
beings who render service unto Me are eligible to be transferred to the
spiritual world and attain eternal life with knowledge and bliss.'
PURPORT
The fulfillment of human life is summarized in this verse from Srimad-
Bhagavatam (10.82.45). There are two important words in this verse:
bhakti (devotional service) and amrtatva (eternal life). The aim of
human life is to attain the natural position of eternal life. This
eternal life can be achieved only by devotional service.
Madhya 8.90
TEXT 90
TEXT
krsnera pratijna drdha sarva-kale ache
ye yaiche bhaje, krsna tare bhaje taiche
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; pratijna -- the promise; drdha -- firm; sarva-
kale -- in all times; ache -- there is; ye -- anyone; yaiche -- just as;
bhaje -- renders service; krsna -- Lord Krsna; tare -- him; bhaje --
reciprocates with; taiche -- so for all time.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna has made a firm promise for all time. If one renders service
unto Him, Krsna correspondingly gives him an equal amount of success in
devotional service to the Lord.
PURPORT
It is a completely mistaken idea that one can worship Krsna in any form
or in any way and still attain the ultimate result by receiving the
favor of the Lord. This is a decision made by gross materialistic men.
Generally such men say that you can manufacture your own way of
worshiping the Supreme Lord and that any type of worship is sufficient
to approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Certainly there are
different means for attaining different results in fruitive activity,
speculative knowledge, mystic yoga, and austerity. Crude men therefore
say that if one adopts any of these methods, one achieves the
Supreme Personality of Godhead's favor. They claim that it doesn't
matter what kind of method one adopts. A general example is given. If
one wishes to arrive at a certain place, there are many roads leading
there, and one can go to that place by any one of these roads. Similarly,
these gross materialists say that there are different ways to attain
the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They claim that one can
conceive of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as goddess Durga, goddess
Kali, Lord Siva, demigod Ganesa, Lord Ramacandra, Krsna, impersonal
Brahman or whatever, and one can chant the Lord's name in any way and in
any form and ultimately become one. Such materialists claim that
the result is the same.
They also say that a man may have different names, but he
will answer if called by any one of them. Therefore they claim that
there is no need to chant the Hare Krsna mantra. If one chants the name
of Kali, Durga, Siva, Ganesa or anyone else, the result will be the same.
Such claims made by mental speculators are no doubt very pleasing to
mental speculators, but those who are actually in knowledge do not admit
such conclusions, which are against the authority of the sastras. A bona
fide acarya will certainly not accept such a conclusion. As Krsna
clearly states in Bhagavad-gita:
yanti deva
-vrata devan
pitrn yanti pitr-vratah
bhutani yanti bhutejya
yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam
"Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods;
those who worship
ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings; those who worship
ancestors go to the ancestors; and those who worship Me will live with
Me." (Bg. 9.25)
Only the devotees of the Lord can be admitted to His kingdom -- not the
demigod worshipers, karmis, yogis, or anyone else. A person who desires
elevation to the heavenly planets worships various demigods, and
material nature may be pleased to offer such devotees their desired
positions. Consequently material nature gives one one's own
nature by which he increases affection for different types of demigods.
However, Bhagavad-gita says that demigod worship is meant for
men who have lost all their intelligence.
kamais tais tair hrta-jnanah
prapadyante 'nya-devatah
tam tam niyamam asthaya
prakrtya niyatah svaya
"Those whose minds are distorted by material desires
surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations
of worship according to their own natures." (Bg. 7.20)
Although one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, the results of
such benediction are limited.
antavat tu phalam tesam
tad bhavaty alpa-medhasam
devan deva-yajo yanti
mad-bhakta yanti mam api
"Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are
limited and temporary. Those who worship the demigods go to the planets
of the demigods, but My devotees ultimately reach My supreme planet." (
Bg. 7.23)
Being elevated to the heavenly planets or other material planets does
not mean attaining an eternal life of knowledge and bliss. At the end of
the material world, all attainments of material elevation will also end.
Again, according to Krsna in Bhagavad-gita, only those who
engage in His loving devotional service will be admitted to the
spiritual world and return to Godhead, not others.
bhaktya mam abhijanati
yavan yas casmi tattvatah
tato mam tattvato jnatva
visate tad-anantaram
"One can understand the Supreme Personality as He
is only by devotional service. And when one is in full
consciousness of the Supreme Lord by such devotion, he can enter into
the kingdom of God." (Bg. 18.55)
Impersonalists cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
therefore it is not possible for them to enter into the spiritual
kingdom of God and return home, back to Godhead. Actually one attains
different results by different means. It is not that all achievements
are one and the same. Those interested in the four principles of dharma,
artha, kama and moksa cannot be compared to those interested in the
unalloyed devotional service of the Lord. Srimad-Bhagavatam
therefore says:
dharmah projjhita-kaitavo 'tra paramo nirmatsaranam satam
vedyam vastavam atra vastu sivadam tapa-trayonmulanam
srimad-bhagavate maha-muni-krte kim va parair isvarah
sadyo hrdy avarudhyate 'tra krtibhih susrusubhis tat-ksanat
"Completely rejecting all religious activities which are materially
motivated, this Bhagavata Purana propounds the highest truth, which is
understandable by those devotees who are pure in heart. The highest
truth is reality distinguished from illusion for the welfare of all.
Such truth uproots the threefold miseries. This beautiful Bhagavatam,
compiled by the great sage Sri Vyasadeva, is sufficient in itself for
God realization. As soon as one attentively and submissively hears the
message of Bhagavatam, he becomes attached to the Supreme Lord." (Bhag.
1.1.2)
Those who aspire after liberation attempt to merge into the impersonal
Brahman. To this end they execute ritualistic religious ceremonies, but
Srimad-Bhagavatam considers this a cheating process. Indeed, such people
can never dream of returning home, back to Godhead. There is a gulf of
difference between the goal of dharma, artha, kama and moksa and the
goal of devotional service.
The goddess Durga is the superintending deity of this material world,
which is made of material elements. The demigods are simply different
directors engaged in operating the departments of material activities,
and they are under the influence of the same material energy. Krsna's
internal potencies, however, have nothing to do with the creation of
this cosmic material world. The spiritual world and all spiritual
activities are under the direction of the internal spiritual energy,
and such activities are performed by yogamaya, the spiritual energy.
Yogamaya is the spiritual or internal energy of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. Those who are interested in being promoted to the spiritual
world and engaging in the service of the Lord attain spiritual
perfection under the control of yogamaya. Those who are interested in
material promotion engage in ritualistic religious ceremonies and
economic development to develop sense gratification. They ultimately
attempt to merge into the impersonal existence of the Lord. Such people
generally become impersonalists. They are interested in worshiping Lord
Siva or goddess Durga, but their return is one hundred percent
materialistic.
Following the example of the gopis, the devotees sometimes worship the
goddess Katyayani, but they understand that Katyayani is an incarnation
of yogamaya. The gopis worshiped Katyayani, yogamaya, to attain Krsna
for their husband. On the other hand, it is stated in the Sapta-sati
scripture that a ksatriya king named Suratha and a rich vaisya named
Samadhi worshiped material nature in the form of goddess Durga to attain
material perfection. If one tries to mingle the worship of yogamaya with
mahamaya, considering them one and the same, he does not
really show very high intelligence. The idea that everything is one is a
kind of foolishness indulged in by those with less brain substance.
Fools and rascals say that the worship of yogamaya and mahamaya is
the same. This conclusion is simply the result of mental
speculation, and it has no practical effect. In the material world,
sometimes one produces a title to an utterly worthless thing,
and in Bengal this is known as giving a blind child a name like
Padmalocana, which means "lotus eyed." One may foolishly call a blind
child Padmalocana, but such an appellation does not bear any meaning.
In the spiritual world the Absolute Lord is always identical with His
name, fame, form, qualities and pastimes. Such identity is impossible in
the material world, where the name of a person is different from the
person himself. The Supreme Lord has many holy names like Paramatma,
Brahman and the creator, but one who worships the Lord as the creator
cannot understand the relationship between a devotee and the Lord in the
five types of transcendental mellows, nor can he understand the
conception of Krsna. One cannot understand the six transcendental
opulences of the Lord simply by understanding the Supreme Personality of
Godhead as impersonal Brahman.
Impersonal realization of the Absolute Truth is certainly transcendental,
but this does not mean that one can
understand the sac-cid-ananda form of the Lord. Similarly, Paramatma
realization is also an incomplete understanding of the Absolute Truth.
The plenary expansion of the Absolute Truth within everyone's heart
is the Paramatma feature of the Lord. A
devotee of the Personality of Godhead Narayana cannot actually
understand the transcendental attractive features of Krsna. On the
other hand, the devotee of Krsna who is attached to the sublime
attractive feature of the Lord does not consider Narayana very
important. When the gopis sometimes saw Krsna in the form of Narayana,
they were not very attracted to Him. The gopis never addressed
Krsna as Rukmini-ramana. Krsna's devotees in Vrndavana address Him as
Radharamana, Nandanandana and Yasodanandana, but not as Vasudeva-nandana
or Devaki-nandana. Although according to the material conception,
Narayana, Rukmini-ramana and Krsna are one and the same, in the
spiritual world one cannot use the name of Krsna in
the place of Rukmini-ramana or Narayana. If one does so out of a poor
fund of knowledge, his mellow with the Lord becomes spiritually faulty
and is called rasabhasa, an overlapping of transcendental mellows. The
advanced devotee who has actually realized the transcendental features
of the Lord will not commit the mistake of creating a rasabhasa
situation by using one name for another. Because of the influence of
Kali-yuga, there is much rasabhasa in the name of extravagance and
liberal-mindedness. Such fanaticism is not very much appreciated by pure
devotees.
Madhya 8.91
TEXT 91
TEXT
ye yatha mam prapadyante
tams tathaiva bhajamy aham
mama vartmanuvartante
manusyah partha sarvasah
SYNONYMS
ye -- they; yatha -- as; mam -- unto Me; prapadyante -- surrender; tan --
unto them; tatha eva -- in the same proportion; bhajami -- bestow My
favor; aham -- I; mama -- My; vartma -- way; anuvartante -- follow;
manusyah -- men; partha -- My dear Arjuna; sarvasah -- in all respects.
TRANSLATION
"According to Lord Krsna in Bhagavad-gita [4.11], 'All of them -
- as they surrender unto Me -- I reward accordingly. Everyone
follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha.'
Madhya 8.92
TEXT 92
TEXT
ei 'preme'ra anurupa na pare bhajite
ataeva 'rni' haya -- kahe bhagavate
SYNONYMS
ei -- this; premera -- of love of God; anurupa -- exactly to the
proportion; na -- not; pare -- is able; bhajite -- to reciprocate;
ataeva -- therefore; rni -- debtor; haya -- becomes; kahe -- is stated;
bhagavate -- in the Srimad-Bhagavatam.
TRANSLATION
"In Srimad-Bhagavatam [10.32.22] it is said that Lord Krsna cannot
proportionately reciprocate devotional service in the madhurya-rasa;
therefore He always remains a debtor to such devotees.
Madhya 8.93
TEXT 93
TEXT
na paraye 'ham niravadya-samyujam
sva-sadhu-krtyam vibudhayusapi vah
ya mabhajan durjara-geha-srnkhalah
samvrscya tad vah pratiyatu sadhuna
SYNONYMS
na -- not; paraye -- am able; aham -- I; niravadya -- without duplicity;
samyujam -- meeting; sva-sadhu-krtyam -- your own honest activities;
vibudha-ayusa api -- even with a duration of life like that of the
demigods; vah -- you; ya -- who; ma -- Me; abhajan -- have worshiped;
durjara -- difficult to surmount; geha -- of household life; srnkhalah --
the chains; samvrscya -- cutting off; tat -- that; vah -- your;
pratiyatu -- let there be a return; sadhuna -- by pious activities.
TRANSLATION
"When the gopis were overwhelmed with dissatisfaction due to Lord Krsna'
s absence from the rasa-lila, Krsna returned to them and told them, 'My
dear gopis, our meeting is certainly free from all material
contamination. I must admit that in many lives it would be impossible
for Me to repay My debt to you because you have cut off the bondage of
family life just to search for Me. Consequently I am unable to repay you.
Therefore please be satisfied with your honest activities in this
regard.'
Madhya 8.94
TEXT 94
TEXT
yadyapi krsna-saundarya -- madhuryera dhurya
vraja-devira sange tanra badaye madhurya
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; krsna-saundarya -- the beauty of Lord Krsna;
madhuryera -- of sweetness; dhurya -- the supermost; vraja-devira -- the
gopis; sange -- in company with; tanra -- His; badaye -- increases;
madhurya -- the sweetness.
TRANSLATION
"Although Krsna's unparalleled beauty is the topmost sweetness of love
of Godhead, His sweetness increases unlimitedly when He is in the
company of the gopis. Consequently Krsna's exchange of love with the
gopis is the topmost perfection of love of Godhead.
PURPORT
Krsna and His devotees become perfectly intimate in conjugal love of
Godhead. In other mellows, the Lord and the devotees do not enjoy
transcendental bliss as perfectly. The next verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam
(10.33.6) will illustrate this verse.
Madhya 8.95
TEXT 95
TEXT
tatratisusubhe tabhir
bhagavan devaki-sutah
madhye maninam haimanam
maha-marakato yatha
SYNONYMS
tatra -- there; ati-susubhe -- was very beautiful; tabhih -- by them;
bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; devaki-sutah -- son of
Devaki; madhye -- in the midst; maninam -- of valuable jewels; haimanam -
- lined with gold; maha-marakatah -- the jewel of the name;
yatha -- as.
TRANSLATION
" 'Although the son of Devaki, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is
also the reservoir of all kinds of beauty, when He is among the gopis He
nonetheless becomes more beautiful, for He resembles a marakata jewel
surrounded by gold and other jewels.' "
Madhya 8.96
TEXT 96
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- ei 'sadhyavadhi' suniscaya
krpa kari' kaha, yadi age kichu haya
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied; ei -- this; sadhya-
avadhi -- the highest limit of perfection; su-niscaya -- certainly; krpa
kari' -- being merciful to Me; kaha -- please speak; yadi -- if; age --
further; kichu haya -- there is something.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "This is certainly the limit of
perfection, but please be merciful to Me and speak more if there is more.
"
Madhya 8.97
TEXT 97
TEXT
raya kahe, -- ihara age puche hena jane
eta-dina nahi jani, achaye bhuvane
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; ihara age -- beyond this point;
puche -- inquires; hena -- such; jane -- a person; eta-dina -- until
this day; nahi jani -- I did not know; achaye -- there is; bhuvane --
within this material world.
TRANSLATION
Raya Ramananda replied, "Until this day I did not know anyone within
this material world who could inquire beyond this perfectional stage of
devotional service.
Madhya 8.98
TEXT 98
TEXT
inhara madhye radhara prema -- 'sadhya-siromani'
yanhara mahima sarva-sastrete vakhani
SYNONYMS
inhara madhye -- among the loving affairs of the gopis; radhara prema --
the love of Godhead of Srimati Radharani; sadhya-siromani -- the topmost
perfection; yanhara -- of which; mahima -- the glorification; sarva-
sastrete -- in every scripture; vakhani -- description.
TRANSLATION
"Among the loving affairs of the gopis," Ramananda Raya continued, "the
love of Srimati Radharani for Sri Krsna is topmost. Indeed, the
glories of Srimati Radharani are highly estimated in all revealed
scriptures.
Madhya 8.99
TEXT 99
TEXT
yatha radha priya visnos
tasyah kundam priyam tatha
sarva-gopisu saivaika
visnor atyanta-vallabha
SYNONYMS
yatha -- just as; radha -- Srimati Radharani; priya -- very dear; visnoh
-- to Lord Krsna; tasyah -- Her; kundam -- bathing place; priyam -- very
dear; tatha -- so also; sarva-gopisu -- among all the gopis; sa -- She;
eva -- certainly; eka -- alone; visnoh -- of Lord Krsna; atyanta-
vallabha -- very dear.
TRANSLATION
" 'Just as Srimati Radharani is most dear to Sri Krsna, Her bathing
place known as Radha-kunda is also dear to Him. Among all the gopis,
Srimati Radharani is supermost and very dear to Lord Krsna.'
PURPORT
This verse is from the Padma Purana and is included in the Laghu-
bhagavatamrta (2.45), by Srila Rupa Gosvami. It also appears in
Adi-lila, Chapter Four, verse 215, and again in Madhya-lila, Chapter
Eighteen, verse 8.
Madhya 8.100
TEXT 100
TEXT
anayaradhito nunam
bhagavan harir isvarah
yan no vihaya govindah
prito yam anayad rahah
SYNONYMS
anaya -- by Her; aradhitah -- worshiped; nunam -- indeed; bhagavan --
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih -- Krsna; isvarah -- the Lord;
yat -- from which; nah -- us; vihaya -- rejecting; govindah -- Lord Sri
Krsna; pritah -- satisfied; yam -- whom; anayat -- brought; rahah -- a
secluded place.
TRANSLATION
"When the gopis began to talk among themselves, they said, 'Dear
friends, the gopi who has been taken away by Krsna to a secluded place
must have worshiped the Lord more than anyone else.' "
PURPORT
The name Radha is derived from this verse (Bhag. 10.30.28), from the
word anayaradhitah, meaning "by Her the Lord is worshiped." Sometimes
the critics of Srimad-Bhagavatam find it difficult to find Radharani's
holy name, but the secret is disclosed here in the word
aradhitah, from which the word Radha has come. Of course, the name of
Radharani is directly mentioned in other Puranas. This gopi's worship of
Krsna is topmost, and therefore Her name is Radha, or the topmost
worshiper.
Madhya 8.101
TEXT 101
TEXT
prabhu kahe -- age kaha, sunite pai sukhe
apurvamrta-nadi vahe tomara mukhe
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; age -- ahead; kaha -- please speak; sunite
-- to hear; pai -- I get; sukhe -- happiness; apurva-amrta -- of
unprecedented nectar; nadi -- a river; vahe -- flows; tomara mukhe --
from your mouth.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "Please speak on. I am very happy to
hear you because a river of unprecedented nectar is flowing from your
mouth.
Madhya 8.102
TEXT 102
TEXT
curi kari' radhake nila gopi-ganera dare
anyapeksa haile premera gadhata na sphure
SYNONYMS
curi kari' -- stealing; radhake -- Srimati Radharani; nila -- took away;
gopi-ganera -- of the gopis; dare -- out of fear; anya-apeksa --
dependence on others; haile -- if there is; premera -- of love; gadhata -
- the intensity; na -- not; sphure -- manifests.
TRANSLATION
"During the rasa dance Sri Krsna did not exchange loving affairs with
Srimati Radharani due to the presence of the other gopis. Because of the
dependence of the others, the intensity of love between Radha and Krsna
was not manifest. Therefore He stole Her away.
PURPORT
Out of fear of the other gopis, Lord Sri Krsna took Srimati Radharani to
a secluded place. In this regard, the verse kamsarir api (the following
verse 106) will be quoted from the Gita-govinda of
Jayadeva Gosvami.
Madhya 8.103
TEXT 103
TEXT
radha lagi' gopire yadi saksat kare tyaga
tabe jani, -- radhaya krsnera gadha-anuraga
SYNONYMS
radha lagi' -- for the sake of Srimati Radharani; gopire -- the gopis;
yadi -- if; saksat -- directly; kare -- does; tyaga -- rejection; tabe --
then; jani -- we can understand; radhaya -- in Srimati Radharani;
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; gadha -- intense; anuraga -- affection.
TRANSLATION
"If Lord Krsna rejected the company of the other gopis for Srimati
Radharani, we can understand that Lord Sri Krsna has intense affection
for Her."
Madhya 8.104
TEXT 104
TEXT
raya kahe, -- tabe suna premera mahima
tri-jagate radha-premera nahika upama
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; tabe -- then; suna -- please hear;
premera -- of that love; mahima -- the glories; tri-jagate -- within the
three worlds; radha-premera -- of the loving affairs of Srimati
Radharani; nahika -- there is not; upama -- comparison.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya continued, "Please therefore hear from me about the
glories of Srimati Radharani's loving affairs. They are beyond compare
within these three worlds.
Madhya 8.105
TEXT 105
TEXT
gopi-ganera rasa-nrtya-mandali chadiya
radha cahi' vane phire vilapa kariya
SYNONYMS
gopi-ganera -- of the gopis; rasa-nrtya -- of rasa dancing; mandali --
the circle; chadiya -- rejecting; radha -- Srimati Radharani; cahi' --
desiring; vane -- in the forest; phire -- wanders; vilapa -- lamentation;
kariya -- doing.
TRANSLATION
"Finding Herself treated equally with all the other gopis, Srimati
Radharani displayed Her tricky behavior and left the circle of the rasa
dance. Missing Srimati Radharani's presence, Krsna became very unhappy
and began to lament and wander throughout the forest to search Her out.
Madhya 8.106
TEXT 106
TEXT
kamsarir api samsara-
vasana-baddha-srnkhalam
radham adhaya hrdaye
tatyaja vraja-sundarih
SYNONYMS
kamsarih -- the enemy of Kamsa; api -- moreover; samsara-vasana --
desirous of the essence of enjoyment (rasa-lila); baddha-srnkhalam --
being perfectly attracted to such activities; radham -- Srimati
Radharani; adhaya -- taking; hrdaye -- within the heart; tatyaja -- left
aside; vraja-sundarih -- the other beautiful gopis.
TRANSLATION
" 'Lord Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa, took Srimati Radharani within His
heart, for He desired to dance with Her. Thus He left the area of the
rasa dance and the company of all the other beautiful damsels of Vraja.'
Madhya 8.107
TEXT 107
TEXT
itas-tatas tam anusrtya radhikam
ananga-vana-vrana-khinna-manasah
krtanutapah sa kalinda-nandini
tatanta-kunje visasada madhavah
SYNONYMS
itah-tatah -- hither and thither; tam -- Her; anusrtya -- searching out;
radhikam -- Srimati Radharani; ananga -- of Cupid; vana-vrana -- by a
wound from the arrow; khinna-manasah -- whose heart is injured; krta-
anutapah -- repentant for misbehavior; sah -- He (Lord Krsna); kalinda-
nandini -- of the River Yamuna; tata-anta -- on the edge of the bank;
kunje -- in the bushes; visasada -- lamented; madhavah -- Lord Krsna.
TRANSLATION
" 'Being afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and unhappily regretting His
mistreating Radharani, Madhava, Lord Krsna, began to search for
Srimati Radharani along the banks of the Yamuna River. When He failed to
find Her, He entered the bushes of Vrndavana and began to lament.'
PURPORT
These two verses are from the Gita-govinda (3.1, 2), written by Jayadeva
Gosvami.
Madhya 8.108
TEXT 108
TEXT
ei dui-slokera artha vicarile jani
vicarite uthe yena amrtera khani
SYNONYMS
ei -- these; dui -- two; slokera -- of the verses; artha -- the meanings;
vicarile -- if considering; jani -- I can understand; vicarite -- while
considering; uthe -- arises; yena -- like; amrtera -- of nectar; khani --
a mine.
TRANSLATION
"Simply by considering these two verses one can understand what nectar
there is in such dealings. It is exactly like freeing a mine of nectar.
Madhya 8.109
TEXT 109
TEXT
sata-koti gopi-sange rasa-vilasa
tara madhye eka-murtye rahe radha-pasa
SYNONYMS
sata-koti -- hundreds of thousands; gopi-sange -- with the gopis; rasa-
vilasa -- dancing in the rasa dance; tara madhye -- among them; eka-
murtye -- by one of His transcendental forms; rahe -- remains; radha-
pasa -- by the side of Srimati Radharani.
TRANSLATION
"Although Krsna was in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopis
during the rasa dance, He still kept Himself in one of His
transcendental forms by the side of Srimati Radharani.
Madhya 8.110
TEXT 110
TEXT
sadharana-preme dekhi sarvatra 'samata'
radhara kutila-preme ha-ila 'vamata'
SYNONYMS
sadharana-preme -- in general love of Godhead; dekhi -- we see; sarvatra
-- everywhere; samata -- equality; radhara -- of Srimati Radharani;
kutila-preme -- in the crooked love of Godhead; ha-ila -- there was;
vamata -- opposition.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna is equal to everyone in His general dealings, but due to the
conflicting ecstatic love of Srimati Radharani, there were opposing
elements.
Madhya 8.111
TEXT 111
TEXT
aher iva gatih premnah
svabhava-kutila bhavet
ato hetor ahetos ca
yunor mana udancati
SYNONYMS
aheh -- of the snake; iva -- like; gatih -- the movement; premnah -- of
the loving affairs; sva-bhava -- by nature; kutila -- crooked;
bhavet -- is; atah -- therefore; hetoh -- from some cause; ahetoh --
from the absence of a cause; ca -- and; yunoh -- of the young couple;
manah -- anger; udancati -- appears.
TRANSLATION
" 'The progress of loving affairs between young couples
is like the movement of a snake. On account of this, two types of
anger arise between young couples -- anger with cause and
anger without cause.'
PURPORT
During the rasa dance, one form of Krsna was between every two gopis.
However, by the side of Srimati Radharani there was only one Krsna.
Although this was the case, Srimati Radharani still manifested
disagreement with Krsna. This verse is from the Ujjvala-nilamani (
Srngara-bheda-kathana 102), written by Srila Rupa Gosvami.
Madhya 8.112
TEXT 112
TEXT
krodha kari' rasa chadi' gela mana kari'
tanre na dekhiya vyakula haila sri-hari
SYNONYMS
krodha kari' -- becoming angry; rasa chadi' -- leaving the rasa dance;
gela -- went; mana kari' -- being angry; tanre -- Srimati Radharani;
na dekhiya -- not seeing; vyakula -- very much anxious; haila -- became;
sri-hari -- Lord Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"When Radharani, out of anger and resentment, left
the rasa dance, Lord Sri Krsna, not seeing Her, became very anxious
.
Madhya 8.113
TEXT 113
TEXT
samyak-sara vasana krsnera rasa-lila
rasa-lila-vasanate radhika srnkhala
SYNONYMS
samyak-sara -- the complete and essential; vasana -- desire; krsnera --
of Lord Krsna; rasa-lila -- the dancing in the rasa-lila; rasa-lila-
vasanate -- in the desire to dance the rasa dance; radhika -- Srimati
Radharani; srnkhala -- the medium of bondage.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna's desire in the rasa-lila circle is perfectly complete, but
Srimati Radharani is the binding link in that desire.
Madhya 8.114
TEXT 114
TEXT
tanha vinu rasa-lila nahi bhaya citte
mandali chadiya gela radha anvesite
SYNONYMS
tanha vinu -- without Her; rasa-lila -- the rasa dance; nahi -- not;
bhaya -- illuminates; citte -- within the heart; mandali chadiya --
leaving the circle of the rasa dance; gela -- went; radha -- Srimati
Radharani; anvesite -- to search for.
TRANSLATION
"The rasa dance does not shine in the heart of Krsna without Srimati
Radharani. Therefore, He also gave up the circle of the rasa dance and
went out to search for Her.
Madhya 8.115
TEXT 115
TEXT
itas-tatah bhrami' kahan radha na pana
visada karena kama-vane khinna hana
SYNONYMS
itah-tatah -- here and there; bhrami' -- wandering; kahan -- anywhere;
radha -- Srimati Radharani; na -- not; pana -- finding; visada --
lamentation; karena -- does; kama-vane -- by the arrow of Cupid; khinna -
- hurt; hana -- becoming.
TRANSLATION
"When Krsna went out to search for Srimati Radharani, He wandered here
and there. However, not finding Her, He became afflicted by the arrow of
Cupid and began to lament.
Madhya 8.116
TEXT 116
TEXT
sata-koti-gopite nahe kama-nirvapana
tahatei anumani sri-radhikara guna
SYNONYMS
sata-koti -- hundreds and thousands; gopite -- in the midst of gopis;
nahe -- there is not; kama-nirvapana -- satisfaction of lust; tahatei --
by that way; anumani -- we can imagine; sri-radhikara guna -- the
transcendental quality of Srimati Radharani.
TRANSLATION
"Since Krsna's lusty desires were not satisfied even in the midst of
hundreds of thousands of gopis and He was thus searching after Srimati
Radharani, we can easily imagine how transcendentally qualified She is."
Madhya 8.117
TEXT 117
TEXT
prabhu kahe -- ye lagi' ailama toma-sthane
sei saba tattva-vastu haila mora jnane
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; ye lagi' -- for the matter of which;
ailama -- I have come; toma-sthane -- to your place; sei saba -- all
those; tattva-vastu -- objects of truth; haila -- were; mora -- My;
jnane -- in knowledge.
TRANSLATION
After hearing this, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu said to Ramananda Raya, "
That for which I have come to your residence has now become an object of
truth in My knowledge.
Madhya 8.118
TEXT 118
TEXT
ebe se janilun sadhya-sadhana-nirnaya
age ara ache kichu, sunite mana haya
SYNONYMS
ebe -- now; se -- that; janilun -- I have understood; sadhya -- of the
ultimate goal; sadhana -- and of the process; nirnaya -- the
ascertainment; age -- ahead; ara -- more; ache -- there is; kichu --
something; sunite -- to hear; mana -- the mind; haya -- it is.
TRANSLATION
"Now I have come to understand the sublime goal of life and the process
of achieving it. Nevertheless, I think that there is something more
ahead, and My mind is desiring to have it.
Madhya 8.119
TEXT 119
TEXT
'krsnera svarupa' kaha 'radhara svarupa'
'rasa' kon tattva, 'prema' -- kon tattva-rupa
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; svarupa -- the transcendental features; kaha --
speak; radhara -- of Srimati Radharani; svarupa -- the transcendental
features; rasa -- mellows; kon -- what; tattva -- that truth; prema --
love of Godhead; kon -- what; tattva-rupa -- actual form.
TRANSLATION
"Kindly explain the transcendental features of Krsna and Srimati
Radharani. Also explain the truth of transcendental mellow and the
transcendental form of love of Godhead.
Madhya 8.120
TEXT 120
TEXT
krpa kari' ei tattva kaha ta' amare
toma-vina keha iha nirupite nare
SYNONYMS
krpa kari' -- showing your mercy; ei tattva -- all these truths; kaha --
explain; ta' -- certainly; amare -- unto Me; toma-vina -- except for you;
keha -- someone; iha -- this; nirupite -- to ascertain; nare -- not
able.
TRANSLATION
"Kindly explain all these truths to Me. But for yourself, no one can
ascertain them."
Madhya 8.121
TEXT 121
TEXT
raya kahe, -- iha ami kichui na jani
tumi yei kahao, sei kahi ami vani
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya said; iha -- this; ami -- I; kichui --
something; na -- not; jani -- know; tumi -- You; yei -- whatever; kahao -
- make me say; sei -- those; kahi -- speak; ami -- I; vani -- words.
TRANSLATION
Sri Ramananda Raya replied, "I do not know anything about this. I simply
vibrate the sound You make me speak.
Madhya 8.122
TEXT 122
TEXT
tomara siksaya padi yena suka-patha
saksat isvara tumi, ke bujhe tomara nata
SYNONYMS
tomara siksaya -- by Your instruction; padi -- I read; yena -- like;
suka-patha -- the reading of a parrot; saksat -- directly; isvara --
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tumi -- You; ke -- who; bujhe -- can
understand; tomara -- Your; nata -- dramatic performance.
TRANSLATION
"I simply repeat like a parrot whatever instructions You have given me.
You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. Who can understand
Your dramatic performances?
Madhya 8.123
TEXT 123
TEXT
hrdaye prerana kara, jihvaya kahao vani
ki kahiye bhala-manda, kichui na jani
SYNONYMS
hrdaye -- within the heart; prerana -- direction; kara -- You give;
jihvaya -- on the tongue; kahao -- You make me speak; vani -- words; ki -
- what; kahiye -- I am speaking; bhala-manda -- good or bad; kichui --
something; na -- not; jani -- I know.
TRANSLATION
"You inspire me within the heart and make me speak with the tongue. I do
not know whether I am speaking well or badly."
Madhya 8.124
TEXT 124
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- mayavadi ami ta' sannyasi
bhakti-tattva nahi jani, mayavade bhasi
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord said; mayavadi -- a follower of the Mayavada
philosophy; ami -- I; ta' -- certainly; sannyasi -- one in the renounced
order of life; bhakti-tattva -- the truths of transcendental loving
service; nahi -- not; jani -- I know; mayavade -- in the philosophy of
impersonalism; bhasi -- I float.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "I am a Mayavadi in the renounced order
of life, and I do not even know what transcendental loving service to
the Lord is. I simply float in the ocean of Mayavada philosophy.
Madhya 8.125
TEXT 125
TEXT
sarvabhauma-sange mora mana nirmala ha-ila
'krsna-bhakti-tattva kaha,' tanhare puchila
SYNONYMS
sarvabhauma-sange -- in the company of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; mora --
My; mana -- mind; nirmala -- clarified; ha-ila -- became; krsna-bhakti-
tattva -- the truths of transcendental loving service to Krsna; kaha --
please explain; tanhare -- to him; puchila -- I inquired.
TRANSLATION
"Due to the association of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, My mind has been
enlightened. Therefore I have asked Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya about the
truths of transcendental loving service to Krsna.
Madhya 8.126
TEXT 126
TEXT
tenho kahe -- ami nahi jani krsna-katha
sabe ramananda jane, tenho nahi etha
SYNONYMS
tenho kahe -- he replied; ami -- I; nahi -- not; jani -- know; krsna-
katha -- topics of Lord Krsna; sabe -- all; ramananda -- Ramananda Raya;
jane -- knows; tenho -- he; nahi -- not; etha -- here.
TRANSLATION
"Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya told me, 'I do not actually know about the
topics of Lord Krsna. They are all known only to Ramananda Raya, but he
is not present here.' "
Madhya 8.127
TEXT 127
TEXT
tomara thani ailana tomara mahima suniya
tumi more stuti kara 'sannyasi' janiya
SYNONYMS
tomara-thani -- to your presence; ailana -- I have come; tomara -- your;
mahima -- glories; suniya -- hearing; tumi -- you; more -- Me; stuti --
praising; kara -- do; sannyasi -- a person in the renounced order of
life; janiya -- knowing as.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued: "After hearing about your
glories, I have come to your place. However, you are offering Me words
of praise out of respect for a sannyasi, one in the renounced order of
life.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains that a mundane person,
being enriched by mundane opulences, must always know that the
transcendental opulences of the advanced devotees are far more important
than the materialistic opulences of a person like himself. A
materialistic person with material opulences should not be very proud or
puffed up before a transcendental devotee. If one approaches a
transcendental devotee on the strength of his material heritage,
opulence, education and beauty and does not offer respect to the
advanced devotee of the Lord, the Vaisnava devotee may offer formal
respects to such a materially puffed-up person, but he may not deliver
transcendental knowledge to him. Indeed, the devotee sees him as a non-
brahmana or sudra. Such a puffed-up person cannot understand the science
of Krsna. A proud person is deceived in transcendental life and despite
attaining a human form will again glide into hellish
conditions. By His personal example, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu explains
how one should be submissive and humble before a Vaisnava, even though
one may be situated on a high platform. Such is the teaching of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the acarya of the world, the supreme spiritual
master and teacher.
Madhya 8.128
TEXT 128
TEXT
kiba vipra, kiba nyasi, sudra kene naya
yei krsna-tattva-vetta, sei 'guru' haya
SYNONYMS
kiba -- whether; vipra -- a brahmana; kiba -- whether; nyasi -- a
sannyasi; sudra -- a sudra; kene -- why; naya -- not; yei -- anyone who;
krsna-tattva-vetta -- a knower of the science of Krsna; sei -- that
person; guru -- the spiritual master; haya -- is.
TRANSLATION
"Whether one is a brahmana, a sannyasi or a sudra -- regardless of what
he is -- he can become a spiritual master if he knows the science of
Krsna."
PURPORT
This verse is very important to the Krsna consciousness movement. In his
Amrta-pravaha-bhasya, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains that one
should not think that because Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was born a
brahmana and was situated in the topmost spiritual order as a sannyasi,
it was improper for Him to receive instructions from Srila Ramananda
Raya, who belonged to the sudra caste. To clarify this matter, Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu informed Ramananda Raya that knowledge of Krsna
consciousness is more important than caste. In the system of varnasrama-
dharma there are various duties for the brahmanas, ksatriyas
and sudras. Actually the brahmana is supposed to be the spiritual master
of all other varnas or sects, but as far as Krsna consciousness is
concerned, everyone is capable of becoming a spiritual master because
knowledge in Krsna consciousness is on the platform of the spirit soul.
To spread Krsna consciousness, one need only be cognizant of the science
of the spirit soul. It does not matter whether one is a brahmana,
ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, sannyasi, grhastha or whatever. If one simply
understands this science, he can become a spiritual master.
It is stated in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa that one should not accept
initiation from a person who is not in the brahminical order if there is
a fit person in the brahminical order present. This instruction is meant
for those who are overly dependent on the mundane social order and is
suitable for those who want to remain in mundane life. If one
understands the truth of Krsna consciousness and seriously desires to
attain transcendental knowledge for the perfection of life, he can
accept a spiritual master from any social status, provided the spiritual
master is fully conversant with the science of Krsna. Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura also states that although one is
situated as a brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, vanaprastha,
grhastha or sannyasi, if he is conversant in the science of Krsna he
can become a spiritual master as vartma-pradarsaka-guru, diksa-guru or
siksa-guru. One who first gives information about
spiritual life is called the vartma-pradarsaka-guru or spiritual master.
The spiritual master who initiates according to the regulations of the
sastras is called diksa-guru, and the spiritual master who gives
instructions for elevation is called siksa-guru. Factually the
qualifications of a spiritual master depend on his knowledge of the
science of Krsna. It does not matter whether he is a brahmana, ksatriya,
sannyasi or sudra. This injunction given by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is
not at all against the injunctions of the sastras. In the Padma Purana
it is said:
na sudrah bhagavad-bhaktas
te 'pi bhagavatottamah
sarva-varnesu te sudra
ye na bhakta janardane
One who is actually advanced in spiritual knowledge of Krsna is never a
sudra, even though he may have been born in a sudra family. However,
if a vipra or a brahmana is very expert in the six brahminical
activities (pathana, pathana, yajana, yajana, dana, pratigraha) and is
also well versed in the Vedic hymns, he cannot become a spiritual master
unless he is a Vaisnava. But if one is born in the family of candalas
yet is well versed in Krsna consciousness, he can become a guru. These
are the sastric injunctions, and strictly following these injunctions,
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, as a grhastha named Sri Visvambhara, was
initiated by a sannyasi-guru named Isvara Puri. Similarly, Sri
Nityananda Prabhu was initiated by Madhavendra Puri, a sannyasi.
According to others, however, He was initiated by Laksmipati Tirtha.
Advaita Acarya, although a grhastha, was initiated by Madhavendra Puri,
and Sri Rasikananda, although born in a brahmana family, was initiated
by Sri Syamananda Prabhu, who was not born in a caste brahmana family.
There are many instances in which a born brahmana took initiation from a
person who was not born in a brahmana family. The brahminical symptoms
are explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.11.35), wherein it is stated:
yasya yal-laksanam proktam
pumso varnabhivyanjakam
yad anyatrapi drsyeta
tat tenaiva vinirdiset
If a person is born in a sudra family but has all the qualities of a
spiritual master, he should be accepted not only as a brahmana but as a
qualified spiritual master also. This is also the instruction of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Thakura therefore
introduced the sacred thread ceremony for all Vaisnavas according to the
rules and regulations.
Sometimes a Vaisnava who is a bhajananandi does not take the savitra-
samskara (sacred thread initiation), but this does not mean that this
system should be used for preaching work. There are two kinds of
Vaisnavas-bhajananandi and gosthyanandi. A bhajananandi is not
interested in preaching work, but a gosthyanandi is interested in
spreading Krsna consciousness to benefit the people and increase the
number of Vaisnavas. A Vaisnava is understood to be above the position
of a brahmana. As a preacher, he should be recognized as a brahmana;
otherwise there may be a misunderstanding of his position as a Vaisnava.
However, a Vaisnava brahmana is not selected on the basis of his birth
but according to his qualities. Unfortunately, those who are
unintelligent do not know the difference between a brahmana and a
Vaisnava. They are under the impression that unless one is a brahmana he
cannot be a spiritual master. For this reason only, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu makes the statement in this verse:
kiba vipra, kiba nyasi, sudra kene naya
yei krsna-tattva-vetta, sei 'guru' haya
If one becomes a guru, he is automatically a brahmana. Sometimes a caste
guru says that ye krsna-tattva-vetta, sei guru haya means that one who
is not a brahmana may become a siksa-guru or a vartma-pradarsaka-guru
but not an initiator guru. According to such caste gurus, birth and
family ties are considered foremost. However, the hereditary
consideration is not acceptable to Vaisnavas. The word guru is equally
applicable to the vartma-pradarsaka-guru, siksa-guru and diksa-guru.
Unless we accept the principle enunciated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu,
this Krsna consciousness movement cannot spread all over the world.
According to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's intentions: prthivite ache yata
nagaradi-grama sarvatra pracara haibe mora nama. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu'
s cult must be preached all over the world. This does not mean that
people should take to His teachings and remain sudras or candalas. As
soon as one is trained as a pure Vaisnava, he must be accepted as a bona
fide brahmana. This is the essence of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's
instructions in this verse.
Madhya 8.129
TEXT 129
TEXT
'sannyasi' baliya more na kariha vancana
krsna-radha-tattva kahi' purna kara mana
SYNONYMS
sannyasi -- a person in the renounced order of life; baliya -- taking as;
more -- Me; na kariha -- do not do; vancana -- cheating; krsna-radha-
tattva -- the truth about Radha-Krsna; kahi' -- describing; purna --
complete; kara -- make; mana -- my mind.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "Please do not try to cheat me,
thinking of Me as a learned sannyasi. Please satisfy My mind by just
describing the truth of Radha and Krsna."
Madhya 8.130-131
TEXTS 130-131
TEXT
yadyapi raya -- premi, maha-bhagavate
tanra mana krsna-maya nare acchadite
tathapi prabhura iccha -- parama prabala
janileha rayera mana haila talamala
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; raya -- Ramananda Raya; premi -- a great lover of
Krsna; maha-bhagavate -- a topmost devotee; tanra -- his; mana -- mind;
krsna-maya -- the illusory energy of Krsna; nare -- not able; acchadite -
- to cover; tathapi -- still; prabhura iccha -- the Lord's desire;
parama prabala -- very intense; janileha -- even though it was known;
rayera mana -- the mind of Ramananda Raya; haila -- there was; talamala -
- agitation.
TRANSLATION
Sri Ramananda Raya was a great devotee of the Lord and a lover of God,
and although his mind could not be covered by Krsna's illusory energy,
and although he could understand the mind of the Lord, which was very
strong and intense, Ramananda's mind became a little agitated.
PURPORT
The perfect devotee always acts according to the desires of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. However, a materialistic man is carried away by
the waves of the material energy. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has said,
mayara vase, yaccha bhese, khaccha habudubu, bhai.
A person under the
grip of the material energy is carried away by the waves of that
illusory energy. In other words, a person in the material world is a
servant of maya. However, a person in the spiritual energy is a servant
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although Ramananda Raya knew that
nothing was unknown to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, he nonetheless began to
speak further on the subject because the Lord desired it.
Madhya 8.132
TEXT 132
TEXT
raya kahe, -- "ami -- nata, tumi -- sutra-dhara
yei mata nacao, taiche cahi nacibara
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Ramananda Raya replied; ami -- I; nata -- dancer; tumi --
You; sutra-dhara -- the puller of the strings; yei -- whatever; mata --
way; nacao -- You make me dance; taiche -- in that way; cahi -- I want;
nacibara -- to dance.
TRANSLATION
Sri Ramananda Raya said, "I am just a dancing puppet, and You pull the
strings. Whichever way You make me dance, I will dance.
Madhya 8.133
TEXT 133
TEXT
mora jihva -- vina-yantra, tumi -- vina-dhari
tomara mane yei uthe, tahai uccari
SYNONYMS
mora jihva -- my tongue; vina-yantra -- a stringed instrument; tumi --
You; vina-dhari -- the player of the stringed instrument; tomara mane --
in Your mind; yei uthe -- whatever arises; tahai -- that; uccari -- I
vibrate.
TRANSLATION
"My dear Lord, my tongue is just like a stringed instrument, and You are
its player. Therefore I simply vibrate whatever arises in Your mind."
Madhya 8.134
TEXT 134
TEXT
parama isvara krsna -- svayam bhagavan
sarva-avatari, sarva-karana-pradhana
SYNONYMS
parama -- supreme; isvara -- controller; krsna -- Lord Krsna; svayam --
personally; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-
avatari -- the source of all incarnations; sarva-karana-pradhana -- the
supreme cause of all causes.
TRANSLATION
Ramananda Raya then began to speak on krsna-tattva. "He is the
Supreme Personality of Godhead," he said. "He is personally the original
Godhead, the source of all incarnations and the cause of all causes.
Madhya 8.135
TEXT 135
TEXT
ananta vaikuntha, ara ananta avatara
ananta brahmanda ihan, -- sabara adhara
SYNONYMS
ananta vaikuntha -- innumerable Vaikuntha planets; ara -- and; ananta
avatara -- innumerable incarnations; ananta brahmanda -- innumerable
universes; ihan -- in this material world; sabara -- of all of them;
adhara -- the resting place.
TRANSLATION
"There are innumerable Vaikuntha planets as well as innumerable
incarnations. In the material world also there are innumerable universes,
and Krsna is the supreme resting place for all of them.
Madhya 8.136
TEXT 136
TEXT
sac-cid-ananda-tanu, vrajendra-nandana
sarvaisvarya-sarvasakti-sarvarasa-purna
SYNONYMS
sat-cit-ananda-tanu -- Krsna's body is transcendental, full of knowledge,
bliss and eternity; vrajendra-nandana -- the son of Maharaja Nanda;
sarva-aisvarya -- all opulences; sarva-sakti -- all potencies; sarva-
rasa-purna -- the reservoir of all transcendental mellows.
TRANSLATION
"The transcendental body of Sri Krsna is eternal and full of bliss and
knowledge. He is the son of Nanda Maharaja. He is full of all opulences
and potencies, as well as all spiritual mellows.
Madhya 8.137
TEXT 137
TEXT
isvarah paramah krsnah
sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah
anadir adir govindah
sarva-karana-karanam
SYNONYMS
isvarah -- the controller; paramah -- supreme; krsnah -- Lord Krsna; sat
-- eternal existence; cit -- absolute knowledge; ananda -- absolute
bliss; vigrahah -- whose form; anadih -- without beginning; adih -- the
origin of everything; govindah -- a name of Lord Krsna; sarva -- all;
karana -- of causes; karanam -- He is the original cause.
TRANSLATION
" 'Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an
eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no
other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.'
PURPORT
This verse is from the Brahma-samhita (5.1) and also appears in Adi-
lila, Chapter Two, verse 107.
Madhya 8.138
TEXT 138
TEXT
vrndavane 'aprakrta navina madana'
kama-gayatri kama-bije yanra upasana
SYNONYMS
vrndavane -- in Vrndavana; aprakrta -- spiritual; navina -- new; madana -
- Cupid; kama-gayatri -- hymns of desire; kama-bije -- by the spiritual
seed of desire called klim; yanra -- of whom; upasana -- the worship.
TRANSLATION
"In the spiritual realm of Vrndavana, Krsna is the spiritual ever-fresh
Cupid. He is worshiped by the chanting of the kama-gayatri-mantra with
the spiritual seed klim.
PURPORT
This Vrndavana is described in the Brahma-samhita (5.56) in this way:
sriyah kantah kantah parama-purusah kalpa-taravo
druma bhumis cintamani-gana-mayi toyam amrtam
katha ganam natyam gamanam api vamsi priya-sakhi
cid-anandam jyotih param api tad asvadyam api ca
sa yatra ksirabdhih sravati surabhibhyas ca sumahan
nimesardhakhyo va vrajati na hi yatrapi samayah
bhaje sveta-dvipam tam aham iha golokam iti yam
vidantas te santah ksiti-virala-carah katipaye
The spiritual realm of Vrndavana is always spiritual. The goddess of
fortune and the gopis are always present there. They are beloved by
Krsna, and all of them are equally spiritual like Krsna. In
Vrndavana, Krsna is the Supreme Person and is the husband of all the
gopis and the goddess of fortune. The trees in Vrndavana are wish-
fulfilling trees. The land is made of touchstone, and the water is
nectar. Words are musical vibrations, and all movements are dancing. The
flute is the Lord's constant companion. The planet Goloka Vrndavana is
self-luminous like the sun and is full of spiritual bliss. The
perfection of life lies in tasting that spiritual existence; therefore
everyone should cultivate its knowledge. In Vrndavana, spiritual cows
are always supplying spiritual milk. Not a single moment is wasted there
-- in other words, there is no past, present or future. Not a single
particle of time is wasted. Within this material universe, the devotees
worship that transcendental abode as Goloka Vrndavana. Lord Brahma
himself said, "Let me worship that spiritual land where Krsna is present.
" This transcendental Vrndavana is not appreciated by those who are not
devotees or self-realized souls because this Vrndavana-dhama is all
spiritual. The pastimes of the Lord there are also spiritual. None are
material. According to the prayer of Srila Narottama dasa Thakura (
Prarthana 1):
ara kabe nitai-candera karuna haibe
samsara-vasana mora kabe tuccha ha'be.
"When will Lord Nityananda have mercy upon me so that I can realize the
uselessness of material pleasure?"
visaya-chadiya kabe suddha ha'be mana
kabe hama heraba sri-vrndavana
"When will my mind be cleansed of all material dirt so that I will be
able to feel the presence of spiritual Vrndavana?"
rupa-raghunatha-pade haibe akuti
kabe hama bujhaba se yugala-piriti
"When will I be attracted to the instructions of the Gosvamis so that I
will be able to understand what is Radha and Krsna and what is Vrndavana?
"
These verses indicate that one first has to be purified of all material
desires and all attraction for fruitive activity and speculative
knowledge if one wishes to understand Vrndavana.
In reference to the words aprakrta navina madana, "aprakrta" refers to
that which is the very opposite of the material conception. The
Mayavadis consider this to be zero or impersonal, but that is not the
case. Everything in the material world is dull, but in the spiritual
world everything is alive. The desire for enjoyment is present both in
Krsna and in His parts and parcels, the living entities. In the
spiritual world, such desires are also spiritual. No one should
mistakenly consider such desires to be material. In the material world,
if one is sexually inclined and enjoys sex life, he enjoys something
temporary. His enjoyment vanishes after a few minutes. However, in the
spiritual world the same enjoyment may be there, but it never vanishes.
It is continually enjoyed. In the spiritual world such sex desire
appears to the enjoyer to be more and more relishable with each new
feature. In the material world, however, sex enjoyment becomes
distasteful after a few minutes only, and it is never permanent. Because
Krsna appears very much sexually inclined, He is called the new Cupid in
the spiritual world. There is no material inebriety in such desire,
however.
Gayantam trayate yasmat gayatri tvam tatah smrta: if one chants the
gayatri-mantra, he is gradually delivered from the material clutches.
That which delivers one from material entanglement is
called gayatri. An explanation of the gayatri-mantra can be found in
Madhya-lila, Chapter Twenty-one, text 125:
kama-gayatri-mantra-rupa, haya krsnera svarupa,
sardha-cabbisa aksara tara haya
se aksara 'candra' haya, krsne kari' udaya,
trijagat kaila kama-maya
This mantra is just like a Vedic hymn, but it is the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. There is no difference between
the kama-gayatri and Krsna. Both are composed of twenty-four and a half
transcendental letters. The mantra depicted in
letters is also Krsna, and the mantra rises just like the moon. Due to
this, there is a perverted reflection of desire in human society and
among all kinds of living entities. In the mantra: klim kama-devaya
vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no 'nangah pracodayat, Krsna is called
Kama-deva or Madana-mohana, the Deity
who establishes our relationship with Krsna. Govinda, or puspa-bana,
who carries an arrow made of flowers, is the Personality of
Godhead who accepts our devotional service. Ananga, or Gopijana-
vallabha, satisfies all the gopis and is the ultimate goal of life.
This kama-gayatri (klim kama-devaya vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no '
nangah pracodayat) simply does not belong to this material world. When
one is advanced in spiritual understanding, he can worship the Supreme
Personality of Godhead with his spiritually purified senses and fulfill
the desires of the Lord.
man-mana bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi satyam te
pratijane priyo 'si me
"Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your
homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you
this because you are My very dear friend." (Bg. 18.65)
In Brahma-samhita it is stated (5.27-28):
atha venu-ninadasya
trayi-murti-mayi gatih
sphuranti pravivesasu
mukhabjani svayambhuvah
gayatrim gayatas tasmad
adhigatya saroja-jah
samskrtas cadi-guruna
dvijatam agamat tatah
trayya prabuddho 'tha vidhir
vijnata-tattva-sagarah
tustava veda-sarena
stotrenanena kesavam
"Then Gayatri, mother of the Vedas, having been manifested by the divine
sound of Sri Krsna's flute, entered the lotus mouth of Brahma, the self-
born, through his eight earholes. The lotus-born Brahma received
the gayatri-mantra, which had sprung from the song of Sri Krsna's flute.
Thus he attained twice-born status, having been initiated by
the supreme primal preceptor, Godhead Himself. Enlightened by the
recollection of that gayatri, which embodies the three Vedas, Brahma
became acquainted with the expanse of the ocean of truth. Then he
worshiped Sri Krsna, the essence of all the Vedas, with a hymn."
The vibration of Krsna's flute is the origin of the Vedic hymns. Lord
Brahma, who is seated on a lotus flower, heard the sound vibration of
Krsna's flute and was thereby initiated by the gayatri-mantra.
Madhya 8.139
TEXT 139
TEXT
purusa, yosit, kiba sthavara-jangama
sarva-cittakarsaka, saksat manmatha-madana
SYNONYMS
purusa -- a male; yosit -- a female; kiba -- all; sthavara-jangama --
living entities who cannot move and living entities who can move; sarva -
- of everyone; citta-akarsaka -- the attractor of the minds; saksat --
directly; manmatha-madana -- captivator of Cupid himself.
TRANSLATION
"The very name Krsna means that He attracts even Cupid. He is therefore
attractive to everyone -- male and female, moving and inert living
entities. Indeed, Krsna is known as the all-attractive one.
PURPORT
Just as there are many orbs in the material world called stars or
planets, in the spiritual world there are many spiritual planets called
Vaikunthalokas. The spiritual universe, however, is situated far, far
away from the cluster of material universes. Material scientists cannot
even estimate the number of planets and stars within this universe. They
are also incapable of traveling to other stars by spaceships. According
to Bhagavad-gita, there is also a spiritual world:
paras tasmat tu bhavo 'nyo
'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarvesu bhutesu
nasyatsu na vinasyati
"Yet there is another nature, which is eternal and is
transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme
and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that
part remains as it is." (Bg. 8.20)
Thus there is another nature, which is superior to material nature. The
word bhava or svabhava refers to nature. The spiritual nature is eternal,
and even when all the material universes are destroyed, the planets in
the spiritual world abide. They remain exactly as the spirit soul
remains even after the annihilation of the material body. That spiritual
world is called aprakrta, or the anti-material world.
In this transcendental spiritual world or universe, the highest
planetary system is known as Goloka Vrndavana. That is the abode of Lord
Krsna Himself, who is also all-spiritual. Krsna is known there as
Aprakrta-madana. The name Madana refers to Cupid, but Krsna is the
spiritual Madana. His body is not material like the body of Cupid in
this material universe. Krsna's body is all-spiritual -- sac-cid-ananda-
vigraha. Therefore He is called Aprakrta-madana. He is also
known as Manmatha-madana, which means that He is attractive even to
Cupid. Sometimes Krsna's activities and attractive features are
misinterpreted by gross materialists who accuse Him of being immoral
because He danced with the gopis, but such an accusation results from
not knowing that Krsna is beyond this material world. His body is sac-
cid-ananda-vigraha, completely spiritual. There is no material
contamination in His body, and one should not consider His body a lump
of flesh and bones. The Mayavadi philosophers conceive of Krsna's body
as material, and this is an abominable, gross, materialistic
conception. Just as Krsna is completely spiritual, the gopis are also
spiritual, and this is confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.37):
ananda-cin-maya-rasa-pratibhavitabhis
tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm,
Goloka, with Radha, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who
embodies the ecstatic potency [hladini]. Their companions are Her
confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued
and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."
The gopis are also of the same spiritual quality (nija-rupataya) because
they are expansions of Krsna's pleasure potency. Neither Krsna nor the
gopis have anything to do with lumps of matter or the material
conception. In the material world, the living entity is encaged within a
material body, and due to ignorance he thinks that he is the body.
Lusty desire, enjoyment between male and female,
is all material. One cannot compare the lusty desires of a
materialistic man to the lusty desires of Krsna. Unless
one is advanced in spiritual science, he cannot understand the lusty
desires between Krsna and the gopis. In Caitanya-caritamrta the
lusty desire of the gopis is compared to gold. The lusty desires of a
materialistic man, on the other hand, are compared to iron. At no stage
can iron and gold be compared. The living entities -- moving and
nonmoving -- are part and parcel of Krsna; therefore they originally
have the same kind of lusty desire. However, when this lusty
desire is expressed through matter, it is abominable. When a living
entity is spiritually advanced and liberated from material bondage, he
can understand Krsna in truth. As stated in Bhagavad-gita:
janma karma ca me divyam
evam yo vetti tattvatah
tyaktva deham punar janma
naiti mam eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities
does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material
world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." (Bg. 4.9)
When one can understand the body of Krsna as well as the Lord's lusty
desires, one is immediately liberated. A conditioned soul encaged within
the material body cannot understand Krsna. As stated in Bhagavad-
gita:
manusyanam sahasresu
kascid yatati siddhaye
yatatam api siddhanam
kascin mam vetti tattvatah
"Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and
of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth." (
Bg. 7.3)
The word siddhaye indicates liberation. Only after being liberated from
material conditioning can one understand Krsna. When one can understand
Krsna as He is (tattvatah), one actually lives in the spiritual world,
although apparently living within the material body. This technical
science can be understood when one is actually spiritually advanced.
In his Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.187), Srila Rupa Gosvami says:
iha yasya harer dasye karmana manasa gira
nikhilasv apy avasthasu jivan-muktah sa ucyate
When a person in this material world desires only to serve Krsna with
love and devotion, he is liberated, even though functioning within this
material world. As Bhagavad-gita confirms:
mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena
bhakti-yogena sevate
sa gunan samatityaitan
brahma-bhuyaya kalpate
"One who engages in full devotional service, who does not fall
down in any circumstance, at once transcends the modes of material
nature and thus comes to the level of Brahman." (Bg. 14.26)
Simply by engaging in the loving service of the Lord one can attain
liberation. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (18.54): brahma-bhutah
prasannatma na socati na kanksati. A person who is highly advanced in
spiritual knowledge and who has attained the brahma-bhuta
stage neither laments nor hankers for anything material. That is the
stage of spiritual realization.
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura considered the brahma-bhuta stage in two
divisions -- svarupa-gata and vastu-gata. When one has understood Krsna
in truth but is still maintaining some material connection, he is known
to be situated in his svarupa, his original consciousness. When that
original consciousness is completely spiritual, it is called Krsna
consciousness. One who lives in such consciousness is actually living in
Vrndavana. He may live anywhere; material location doesn't matter. When
by the grace of Krsna one thus advances, he becomes completely
uncontaminated by the material body and mind and at that time factually
lives in Vrndavana. That stage is called vastu-gata.
One should execute his spiritual activities in the svarupa-gata stage of
consciousness. He should also chant the cinmayi gayatri, the spiritual
mantras: om namo bhagavate vasudevaya, or
klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha. Klim
kamadevaya vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no 'nangah pracodayat.
These are the kama-gayatri or kama-bija mantras. One should be
initiated by a bona fide spiritual master and worship Krsna with these
transcendental mantras known as kama-gayatri or kama-bija.
As explained by Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami
:
vrndavane 'aprakrta navina madana'
kama-gayatri kama-bije yanra upasana
purusa, yosit, kiba sthavara-jangama
sarva-cittakarsaka, saksat manmatha-madana
(Cc. Madhya 8.138-139)
A person who is properly purified and initiated by the spiritual
master worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, by
this mantra. He chants the kama-gayatri with the kama-bija. As
Bhagavad-gita confirms, one should engage in transcendental
worship in order to be fit for being attracted by Krsna, the all-
attractive.
man-mana bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi satyam te
pratijane priyo 'si me
"Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your
homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you
this because you are My very dear friend." (Bg. 18.65)
Since every living entity is part and parcel of Krsna, Krsna is
naturally attractive. Due to material covering, one's attraction for
Krsna is checked. One is not usually attracted by Krsna in the material
world, but as soon as one is liberated from material conditioning, he is
naturally attracted. Therefore it is said in this verse, sarva-
cittakarsaka. Everyone is naturally attracted by Krsna. This
attraction is within everyone's heart, and when the heart is cleansed,
attraction is manifest (ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-maha-davagni-
nirvapanam).
Madhya 8.140
TEXT 140
TEXT
tasam avirabhuc chaurih
smayamana-mukhambujah
pitambara-dharah sragvi
saksan manmatha-manmathah
SYNONYMS
tasam -- among them; avirabhut -- appeared; saurih -- Lord Krsna;
smayamana -- smiling; mukha-ambujah -- lotus face; pita-ambara-dharah --
dressed with yellow garments; sragvi -- decorated with a flower garland;
saksat -- directly; manmatha -- of Cupid; manmathah -- Cupid.
TRANSLATION
" 'When Krsna left the rasa-lila dance, the gopis became very morose,
and when they were grieving, Krsna reappeared dressed in yellow garments.
Wearing a flower garland and smiling, He was attractive even to Cupid.
In this way Krsna appeared among the gopis.'
PURPORT
This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.2).
Madhya 8.141
TEXT 141
TEXT
nana-bhaktera rasamrta nana-vidha haya
sei saba rasamrtera 'visaya' 'asraya'
SYNONYMS
nana-bhaktera -- of various types of devotees; rasa-amrta -- the nectar
of devotion or transcendental mellows; nana-vidha -- different varieties;
haya -- there are; sei saba -- all these; rasa-amrtera -- of the nectar
of devotion; visaya -- subject; asraya -- object.
TRANSLATION
"Each and every devotee has a certain type of transcendental mellow in
relation to Krsna. However, in all transcendental relationships the
devotee is the worshiper [asraya], and Krsna is the object of worship [
visaya].
Madhya 8.142
TEXT 142
TEXT
akhila-rasamrta-murtih
prasrmara-ruci-ruddha-taraka-palih
kalita-syama-lalito
radha-preyan vidhur jayati
SYNONYMS
akhila-rasa-amrta-murtih -- the reservoir of all pleasure, in which
exist the mellows, namely santa, dasya, sakhya,
vatsalya and madhurya; prasrmara -- spreading forth; ruci -- by His
bodily luster; ruddha -- who has subjugated; taraka -- the gopi named
Taraka; palih -- the gopi named Pali; kalita -- who has absorbed
; syama -- the gopi named Syama; lalitah -- and the gopi named
Lalita; radha-preyan -- dearmost to Srimati Radharani; vidhuh -- Krsna,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jayati -- all glories to.
TRANSLATION
" 'Let Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, be glorified! By
virtue of His expanding attractive features, He subjugated the gopis
named Taraka and Pali and absorbed Syama and Lalita. He is
the most attractive lover of Srimati Radharani and is the reservoir of
pleasure for all devotional mellows.'
PURPORT
Everyone has a particular transcendental mellow by which he loves and
serves Krsna. Krsna is the most attractive feature for every kind of
devotee. He is therefore called akhila-rasamrta-murti, the
transcendental form of attraction for all kinds of devotees, whether the
devotee be in the santa-rasa, dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, madhurya-rasa or
vatsalya-rasa.
This is the opening verse of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu by Srila Rupa
Gosvami.
Madhya 8.143
TEXT 143
TEXT
srngara-rasaraja-maya-murti-dhara
ataeva atma-paryanta-sarvacitta-hara
SYNONYMS
srngara-rasa-raja-maya -- consisting of the mellow of conjugal love,
which is the king of mellows; murti-dhara -- Krsna, the personified
reservoir of all pleasure; ataeva -- therefore; atma-paryanta -- even up
to His own self; sarva -- all; citta -- of hearts; hara -- the attractor.
TRANSLATION
"Krsna is all-attractive for all devotional mellows because He
is the personification of the conjugal mellow. Krsna is attractive not
only to all the devotees, but to Himself as well.
Madhya 8.144
TEXT 144
TEXT
visvesam anuranjanena janayann anandam indivara-
sreni-syamala-komalair upanayann angair anangotsavam
svacchandam vraja-sundaribhir abhitah pratyangam alingitah
srngarah sakhi murtiman iva madhau mugdho harih kridati
SYNONYMS
visvesam -- of all the gopis; anuranjanena -- by the act of pleasing;
janayan -- producing; anandam -- the bliss; indivara-sreni -- like a row
of blue lotuses; syamala -- bluish black; komalaih -- and soft; upanayan
-- bringing; angaih -- with His limbs; ananga-utsavam -- a festival for
Cupid; svacchandam -- without restriction; vraja-sundaribhih -- by the
young women of Vraja; abhitah -- on both sides; prati-angam -- each limb;
alingitah -- embraced; srngarah -- amorous love; sakhi -- O friend;
murtiman -- embodied; iva -- like; madhau -- in the springtime;
mugdhah -- perplexed; harih -- Lord Hari; kridati -- plays.
TRANSLATION
" 'My dear friends, just see how Sri Krsna is enjoying the season of
spring! With the gopis embracing each of His limbs, He is like amorous
love personified. With His transcendental pastimes, He enlivens all the
gopis and the entire creation. With His soft bluish black arms and legs,
which resemble blue lotus flowers, He has created a festival for Cupid.'
PURPORT
This is a verse from the Gita-govinda (1.11). See also Caitanya-
caritamrta, Adi-lila, Chapter Four, text 224.
Madhya 8.145
TEXT 145
TEXT
laksmi-kantadi avatarera hare mana
laksmi-adi nari-ganera kare akarsana
SYNONYMS
laksmi-kanta-adi -- of the husband of the goddess of fortune (
Narayana); avatarera -- of the incarnation; hare -- He enchants; mana --
the mind; laksmi -- the goddess of fortune; adi -- headed by; nari-
ganera -- of all women; kare -- does; akarsana -- attraction.
TRANSLATION
"He also attracts Narayana, the incarnation of Sankarsana and the
husband of the goddess of fortune. He attracts not only Narayana, but
all women, headed by the goddess of fortune, the consort of
Narayana.
Madhya 8.146
TEXT 146
TEXT
dvijatmaja me yuvayor didrksuna
mayopanita bhuvi dharma-guptaye
kalavatirnav avaner bharasuran
hatveha bhuyas tvarayetam anti me
SYNONYMS
dvija-atma-jah -- the sons of the brahmana; me -- by Me; yuvayoh -- of
both of you; didrksuna -- desiring the sight; maya -- by Me; upanitah --
brought; bhuvi -- in the world; dharma-guptaye -- for the protection of
religious principles; kala -- with all potencies; avatirnau -- who
descended; avaneh -- of the world; bhara-asuran -- the heavy load of
demons; hatva -- having killed; iha -- here in the spiritual world;
bhuyah -- again; tvaraya -- very soon; itam -- please come back; anti --
near; me -- Me.
TRANSLATION
"Addressing Krsna and Arjuna, Lord Maha-Visnu [the Mahapurusa] said, '
I wanted to see both of you, and therefore I have brought the sons of
the brahmana here. Both of you have appeared in the material world to
reestablish religious principles, and you have both appeared here with
all your potencies. After killing all the demons, please quickly return
to the spiritual world.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.89.58) concerning Krsna's
endeavor to take Arjuna beyond the material universe when Arjuna was
searching for the sons of a brahmana.
Lord Maha-Visnu, who is situated beyond this material world, was also
attracted by the bodily features of Krsna. Maha-Visnu had actually
stolen the sons of the brahmana in Dvaraka so that Krsna and Arjuna
would come visit Him. This verse is quoted to show that Krsna is so
attractive that He attracts Maha-Visnu.
Madhya 8.147
TEXT 147
TEXT
kasyanubhavo 'sya na deva vidmahe
tavanghri-renu-sparasadhikarah
yad-vanchaya srir lalanacarat tapo
vihaya kaman suciram dhrta-vrata
SYNONYMS
kasya -- of what; anubhavah -- a result; asya -- of the serpent (Kaliya);
na -- not; deva -- my Lord; vidmahe -- we know; tava-anghri -- of Your
lotus feet; renu -- of the dust; sparasa -- for touching; adhikarah --
qualification; yat -- which; vanchaya -- by desiring; srih -- the
goddess of fortune; lalana -- the topmost woman; acarat -- performed;
tapah -- austerity; vihaya -- giving up; kaman -- all desires;
suciram -- for a long time; dhrta -- a law upheld; vrata -- as a
vow.
TRANSLATION
" 'O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kaliya attained such an
opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. For this end,
the goddess of fortune performed austerities for centuries, giving up
all other desires and taking austere vows. Indeed, we do not know how
this serpent Kaliya got such an opportunity.'
PURPORT
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.36) was spoken by the wives of
the Kaliya demon.
Madhya 8.148
TEXT 148
TEXT
apana-madhurye hare apanara mana
apana apani cahe karite alingana
SYNONYMS
apana -- own; madhurye -- by sweetness; hare -- steals; apanara -- His
own; mana -- mind; apana -- Himself; apani -- He; cahe -- wants; karite -
- to do; alingana -- embracing.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna's sweetness is so attractive that it steals away His own
mind. Thus He even wants to embrace Himself.
Madhya 8.149
TEXT 149
TEXT
aparikalita-purvah kas camatkara-kari
sphurati mama gariyan esa madhurya-purah
ayam aham api hanta preksya yam lubdha-cetah
sarabhasam upabhoktum kamaye radhikeva
SYNONYMS
aparikalita-purvah -- not previously experienced; kah -- who; camatkara-
kari -- causing wonder; sphurati -- manifests; mama -- My; gariyan --
more great; esah -- this; madhurya-purah -- abundance of sweetness; ayam
-- this; aham -- I; api -- even; hanta -- alas; preksya -- seeing; yam --
which; lubdha-cetah -- My mind being bewildered; sa-rabhasam --
impetuously; upabhoktum -- to enjoy; kamaye -- desire; radhika iva --
like Srimati Radharani.
TRANSLATION
" 'Upon seeing His own reflection in a bejeweled pillar of His Dvaraka
palace, Krsna desired to embrace it, saying, "Alas, I have never seen
such a person before. Who is He? Just by seeing Him I have become eager
to embrace Him, exactly like Srimati Radharani." ' "
PURPORT
This is a verse from Srila Rupa Gosvami's Lalita-madhava (8.34).
Madhya 8.150
TEXT 150
TEXT
ei ta' sanksepe kahila krsnera svarupa
ebe sanksepe kahi suna radha-tattva-rupa
SYNONYMS
ei ta' -- thus; sanksepe -- in brief; kahila -- I have said; krsnera --
of Lord Krsna; svarupa -- the original form; ebe -- now; sanksepe -- in
summary; kahi -- I shall speak; suna -- please hear; radha -- of Srimati
Radharani; tattva-rupa -- the actual position.
TRANSLATION
Sri Ramananda Raya then said, "I have thus briefly explained the
original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now let me describe
the position of Srimati Radharani.
Madhya 8.151
TEXT 151
TEXT
krsnera ananta-sakti, tate tina -- pradhana
'cic-chakti', 'maya-sakti', 'jiva-sakti'-nama
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; ananta-sakti -- unlimited potencies; tate --
in that; tina -- three; pradhana -- chief; cit-sakti -- spiritual
potency; maya-sakti -- material potency; jiva-sakti -- marginal potency,
or living entities; nama -- named.
TRANSLATION
"Krsna has unlimited potencies, which can be divided into three main
parts. These are the spiritual potency, the material potency and the
marginal potency, which is known as the living entities.
Madhya 8.152
TEXT 152
TEXT
'antaranga', 'bahiranga', 'tatastha' kahi yare
antaranga 'svarupa-sakti' -- sabara upare
SYNONYMS
antaranga -- internal; bahiranga -- external; tata-stha -- marginal;
kahi -- we say; yare -- to whom; antaranga -- the internal potency;
svarupa-sakti -- the personal energy; sabara upare -- above all.
TRANSLATION
"In other words, these are all potencies of God -- internal, external
and marginal. However, the internal potency is the Lord's personal
energy and stands over the other two.
Madhya 8.153
TEXT 153
TEXT
visnu-saktih para prokta
ksetrajnakhya tatha para
avidya-karma-samjnanya
trtiya saktir isyate
SYNONYMS
visnu-saktih -- the potency of Lord Visnu; para -- spiritual; prokta --
it is said; ksetrajna-akhya -- the potency known as ksetrajna; tatha
-- as well as; para -- spiritual; avidya -- ignorance; karma -- fruitive
activities; samjna -- known as; anya -- other; trtiya -- third; saktih --
potency; isyate -- known thus.
TRANSLATION
" 'The original potency of Lord Visnu is superior or spiritual. The
living entity actually belongs to that superior energy, but there is
another energy, called the material energy, and this third energy is
full of ignorance.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from the Visnu Purana (6.7.61).
Madhya 8.154
TEXT 154
TEXT
sac-cid-ananda-maya krsnera svarupa
ataeva svarupa-sakti haya tina rupa
SYNONYMS
sat-cit-ananda-maya -- eternal bliss and knowledge; krsnera -- of Lord
Krsna; svarupa -- the real transcendental form; ataeva -- therefore;
svarupa-sakti -- His spiritual personal potency; haya -- is; tina rupa --
three forms.
TRANSLATION
"Originally Lord Krsna is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the
transcendental form of eternity, bliss and knowledge; therefore His
personal potency, the internal potency, has three different forms.
Madhya 8.155
TEXT 155
TEXT
anandamse 'hladini', sad-amse 'sandhini'
cid-amse 'samvit', yare jnana kari' mani
SYNONYMS
ananda-amse -- in bliss; hladini -- the pleasure-giving potency; sat-
amse -- in eternity; sandhini -- the creative potency; cit-amse -- in
knowledge; samvit -- samvit; yare -- which; jnana --
knowledge; kari' -- taking as; mani -- I accept.
TRANSLATION
"Hladini is His aspect of bliss; sandhini, of eternal existence; and
samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.
Madhya 8.156
TEXT 156
TEXT
hladini sandhini samvit
tvayy eka sarva-samsraye
hlada-tapa-kari misra
tvayi no guna-varjite
SYNONYMS
hladini -- that which generates pleasure; sandhini -- the potency of
existence; samvit -- the potency of knowledge; tvayi -- unto You; eka --
principal internal potency; sarva-samsraye -- You are the reservoir of
all potencies; hlada -- pleasure; tapa-kari -- generator of pains; misra
-- mixed; tvayi -- unto You; no -- never; guna-varjite -- You,
transcendence, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
" 'My dear Lord, You are the transcendental reservoir of all
transcendental qualities. Your pleasure potency, existence potency and
knowledge potency are actually all one spiritual internal
potency. The conditioned soul, although actually spiritual, experiences
sometimes pleasure, sometimes pain and sometimes a mixture
of pain and pleasure. This is due to his being touched by matter.
However, because You are above all material qualities, these are not
found in You. Your superior spiritual potency is completely
transcendental, and for You there is no such thing as relative pleasure,
pleasure mixed with pain, or pain itself.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from the Visnu Purana (1.12.69).
Madhya 8.157
TEXT 157
TEXT
krsnake ahlade, ta'te nama -- 'hladini'
sei sakti-dvare sukha asvade apani
SYNONYMS
krsnake -- unto Krsna; ahlade -- gives pleasure; ta'te -- therefore;
nama -- the name; hladini -- pleasure-giving potency; sei sakti -- that
potency; dvare -- by means of; sukha -- happiness; asvade -- tastes;
apani -- Lord Krsna personally.
TRANSLATION
"The potency called hladini gives Krsna transcendental pleasure. Through
this pleasure potency, Krsna personally tastes all spiritual pleasure.
Madhya 8.158
TEXT 158
TEXT
sukha-rupa krsna kare sukha asvadana
bhakta-gane sukha dite 'hladini' -- karana
SYNONYMS
sukha-rupa -- embodiment of pleasure; krsna -- Lord Krsna; kare -- does;
sukha -- happiness; asvadana -- tasting; bhakta-gane -- unto the
devotee; sukha -- happiness; dite -- to give; hladini -- the pleasure
potency; karana -- the cause.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Krsna tastes all kinds of transcendental happiness, although He
Himself is happiness personified. The pleasure relished by His pure
devotee is also manifest by His pleasure potency.
Madhya 8.159
TEXT 159
TEXT
hladinira sara amsa, tara 'prema' nama
ananda-cinmaya-rasa premera akhyana
SYNONYMS
hladinira -- of this pleasure potency; sara -- the essential; amsa --
part; tara -- its; prema -- love of God; nama -- name; ananda -- full of
pleasure; cit-maya-rasa -- the platform of spiritual mellows; premera --
of love of Godhead; akhyana -- the explanation.
TRANSLATION
"The most essential part of this pleasure potency is love of Godhead [
prema]. Consequently, the explanation of love of Godhead is also a
transcendental mellow full of pleasure.
Madhya 8.160
TEXT 160
TEXT
premera parama-sara 'mahabhava' jani
sei mahabhava-rupa radha-thakurani
SYNONYMS
premera -- of love of Godhead; parama-sara -- the essential part; maha-
bhava -- the transcendental ecstasy of the name mahabhava; jani -- we
know; sei -- that; maha-bhava-rupa -- the personification of the
mahabhava transcendental ecstasy; radha-thakurani -- Srimati Radharani.
TRANSLATION
"The essential part of love of Godhead is called mahabhava,
transcendental ecstasy, and that ecstasy is represented by Srimati
Radharani.
Madhya 8.161
TEXT 161
TEXT
tayor apy ubhayor madhye
radhika sarvathadhika
mahabhava-svarupeyam
gunair ativariyasi
SYNONYMS
tayoh -- of them; api -- even; ubhayoh -- of both (Candravali and
Radharani); madhye -- in the middle; radhika -- Srimati Radharani;
sarvatha -- in every way; adhika -- greater; maha-bhava-svarupa -- the
form of mahabhava; iyam -- this one; gunaih -- with good qualities;
ativariyasi -- the best of all.
TRANSLATION
" 'Among the gopis of Vrndavana, Srimati Radharani and another gopi are
considered chief. However, when we compare the gopis, it appears that
Srimati Radharani is most important because Her real feature expresses
the highest ecstasy of love. The ecstasy of love experienced by the
other gopis cannot be compared to that of Srimati Radharani.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srila Rupa Gosvami's Ujjvala-nilamani (4.
3).
Madhya 8.162
TEXT 162
TEXT
premera 'svarupa-deha' -- prema-vibhavita
krsnera preyasi-srestha jagate vidita
SYNONYMS
premera -- love of Godhead; svarupa-deha -- actual body; prema -- by
love of Godhead; vibhavita -- influence; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna;
preyasi -- of the dear friends; srestha -- topmost; jagate -- throughout
the whole world; vidita -- known.
TRANSLATION
"The body of Srimati Radharani is the veritable transformation of love
of Godhead; She is the dearmost friend of Krsna, and this is known
throughout the world.
Madhya 8.163
TEXT 163
TEXT
ananda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhavitabhis
tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasty akhilatma-bhuto
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
SYNONYMS
ananda -- bliss; cit -- knowledge; maya -- consisting of; rasa --
mellows; prati -- every second; bhavitabhih -- who are engrossed with;
tabhih -- with those; yah -- who; eva -- certainly; nija-rupataya --
with His own form; kalabhih -- who are parts of portions of His pleasure
potency; goloke -- in Goloka Vrndavana; eva -- certainly; nivasti --
resides; akhila-atma -- as the soul of all; bhutah -- who exists;
govindam -- Lord Govinda; adi-purusam -- the original personality; tam --
Him; aham -- I; bhajami -- worship.
TRANSLATION
" 'I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm,
Goloka, with Radha, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who
embodies the ecstatic potency [hladini]. Their companions are Her
confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued
and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Brahma-samhita (5.37).
Madhya 8.164
TEXT 164
TEXT
sei mahabhava haya 'cintamani-sara'
krsna-vancha purna kare ei karya tanra
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; maha-bhava -- supreme ecstasy; haya -- is; cintamani-sara --
the essence of spiritual life; krsna-vancha -- all the desires of Lord
Krsna; purna kare -- fulfills; ei -- this; karya -- business; tanra --
Her.
TRANSLATION
"That supreme ecstasy of Srimati Radharani is the essence of spiritual
life. Her only business is to fulfill all the desires of Krsna.
Madhya 8.165
TEXT 165
TEXT
'mahabhava-cintamani' radhara svarupa
lalitadi sakhi -- tanra kaya-vyuha-rupa
SYNONYMS
maha-bhava -- of the topmost spiritual ecstasy; cinta-mani -- the
touchstone; radhara svarupa -- the transcendental form of Srimati
Radharani; lalita-adi sakhi -- the gopi associates of Srimati Radharani;
tanra kaya-vyuha-rupa -- expansions of Her spiritual body.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani is the topmost spiritual gem, and the other gopis --
Lalita, Visakha and so on -- are expansions of Her spiritual body.
Madhya 8.166
TEXT 166
TEXT
radha-prati krsna-sneha -- sugandhi udvartana
ta'te ati sugandhi deha -- ujjvala-varana
SYNONYMS
radha-prati -- toward Srimati Radharani; krsna-sneha -- the affection of
Lord Krsna; su-gandhi udvartana -- perfumed massage; ta'te -- in that;
ati -- very; sugandhi -- perfumed; deha -- the body; ujjvala --
brilliant; varana -- luster.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's transcendental body is brilliant in luster and full
of all transcendental flavors. Lord Krsna's affection for Her is like
a perfumed massage.
PURPORT
Sugandhi udvartana refers to a paste made of several perfumes and
flavored oils. This paste is massaged all over the body, and in this way
the body's dirt and perspiration are removed. Srimati Radharani's body
is automatically perfumed, but when Her body is massaged with the
scented paste of Lord Krsna's affection, Her entire body is doubly
perfumed and made brilliant and lustrous. This is the beginning of
Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami's description of Srimati Radharani's
transcendental body. This description is based on the book
known as Premambhoja-maranda compiled by Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami.
Srila Kaviraja Gosvami's descriptions in verses 165-181 are
based on this book. A translation of the original
Sanskrit as described by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura reads as follows:
"The love of the gopis for Krsna is full of transcendental ecstasy. It
appears to be a brilliant jewel, and enlightened by such a
transcendental jewel, Radharani's body is further perfumed and decorated
with kunkuma. In the morning Her body is bathed in the nectar of
compassion, in the afternoon in the nectar of youth, and in the evening
in the nectar of luster itself. In this way the bathing is performed,
and Her body becomes as brilliant as the cintamani jewel. Her dress is
composed of various kinds of silken garments, which may be compared to
Her natural shyness.
Her beauty is more and more enhanced, being decorated with kunkuma,
which is compared to beauty itself, and with blackish musk, which is
compared to conjugal love. Thus Her body is decorated with different
colors. The kunkuma is red, and the musk is black. Her ornaments embody
the natural symptoms of ecstasy -- trembling, tears, jubilation,
stunning, perspiration, faltering of the voice, bodily redness, madness
and dullness. In this way the entire body is bedecked with these nine
different jewels. Over and above this, the beauty of Her body is
enhanced by Her transcendental qualities, which hang as a flower
garland on Her body. The ecstasy of love for Krsna is known as
dhira and adhira, sober and restless. Such ecstasy constitutes the
covering of Srimati Radharani's body, and it is adorned by camphor. Her
transcendental anger toward Krsna is embodied as the arrangement of the
hair on Her head, and the tilaka of Her great fortune shines on Her
beautiful forehead. The earrings of Srimati Radharani are the
holy names of Krsna, as well as the hearing of His name and fame. Her
lips are always reddish due to the betel nut of ecstatic affection for
Krsna. The black ointment around Her eyes is Her tricky behavior with
Krsna brought about by love. Her joking with Krsna and gentle smiling
is the camphor with which She is perfumed. She sleeps in Her
room with the aroma of pride, and when She lies down in Her bed, the
transcendental variety of Her loving ecstasies is like a jeweled locket
in the midst of Her necklace of separation. Her transcendental breasts
are covered by Her sari in the form of affection and anger toward Krsna.
She has a stringed instrument known as a kacchapi-vina, which is the
fame and fortune that actually dries up the faces and breasts of the
other gopis. She always keeps Her hands on the shoulder of Her gopi
friend, who is compared to Her youthful beauty, and although She
is highly qualified with so many spiritual assets, She is nonetheless
affected by the Cupid known as Krsna. Thus She is defeated. Srila
Raghunatha dasa Gosvami offers his respectful obeisances to Srimati
Radharani, taking a straw in his mouth. Indeed, he prays, 'O Gandharvika,
Srimati Radharani, just as Lord Krsna never rejects a surrendered soul,
please don't reject me.' " This is a summary translation of the
Premambhoja-maranda which Kaviraja Gosvami quotes.
Madhya 8.167
TEXT 167
TEXT
karunyamrta-dharaya snana prathama
tarunyamrta-dharaya snana madhyama
SYNONYMS
karunya-amrta -- of the nectar of mercy; dharaya -- in the shower; snana
-- bath; prathama -- first; tarunya-amrta -- of the nectar of youth;
dharaya -- in the shower; snana -- bath; madhyama -- in the middle.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani takes Her first bath in the shower of the nectar of
compassion, and She takes Her second bath in the nectar of youth.
PURPORT
Srimati Radharani first smears Her body with the paste of
affection for Krsna. She then takes Her bath in the water of mercy.
After passing the pauganda age (from five to ten years), Srimati
Radharani first appears as mercy. The second bath, taken at noon, is
taken in the water of tarunyamrta, or the nectar of youth. This is the
actual expression of Her new youthfulness.
Madhya 8.168
TEXT 168
TEXT
lavanyamrta-dharaya tad-upari snana
nija-lajja-syama-pattasati-paridhana
SYNONYMS
lavanya-amrta-dharaya -- in the shower of the nectar of bodily luster;
tat-upari -- over and above that; snana -- the bath; nija -- own; lajja -
- shyness; syama -- blackish; patta -- silk; sati -- garments; paridhana
-- wearing.
TRANSLATION
"After Her midday bath, Radharani takes another bath in the nectar of
bodily luster, and She puts on the garment of shyness, which is exactly
like a black silk sari.
PURPORT
Over and above the other baths, the bath taken in the afternoon is taken
in the nectar of full beauty. This nectar represents the personal
qualities of beauty and luster. Thus there are three baths in different
kinds of water. Radharani then puts on two dresses -- a lower and
upper dress. The upper dress is Her attachment
for Krsna, and the lower dress is Her shyness. That lower
portion is compared to a blackish silk garment or a bluish sari, and Her
upper garment is pinkish. That pink garment is Her affection and
attraction for Krsna.
Madhya 8.169
TEXT 169
TEXT
krsna-anuraga dvitiya aruna-vasana
pranaya-mana-kanculikaya vaksa acchadana
SYNONYMS
krsna-anuraga -- attraction for Krsna; dvitiya -- second; aruna-vasana --
pinkish garment; pranaya -- of love; mana -- and anger; kanculikaya --
by a short blouse; vaksa -- breasts; acchadana -- covering.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's affection for Krsna is the upper garment, which is
pinkish in color. She then covers Her breasts with another garment,
comprised of affection and anger toward Krsna.
Madhya 8.170
TEXT 170
TEXT
saundarya -- kunkuma, sakhi-pranaya -- candana
smita-kanti -- karpura, tine -- ange vilepana
SYNONYMS
saundarya -- Her personal beauty; kunkuma -- a red powder known as
kunkuma; sakhi-pranaya -- Her love for Her associates; candana -- the
sandalwood pulp; smita-kanti -- the sweetness of Her smile; karpura --
camphor; tine -- by these three things; ange -- on the body; vilepana --
smearing.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's personal beauty is compared to the reddish powder
known as kunkuma. Her affection for Her associates is compared to
sandalwood pulp, and the sweetness of Her smile is compared to camphor.
All these, combined together, are smeared over Her body.
Madhya 8.171
TEXT 171
TEXT
krsnera ujjvala-rasa -- mrgamada-bhara
sei mrgamade vicitrita kalevara
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; ujjvala-rasa -- the conjugal mellow; mrga-mada
-- of musk; bhara -- an abundance; sei -- that; mrga-made -- made by the
aroma of the musk; vicitrita -- decorated; kalevara -- Her whole body.
TRANSLATION
"Conjugal love for Krsna is just like an abundance of musk. By
that musk, Her whole body is decorated.
Madhya 8.172
TEXT 172
TEXT
pracchanna-mana vamya -- dhammilla-vinyasa
'dhiradhiratmaka' guna -- ange pata-vasa
SYNONYMS
pracchanna -- covered; mana -- anger; vamya -- craftiness; dhammilla --
of the bunches of hair; vinyasa -- arrangement; dhira-adhira-atmaka --
consisting of anger sometimes expressed and sometimes
suppressed due to jealousy; guna -- the quality; ange -- on the body;
pata-vasa -- silk covering.
TRANSLATION
"Covered anger and craftiness constitute the arrangement of Her
hair. The quality of anger due to jealousy is just like the silk
covering Her body.
Madhya 8.173
TEXT 173
TEXT
raga-tambula-rage adhara ujjvala
prema-kautilya -- netra-yugale kajjala
SYNONYMS
raga -- of love; tambula -- of the betel nut; rage -- by the reddish
color; adhara -- lies; ujjvala -- brilliant; prema-kautilya -- the
double dealings in loving affairs; netra-yugale -- on the two eyes;
kajjala -- the ointment.
TRANSLATION
"Her attachment for Krsna is the reddish color of betel nuts on Her
brilliant lips. Her double-dealings in loving affairs are just
like the black ointment around Her eyes.
Madhya 8.174
TEXT 174
TEXT
'suddipta-sattvika' bhava, harsadi 'sancari'
ei saba bhava-bhusana saba-ange bhari'
SYNONYMS
su-uddipta-sattvika -- blazing of goodness; bhava -- the
ecstasies; harsa-adi -- like jubilation; sancari -- the continuously
existing ecstasies; ei saba -- all these; bhava -- ecstasies; bhusana --
ornaments; saba -- all; ange -- body; bhari' -- filling.
TRANSLATION
"The decorated ornaments on Her body are the blazing ecstasies
of goodness, and these constantly existing ecstasies are headed by
jubilation. All these ecstasies are like ornaments all over Her body.
Madhya 8.175
TEXT 175
TEXT
'kila-kincitadi'-bhava-vimsati-bhusita
guna-sreni-puspamala sarvange purita
SYNONYMS
kila-kincita-adi -- headed by kila-kincita; bhava -- with the ecstasies;
vimsati -- twenty; bhusita -- decorated; guna-sreni -- of Her attractive
qualities; puspa-mala -- as a garland of flowers; sarva-ange -- all over
the body; purita -- filled.
TRANSLATION
"These bodily ornaments constitute twenty kinds of ecstatic
symptoms, beginning with kila-kincita. Her transcendental qualities
are the flower garland hanging in fullness over Her body.
PURPORT
The twenty different moods headed by kila-kincita are described as
follows. First, in connection with the body, there are bhava (ecstasy),
hava (gestures) and hela (negligence); in relation to the self there are
sobha (beauty), kanti (luster), dipti (brilliance), madhurya (sweetness),
pragalbhata (impudence), audarya (magnanimity) and dhairya (patience);
and in relation to nature, there are lila (pastimes), vilasa (enjoyment),
vicchitti (breaking off) and vibhrama (puzzlement). There are no
English equivalents for the words kila-kincita, mottayita and kuttamita.
A flower garland constitutes the qualities of Srimati
Radharani and is divided into mental, verbal and bodily parts. Her
attitude of forgiveness and mercy is all mental. Her talks, which are
very pleasing to the ear, are verbal. The physical qualities -- age,
beauty, luster and grace -- are bodily qualities.
Madhya 8.176
TEXT 176
TEXT
saubhagya-tilaka caru-lalate ujjvala
prema-vaicittya -- ratna, hrdaya -- tarala
SYNONYMS
saubhagya-tilaka -- the tilaka of good fortune; caru -- beautiful;
lalate -- on the forehead; ujjvala -- brilliant; prema -- of love of
Godhead; vaicittya -- diversity; ratna -- the jewel; hrdaya -- the heart;
tarala -- the locket.
TRANSLATION
"The tilaka of fortune is on Her beautiful broad forehead. Her
various loving affairs are a gem, and Her heart is the locket.
Madhya 8.177
TEXT 177
TEXT
madhya-vayasa, sakhi-skandhe kara-nyasa
krsnalila-manovrtti-sakhi asa-pasa
SYNONYMS
madhya-vayasa -- middle age; sakhi -- of a friend; skandhe -- on
the shoulder; kara -- hand; nyasa -- keeping; krsna -- of Lord Krsna;
lila -- the pastimes; manah -- of the mind; vrtti -- activities; sakhi --
gopis; asa-pasa -- here and there.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's gopi friends are Her mental activities, which are
concentrated on the pastimes of Sri Krsna. She keeps Her hand on the
shoulder of a friend, who represents youth.
PURPORT
Radharani's eight companions (asta-sakhi) are different varieties of
pleasure connected with the pastimes of Krsna. Following those pastimes
of Sri Krsna are other activities, which are represented by the
assistants of the gopis.
Madhya 8.178
TEXT 178
TEXT
nijanga-saurabhalaye garva-paryanka
ta'te vasi' ache, sada cinte krsna-sanga
SYNONYMS
nija-anga -- Her personal body; saurabha-alaye -- in the abode of aroma;
garva -- pride; paryanka -- bedstead; ta'te -- on that; vasi' -- lying;
ache -- there is; sada -- always; cinte -- thinks; krsna-sanga -- the
association of Krsna.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's bedstead is pride itself, and it is situated in the
abode of Her bodily aroma. She is always seated there thinking of Krsna'
s association.
Madhya 8.179
TEXT 179
TEXT
krsna-nama-guna-yasa -- avatamsa kane
krsna-nama-guna-yasa-pravaha-vacane
SYNONYMS
krsna -- of Lord Krsna; nama -- the holy name; guna -- the qualities;
yasa -- the fame; avatamsa -- ornaments; kane -- on the ear; krsna -- of
Lord Krsna; nama -- of the holy name; guna -- of the qualities; yasa --
of the fame; pravaha -- waves; vacane -- in Her talking.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani's earrings represent the name, fame and qualities of
Lord Krsna. The glories of Lord Krsna's name, fame and qualities are
always inundating Her speech.
Madhya 8.180
TEXT 180
TEXT
krsnake karaya syama-rasa-madhu pana
nirantara purna kare krsnera sarva-kama
SYNONYMS
krsnake -- unto Krsna; karaya -- She induces; syama-rasa -- of the
mellow of conjugal love; madhu -- the honey; pana -- drinking; nirantara
-- constantly; purna -- complete; kare -- makes; krsnera -- of Lord
Krsna; sarva-kama -- all kinds of lusty desires.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani induces Krsna to drink the honey of the conjugal
relationship. She is therefore engaged in satisfying all the lusty
desires of Krsna.
Madhya 8.181
TEXT 181
TEXT
krsnera visuddha-prema-ratnera akara
anupama-gunagana-purna kalevara
SYNONYMS
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; visuddha-prema -- of pure transcendental love;
ratnera -- of the valuable jewel; akara -- a mine; anupama --
unparalleled; guna-gana -- of groups of qualities; purna -- full;
kalevara -- transcendental body.
TRANSLATION
"Srimati Radharani is exactly like a mine filled with valuable jewels of
love for Krsna. Her transcendental body is complete with unparalleled
spiritual qualities.
Madhya 8.182
TEXT 182
TEXT
ka krsnasya pranaya-janibhuh srimati radhikaika
kasya preyasy anupama-guna radhikaika na canya
jaihmyam kese drsi taralata nisthuratvam kuce 'sya
vancha-purtyai prabhavati hare radhikaika na canya
SYNONYMS
ka -- who; krsnasya -- of Lord Krsna; pranaya-janibhuh -- the
birthplace of love of Krsna; srimati -- all-beautiful; radhika --
Srimati Radharani; eka -- alone; ka -- who; asya -- His; preyasi -- most
dear friend; anupama-guna -- having unparalleled qualities; radhika --
Srimati Radharani; eka -- alone; na -- not; ca -- also; anya -- anyone
else; jaihmyam -- crookedness; kese -- in the hair; drsi -- in the eyes;
taralata -- unsteadiness; nisthuratvam -- firmness; kuce -- in the
breasts; asyah -- Her; vancha -- of the desires; purtyai -- to fulfill;
prabhavati -- manifests; hareh -- of Lord Krsna; radhika -- Srimati
Radharani; eka -- alone; na -- not; ca anya -- anyone else.
TRANSLATION
" 'If one asks about the origin of love of Krsna, the answer is that the
origin is in Srimati Radharani alone. Who is the most dear friend of
Krsna? The answer again is Srimati Radharani alone. No one else. Srimati
Radharani's hair is very curly, Her two eyes are always moving to and
fro, and Her breasts are firm. Since all transcendental qualities are
manifest in Srimati Radharani, She alone is able to fulfill all the
desires of Krsna. No one else.'
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Sri Govinda-lilamrta (11.122) by Krsnadasa
Kaviraja Gosvami. It is a verse in the form of questions and answers
describing the glories of Srimati Radharani.
Madhya 8.183-184
TEXTS 183-184
TEXT
yanra saubhagya-guna vanche satyabhama
yanra thani kala-vilasa sikhe vraja-rama
yanra saundaryadi-guna vanche laksmi-parvati
yanra pativrata-dharma vanche arundhati
SYNONYMS
yanra -- whose; saubhagya -- of fortune; guna -- quality; vanche --
desires; satyabhama -- Satyabhama, one of the queens of Krsna; yanra
thani -- from whom; kala-vilasa -- the sixty-four arts; sikhe -- learn;
vraja-rama -- all the gopis in Vrndavana; yanra -- whose; saundarya-adi -
- such as beauty; guna -- qualities; vanche -- desires; laksmi -- the
goddess of fortune; parvati -- the wife of Lord Siva; yanra -- whose;
pati-vrata -- of chastity; dharma -- principle; vanche -- desires;
arundhati -- the wife of Vasistha Muni.
TRANSLATION
"Even Satyabhama, one of the queens of Sri Krsna, desires the fortunate
position and excellent qualities of Srimati Radharani. All the gopis
learn the art of dressing from Srimati Radharani, and even the goddess
of fortune, Laksmi, and the wife of Lord Siva, Parvati, desire Her
beauty and qualities. Indeed, Arundhati, the celebrated chaste wife of
Vasistha, also wants to imitate the chastity and religious principles of
Srimati Radharani.
Madhya 8.185
TEXT 185
TEXT
yanra sadguna-ganane krsna na paya para
tanra guna ganibe kemane jiva chara
SYNONYMS
yanra -- whose; sat-guna -- good qualities; ganane -- in counting; krsna
-- Lord Krsna; na -- not; paya -- obtains; para -- the limit; tanra --
Her; guna -- qualities; ganibe -- can count; kemane -- how; jiva -- a
living entity; chara -- most insignificant.
TRANSLATION
"Even Lord Krsna Himself cannot reach the limit of the transcendental
qualities of Srimati Radharani. How, then, can an insignificant living
entity count them?"
Madhya 8.186
TEXT 186
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- janilun krsna-radha-prema-tattva
sunite cahiye dunhara vilasa-mahattva
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Lord Sri Caitanya replied; janilun -- now I have
understood; krsna -- of Lord Krsna; radha -- of Srimati Radharani; prema
-- of the loving affairs; tattva -- the truth; sunite -- to hear; cahiye
-- I desire; dunhara -- of both of Them; vilasa-mahattva -- the
greatness of the enjoyment.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "Now I have come to understand the
truth of the loving affairs between Radha and Krsna. Nonetheless, I
still want to hear how both of Them gloriously enjoy such love."
Madhya 8.187
TEXT 187
TEXT
raya kahe, -- krsna haya 'dhira-lalita'
nirantara kama-krida -- yanhara carita
SYNONYMS
raya kahe -- Raya replied; krsna -- Lord Krsna; haya -- is;
dhira-lalita -- a person who can keep his girl friend always in
subjugation by different qualities; nirantara -- constantly; kama-krida -
- pastimes of sexual enjoyment; yanhara -- of whom; carita -- the
character.
TRANSLATION
Raya Ramananda replied, "Lord Krsna is dhira-lalita, for He can always
keep His girl friends in a subjugated state. Thus His only
business is in enjoying sense gratification.
PURPORT
We should always remember that Krsna's sense gratification is never to
be compared to the sense gratification of the material world. As we have
already explained, Krsna's sense gratification is just like gold. The
perverted reflection of that sense gratification found in the material
world is just like iron. The purport is that Krsna is not impersonal. He
has all the desires that are manifest in the perverted reflection within
this material world. However, the qualities are different -- one is
spiritual, and the other is material. Just as there is a difference
between life and death, there is a difference between spiritual sense
gratification and material sense gratification.
Madhya 8.188
TEXT 188
TEXT
vidagdho nava-tarunyah
parihasa-visaradah
niscinto dhira-lalitah
syat prayah preyasi-vasah
SYNONYMS
vidagdhah -- clever; nava-tarunyah -- always freshly youthful; parihasa -
- in joking; visaradah -- expert; niscintah -- without anxiety; dhira-
lalitah -- a hero in loving affairs; syat -- is; prayah -- almost always;
preyasi-vasah -- one who keeps His girl friends subjugated.
TRANSLATION
"A person who is very cunning and always youthful, expert in joking and
without anxiety, and who can keep his girl friends always
subjugated, is called dhira-lalita.
PURPORT
This verse is from Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.230).
Madhya 8.189
TEXT 189
TEXT
ratri-dina kunje krida kare radha-sange
kaisora vayasa saphala kaila krida-range
SYNONYMS
ratri-dina -- day and night; kunje -- in the gardens or bushes of
Vrndavana; krida -- pastimes; kare -- performs; radha-sange -- with
Radharani; kaisora -- the pre-youthful; vayasa -- age; sa-phala --
fruitful; kaila -- made; krida-range -- taking pleasure in different
pastimes.
TRANSLATION
"Day and night Lord Sri Krsna enjoys the company of Srimati Radharani in
the bushes of Vrndavana. Thus His pre-youthful age was fulfilled through
His affairs with Srimati Radharani.
Madhya 8.190
TEXT 190
TEXT
vaca sucita-sarvari-rati-kala-pragalbhyaya radhikam
vrida-kuncita-locanam viracayann agre sakhinam asau
tad-vaksoruha-citra-keli-makari-panditya-param gatah
kaisoram saphali-karoti kalayan kunje viharam harih
SYNONYMS
vaca -- by speech; sucita -- revealing; sarvari -- of the night; rati --
in amorous pastimes; kala -- of the portion; pragalbhyaya -- the
importance; radhikam -- Srimati Radharani; vrida -- from shame; kuncita-
locanam -- having Her eyes closed; viracayan -- making; agre -- before;
sakhinam -- Her friends; asau -- that one; tat -- of Her; vaksah-ruha --
on the breasts; citra-keli -- with variegated pastimes; makari -- in
drawing dolphins; panditya -- of cleverness; param -- the limit; gatah --
who reached; kaisoram -- adolescence; sa-phali-karoti -- makes
successful; kalayan -- performing; kunje -- in the bushes; viharam --
pastimes; harih -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
" 'Thus Lord Sri Krsna spoke of the sexual activities of the previous
night. In this way He made Srimati Radharani close Her eyes out of
shyness. Taking this opportunity, Sri Krsna painted various types of
dolphins on Her breasts. Thus He became a very expert artist for all the
gopis. During such pastimes, the Lord enjoyed the fulfillment of His
youth.' "
PURPORT
This quotation is also found in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.231).
Madhya 8.191
TEXT 191
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- eho haya, age kaha ara
raya kahe, -- iha va-i buddhi-gati nahi ara
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; eho haya -- this is all
right; age kaha ara -- please go forward and say more; raya kahe --
Ramananda Raya replied; iha va-i -- except this; buddhi-gati -- movement
of my intelligence; nahi -- there is not; ara -- any more.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "This is all right, but please continue."
At that time Raya Ramananda replied, "I don't think my intelligence goes
beyond this."
Madhya 8.192
TEXT 192
TEXT
yeba 'prema-vilasa-vivarta' eka haya
taha suni' tomara sukha haya, ki na haya
SYNONYMS
yeba -- whatever; prema-vilasa-vivarta -- the resultant bewilderment or
revolution in the ecstasy of loving affairs; eka haya -- there is one
topic; taha -- that; suni' -- hearing; tomara -- Your; sukha --
happiness; haya -- is; ki -- or; na -- not; haya -- is.
TRANSLATION
Raya Ramananda then informed Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu that there was
another topic, known as prema-vilasa-vivarta. "You may hear of this from
me," Ramananda Raya said. "However, I do not know whether You will be
happy with it or not."
PURPORT
These statements are set forth for our understanding, according to Srila
Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya. In essence, Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu told Ramananda Raya, "My dear Ramananda, the
explanation you have given about the goal of life and the pastimes of
Srimati Radharani and Krsna is certainly the truth. Although this is
factual, you can continue telling Me more if there is anything more to
say." In reply, Ramananda Raya said, "I do not think I have anything to
say beyond this, but there is a topic known as prema-vilasa-vivarta,
which I may explain to You. I do not know whether it will bring You
happiness or not."
Madhya 8.193
TEXT 193
TEXT
eta bali' apana-krta gita eka gahila
preme prabhu sva-haste tanra mukha acchadila
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; apana-krta -- composed by himself; gita --
song; eka -- one; gahila -- sang; preme -- in love of Godhead; prabhu --
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sva-haste -- by His own hand; tanra -- his (
Ramananda Raya's); mukha -- mouth; acchadila -- covered.
TRANSLATION
Saying this, Ramananda Raya began to sing a song he had composed, but
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, out of ecstasy of love of Godhead,
immediately covered Ramananda's mouth with His own hand.
PURPORT
The topics that are about to be discussed between Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu and Ramananda Raya cannot be understood by a materialistic
poet, nor by intelligence or material perception. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta
Sarasvati Thakura states that the spiritual mellow can be realized only
when one is situated on the transcendental platform beyond the material