\\psf\Home\Desktop\Cc-1975\Adi 7 -- 1975.TXT
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Adi 7-1975: Lord Caitanya in Five Features
Chapter 7
Lord Caitanya in Five Features
Adi 7.1
TEXT 1
TEXT
agaty-eka-gatim natva
hinarthadhika-sadhakam
sri-caitanyam likhyate 'sya
prema-bhakti-vadanyata
SYNONYMS
agati -- of the most fallen; eka -- the only one; gatim -- destination;
natva -- after offering obeisances; hina -- inferior; artha -- interest;
adhika -- greater than that; sadhakam -- who can render; sri-caitanyam --
unto Lord Sri Caitanya; likhyate -- is being written; asya -- of the
Lord, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prema -- love; bhakti -- devotional
service; vadanyata -- magnanimity.
TRANSLATION
Let me first offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, who is the ultimate goal of life for one bereft of all
possessions in this material world and is the only meaning for one
advancing in spiritual life. Thus let me write about His magnanimous
contribution of devotional service in love of God.
PURPORT
A person in the conditional stage of material existence is in an
atmosphere of helplessness, but the conditioned soul, under the illusion
of maya, or the external energy, thinks that he is completely protected
by his country, society, friendship and love, not knowing that at the
time of death none of these can save him. The laws of material nature
are so strong that none of our material possessions can save us from the
cruel hands of death. In Bhagavad-gita (13.9) it is stated, janma-
mrtyu-jara-vyadhi-duhkha-dosanudarsanam: one who is actually advancing
must always consider the four principles of miserable life, namely,
birth, death, old age and disease. One cannot be saved from all these
miseries unless he takes shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord. Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu is therefore the only shelter for all conditioned
souls. An intelligent person, therefore, does not put his faith in any
material possessions, but completely takes shelter of the lotus feet of
the Lord. Such a person is called akincana, or one who does not possess
anything in this material world. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is
also known as Akincana-gocara, for He can be achieved by a person who
does not put his faith in material possessions. Therefore, for the fully
surrendered soul who has no material possessions on which to depend,
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the only shelter. Everyone depends upon
dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kama (sense
gratification) and ultimately moksa (salvation), but Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, due to His magnanimous character, can give more than
salvation. Therefore in this verse the words hinarthadhika-sadhakam
indicate that although by material estimation salvation is of a quality
superior to the inferior interests of religiosity, economic development
and sense gratification, above salvation there is the position of
devotional service and transcendental love for the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the bestower of this great
benediction. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, prema pumartho mahan: "Love
of Godhead is the ultimate benediction for all human beings." Srila
Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, the author of Caitanya-caritamrta, therefore
first offers his respectful obeisances unto Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu
before describing His magnanimity in bestowing love of Godhead.
Adi 7.2
TEXT 2
TEXT
jaya jaya mahaprabhu sri-krsna-caitanya
tanhara caranasrita, sei bada dhanya
SYNONYMS
jaya -- all glories; jaya -- all glories; mahaprabhu -- unto the Supreme
Lord; sri-krsna-caitanya -- of the name Sri Krsna Caitanya; tanhara --
of His; carana-asrita -- one who has taken shelter of the lotus feet;
sei -- he; bada -- is very; dhanya -- glorified.
TRANSLATION
Let me offer glorification to the Supreme Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
One who has taken shelter of His lotus feet is the most glorified person.
PURPORT
Prabhu means master. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the supreme master of
all masters; therefore He is called Mahaprabhu. Any person who takes
shelter of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is most glorified because by
the mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu he is able to get promotion to the
platform of loving service to the Lord, which is transcendental to
salvation.
Adi 7.3
TEXT 3
TEXT
purve gurv-adi chaya tattve kaila namaskara
guru-tattva kahiyachi, ebe pancera vicara
SYNONYMS
purve -- in the beginning; guru-adi -- the spiritual master and others;
chaya -- six; tattve -- in the subjects of; kaila -- I have done;
namaskara -- obeisances; guru-tattva -- the truth in understanding the
spiritual master; kahiyachi -- I have already described; ebe -- now;
pancera -- of the five; vicara -- consideration.
TRANSLATION
In the beginning I have discussed the truth about the spiritual master.
Now I shall try to explain the Panca-tattva.
PURPORT
In the First Chapter of Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, the author,
Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, has described the initiator spiritual
master and the instructor spiritual master in the verse beginning with
the words vande gurun isa-bhaktan isam isavatarakan. In
that verse there are six transcendental subject matters, of which the
truth regarding the spiritual master has already been described. Now the
author will describe the other five tattvas (truths), namely, isa-tattva
(the Supreme Lord), His expansion tattva, His incarnation tattva, His
energy tattva and His devotee tattva.
Adi 7.4
TEXT 4
TEXT
panca-tattva avatirna caitanyera sange
panca-tattva lana karena sankirtana range
SYNONYMS
panca-tattva -- these five tattvas; avatirna -- advented; caitanyera --
with Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sange -- in company with; panca-tattva -- the
same five subjects; lana -- taking with Himself; karena -- He does;
sankirtana -- the sankirtana movement; range -- in great pleasure.
TRANSLATION
These five tattvas incarnate with Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and thus the
Lord executes His sankirtana movement with great pleasure.
PURPORT
In the Srimad-Bhagavatam there is the following statement
regarding Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu:
krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam sangopangastra-parsadam
yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah
"In the age of Kali, people who are endowed with sufficient intelligence
will worship the Lord, who is accompanied by His associates, by
performance of sankirtana yajna." (Bhag. 11.5.32) Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by His plenary expansion Sri
Nityananda Prabhu, His incarnation Sri Advaita Prabhu, His internal
potency Sri Gadadhara Prabhu and His marginal potency Srivasa Prabhu. He
is in the midst of them as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One
should know that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by these
other tattvas. Therefore our obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are
complete when we say, sri-krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita
gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda. As preachers of the Krsna
consciousness movement, we first offer our obeisances to Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu by chanting this Panca-tattva mantra; then we say, Hare Krsna,
Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama,
Hare Hare. There are ten offenses in the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra, but these are not considered in the chanting of the Panca-tattva
mantra, namely, sri-krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita
gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is known
as maha-vadanyavatara, the most magnanimous incarnation, for He does not
consider the offenses of the fallen souls. Thus to derive the full
benefit of the chanting of the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna,
Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare), we
must first take shelter of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, learn the Panca-
tattva maha-mantra, and then chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. That will
be very effective.
Taking advantage of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, there are many unscrupulous
devotees who manufacture a maha-mantra of their own. Sometimes they sing,
bhaja nitai gaura radhe syama hare krsna hare rama or sri-krsna-
caitanya prabhu nityananda hare krsna hare rama sri radhe govinda.
Actually, however, one should chant the names of the full Panca-tattva (
sri-krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita gadadhara srivasadi-
gaura-bhakta-vrnda) and then the sixteen words Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna,
Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, but
these unscrupulous, less intelligent men confuse the entire process. Of
course, since they are also devotees they can express their feelings in
that way, but the method prescribed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pure
devotees is to chant first the full Panca-tattva mantra and then
chant the maha-mantra -- Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/
Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.
Adi 7.5
TEXT 5
TEXT
panca-tattva -- eka-vastu, nahi kichu bheda
rasa asvadite tabu vividha vibheda
SYNONYMS
panca-tattva -- the five subjects; eka-vastu -- they are one in five;
nahi -- there is not; kichu -- anything; bheda -- difference; rasa --
mellows; asvadite -- to taste; tabu -- yet; vividha -- varieties;
vibheda -- differences.
TRANSLATION
Spiritually there are no differences between these five tattvas, for on
the transcendental platform everything is absolute. Yet there are also
varieties in the spiritual world, and in order to taste these spiritual
varieties one should distinguish between them.
PURPORT
In his Anubhasya commentary Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura
describes the Panca-tattva as follows. The supreme energetic, the
Personality of Godhead, manifesting in five kinds of
pastimes, appears as the Panca-tattva. Actually there is
no difference between them because they are situated on the absolute
platform, but they manifest different spiritual varieties as a challenge
to impersonalists to taste different kinds of spiritual humors (
rasas). In the Vedas it is said, parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate:
"The varieties of energy of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead are differently known." From this statement of
the Vedas one can understand that there are eternal varieties of humors
or tastes in the spiritual world. Sri Gauranga, Sri Nityananda, Sri
Advaita, Sri Gadadhara and Srivasa are all on the same platform,
but in spiritually distinguishing between them one should understand
that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the form of a devotee, Nityananda Prabhu
appears in the form of a devotee's spiritual master, Advaita Prabhu is
the form of a bhakta (devotee) incarnation, Gadadhara Prabhu is the
energy of a bhakta, and Srivasa is a pure devotee. Thus there
are spiritual distinctions between them. The bhakta-rupa (Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu), the bhakta-svarupa (Sri Nityananda Prabhu) and the bhakta-
avatara (Sri Advaita Prabhu) are described as the Supreme Personality of
Godhead Himself, His immediate manifestation and His plenary expansion,
and They all belong to the Visnu category. Although the spiritual and
marginal energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are nondifferent
from the Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu, they are predominated
subjects, whereas Lord Visnu is the predominator. As such, although they
are on the same platform, they have appeared differently in order to
facilitate tasting of transcendental mellows. Actually, however, there
is no possibility of one being different from the other, for the
worshiper and the worshipable cannot be separated at any stage. On the
absolute platform, one cannot be understood without the other.
Adi 7.6
TEXT 6
TEXT
panca-tattvatmakam krsnam
bhaktarupa-svarupakam
bhaktavataram bhaktakhyam
namami bhakta-saktikam
SYNONYMS
panca-tattva-atmakam -- comprehending the five transcendental subject
matters; krsnam -- unto Lord Krsna; bhakta-rupa -- in the form of a
devotee; svarupakam -- in the expansion of a devotee; bhakta-avataram --
in the incarnation of a devotee; bhakta-akhyam -- known as a devotee;
namami -- I offer my obeisances; bhakta-saktikam -- the energy of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Sri Krsna, who has manifested
Himself in five as a devotee, expansion of a devotee, incarnation of a
devotee, pure devotee and devotional energy.
PURPORT
Sri Nityananda Prabhu is the immediate expansion of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu as His brother. He is the personified spiritual bliss of sac-
cid-ananda-vigraha. His body is transcendental and full of
ecstasy in devotional service. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is therefore
called bhakta-rupa (the form of a devotee), and Sri Nityananda Prabhu is
called bhakta-svarupa (the expansion of a devotee). Sri Advaita Prabhu,
the incarnation of a devotee, is Visnu-tattva and belongs to the same
category. There are also different types of bhaktas or devotees on the
platforms of neutrality, servitude, friendship, paternity and conjugal
love. Devotees like Sri Damodara, Sri Gadadhara and Sri Ramananda are
different energies. This confirms the Vedic sutra, parasya saktir
vividhaiva sruyate. All these bhakta
subjects taken together constitute Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is Krsna
Himself.
Adi 7.7
TEXT 7
TEXT
svayam bhagavan krsna ekale isvara
advitiya, nandatmaja, rasika-sekhara
SYNONYMS
svayam -- Himself; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna
-- Lord Krsna; ekale -- the only one; isvara -- the supreme controller;
advitiya -- without a second; nanda-atmaja -- appeared as the son of
Maharaja Nanda; rasika -- the most mellow; sekhara -- summit.
TRANSLATION
Krsna, the reservoir of all pleasure, is the Supreme Personality of
Godhead Himself, the supreme controller. No one is greater than or equal
to Sri Krsna, yet He appears as the son of Maharaja Nanda.
PURPORT
In this verse Kaviraja Gosvami gives an accurate description of Lord
Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by stating that although no
one is equal to or greater than Him, and He is the reservoir of all
spiritual pleasure, He nevertheless appears as the son of Maharaja Nanda
and Yasodamayi.
Adi 7.8
TEXT 8
TEXT
rasadi-vilasi, vrajalalana-nagara
ara yata saba dekha, -- tanra parikara
SYNONYMS
rasa-adi -- the rasa dance; vilasi -- the enjoyer; vraja-lalana -- the
damsels of Vrndavana; nagara -- the leader; ara -- others; yata -- all;
saba -- everyone; dekha -- must know; tanra -- His; parikara --
associates.
TRANSLATION
Lord Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the supreme
enjoyer in the rasa dance. He is the leader of the damsels of Vraja, and
all others are simply His associates.
PURPORT
The word rasadi-vilasi ("the enjoyer of the rasa dance") is very
important. The rasa dance can be enjoyed only by Sri Krsna because He is
the supreme leader and chief of the damsels of Vrndavana. All other
devotees are His associates. Although no one can compare
with Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there are many
unscrupulous rascals who imitate the rasa dance of Sri Krsna. They are
Mayavadis, and people should be wary of them. The rasa dance can be
performed only by Sri Krsna and no one else.
Adi 7.9
TEXT 9
TEXT
sei krsna avatirna sri-krsna-caitanya
sei parikara-gana sange saba dhanya
SYNONYMS
sei krsna -- that very Lord Krsna; avatirna -- has advented; sri-krsna-
caitanya -- in the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sei -- those;
parikara-gana -- associates; sange -- with Him; saba -- all; dhanya --
glorious.
TRANSLATION
The selfsame Lord Krsna advented Himself as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu with
all His eternal associates, who are also equally glorious.
Adi 7.10
TEXT 10
TEXT
ekale isvara-tattva caitanya-isvara
bhakta-bhavamaya tanra suddha kalevara
SYNONYMS
ekale -- only one person; isvara-tattva -- the supreme controller;
caitanya -- the supreme living force; isvara -- controller; bhakta-
bhavamaya -- in the ecstasy of a devotee; tanra -- His; suddha --
transcendental; kalevara -- body.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is the supreme controller, the one
Personality of Godhead, has ecstatically become a devotee, yet His body
is transcendental and not materially tinged.
PURPORT
There are different tattvas or truths, including isa-tattva, jiva-
tattva and sakti-tattva. Isa-tattva refers to the Supreme Personality of
Godhead Visnu, who is the supreme living force. In the Katha Upanisad it
is said, nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam: the Supreme Personality of
Godhead is the supreme eternal and the supreme living force. The living
entities are also eternal and are also living forces, but they are very
minute in quantity, whereas the Supreme Lord is the supreme living force
and the supreme eternal. The supreme eternal never accepts a body of a
temporary material nature, whereas the living entities who are part and
parcel of the supreme eternal are prone to do so. Thus according to the
Vedic mantras the Supreme Lord is the supreme master of innumerable
living entities. The Mayavadi philosophers, however, try to equate the
minute living entities with the supreme living entity. Because they
recognize no distinctions between them, their philosophy is called
advaita-vada, or monism. Factually, however, there is a distinction.
This verse is especially meant to impart to the Mayavadi philosopher the
understanding that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the supreme
controller. The supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead, is Krsna
Himself, but as a transcendental pastime He has accepted the form of a
devotee, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
As stated in Bhagavad-gita, when the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Krsna comes to this planet exactly like a human being, some rascals
consider Him to be one of the ordinary humans. One who thinks in that
mistaken way is described as mudha, or foolish. Therefore one should not
foolishly consider Caitanya Mahaprabhu to be an ordinary human being. He
has accepted the ecstasy of a devotee, but He is the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. Since Caitanya Mahaprabhu, there have been many
imitation incarnations of Krsna who cannot understand that Caitanya
Mahaprabhu was Krsna Himself and not an ordinary human being. Less
intelligent men create their own Gods by advertising a human being as
God. This is their mistake. Therefore here the words tanra suddha
kalevara warn that Caitanya Mahaprabhu's body is not material but purely
spiritual. One should not, therefore, accept Caitanya Mahaprabhu as an
ordinary devotee, although He has assumed the form of a devotee. Yet one
must certainly know that although Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, because He accepted the ecstasy of a devotee one
should not misunderstand His pastimes and place Him in exactly the same
position as Krsna. It is for this reason only that when Sri Krsna
Caitanya Mahaprabhu was addressed as Krsna or Visnu He blocked His ears,
not wanting to hear Himself addressed as the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. There is a class of devotees called Gauranga-nagari who stage
plays of Krsna's pastimes using a vigraha or form of Caitanya
Mahaprabhu. This is a mistake which is technically called rasabhasa.
While Caitanya Mahaprabhu is trying to enjoy as a devotee, one should
not disturb Him by addressing Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Adi 7.11
TEXT 11
TEXT
krsna-madhuryera eka adbhuta svabhava
apana asvadite krsna kare bhakta-bhava
SYNONYMS
krsna-madhuryera -- the supreme pleasure potency of Krsna; eka -- is one;
adbhuta -- wonderful; svabhava -- nature; apana -- Himself; asvadite --
to taste; krsna -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kare -- does;
bhakta-bhava -- accept the form of a devotee.
TRANSLATION
The transcendental mellow of conjugal love of Krsna is so wonderful that
Krsna Himself accepts the form of a devotee to relish and taste it fully.
PURPORT
Although Krsna is the reservoir of all pleasure, He has a special
intention to taste Himself by accepting the form of a devotee. It is to
be concluded that although Lord Caitanya is present in the form of a
devotee, He is Krsna Himself. Therefore Vaisnavas sing, sri-krsna-
caitanya radha-krsna nahe anya: Radha and Krsna combined together are
Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Caitanyakhyam prakatam adhuna tad-dvayam
caikyam aptam. Sri Svarupa-damodara Gosvami has said
that Radha and Krsna
assumed oneness in the form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Adi 7.12
TEXT 12
TEXT
ithe bhakta-bhava dhare caitanya gosani
'bhakta-svarupa' tanra nityananda-bhai
SYNONYMS
ithe -- for this reason; bhakta-bhava -- the ecstasy of a devotee; dhare
-- accepts; caitanya -- Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; gosani -- the
transcendental teacher; bhakta-svarupa -- exactly like a pure devotee;
tanra -- His; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; bhai -- brother.
TRANSLATION
For this reason Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the supreme teacher, accepts
the form of a devotee and accepts Lord Nityananda as His elder brother.
Adi 7.13
TEXT 13
TEXT
'bhakta-avatara' tanra acarya-gosani
ei tina tattva sabe prabhu kari' gai
SYNONYMS
bhakta-avatara -- incarnation as a devotee; tanra -- His; acarya-gosani -
- the supreme teacher, Advaita Acarya Prabhu; ei -- all these; tina --
three; tattva -- truths; sabe -- all; prabhu -- the predominator; kari' -
- by such understanding; gai -- we sing.
TRANSLATION
Sri Advaita Acarya is Lord Caitanya's incarnation as a devotee.
Therefore these three tattvas [Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda Prabhu
and Advaita Gosani] are the predominators or masters.
PURPORT
Gosani means gosvami. A person who has full control over the senses and
mind is called a gosvami or gosani. One who does not have such control
is called godasa, or a servant of the senses, and cannot become a
spiritual master. A spiritual master who actually has control over the
mind and senses is called gosvami. Although the gosvami title has become
a hereditary designation for unscrupulous men, actually the title
gosani or gosvami began from Sri Rupa Gosvami, who presented himself
as an ordinary grhastha and minister in government service but became
gosvami when he was actually elevated by the instruction of Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Therefore gosvami is not a hereditary title but
refers to one's qualifications. When one is highly elevated in spiritual
advancement, regardless of wherefrom he comes, he may be called gosvami.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Nityananda Prabhu and Sri Advaita Gosani
Prabhu are natural gosvamis because They belong to the Visnu-tattva
category. As such, all of Them are prabhus ("predominators" or "masters")
, and They are sometimes called Caitanya Gosani, Nityananda Gosani and
Advaita Gosani. Unfortunately Their so-called descendants who do not
have the qualifications of gosvamis have accepted this title as a
hereditary designation or a professional degree. That is not in accord
with the sastric injunctions.
Adi 7.14
TEXT 14
TEXT
eka mahaprabhu, ara prabhu duijana
dui prabhu sebe mahaprabhura carana
SYNONYMS
eka mahaprabhu -- one Mahaprabhu, or the supreme predominator; ara
prabhu duijana -- and the other two (Nityananda and Advaita) are two
prabhus (masters); dui prabhu -- the two prabhus (Nityananda and Advaita
Gosani); sebe -- serve; mahaprabhura -- of the supreme predominator,
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; carana -- the lotus feet.
TRANSLATION
One of them is Mahaprabhu, and the other two are prabhus. These two
prabhus serve the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu.
PURPORT
Although Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Nityananda Prabhu and Sri Advaita
Prabhu all belong to the same Visnu category, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is
nevertheless accepted as the Supreme, and the other two prabhus engage
in His transcendental loving service to teach ordinary living entities
that every one of us is subordinate to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In
another place in Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 5.142) it is said, ekala
isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya: the only supreme master is Krsna, and all
others, both Visnu-tattva and jiva-tattva, engage in the service of the
Lord. Both the Visnu-tattva (as Nityananda Prabhu and Advaita) and the
jiva-tattva (Srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda) engage in the service of the
Lord, but one must distinguish between the Visnu-tattva servitors and
the jiva-tattva servitors. The jiva-tattva servitor, the spiritual
master, is actually the servitor God. As explained in previous verses,
in the absolute world there are no such differences, yet one must
observe these differences in order to distinguish the Supreme from His
subordinates.
Adi 7.15
TEXT 15
TEXT
ei tina tattva, -- 'sarvaradhya' kari mani
caturtha ye bhakta-tattva, -- 'aradhaka' jani
SYNONYMS
ei tina tattva -- all three of these truths; sarva-aradhya --
worshipable by all living entities; kari mani -- accepting such;
caturtha -- fourth; ye -- who is; bhakta-tattva -- in the category of
devotees; aradhaka -- worshiper; jani -- I understand.
TRANSLATION
The three predominators [Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda Prabhu and
Advaita Prabhu] are worshipable by all living entities, and the fourth
principle [Sri Gadadhara Prabhu] is to be understood as Their worshiper.
PURPORT
In his Anubhasya, Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, describing the
truth about the Panca-tattva, explains that we can understand that
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the supreme predominator, and
Nityananda Prabhu and Advaita Prabhu are His subordinates but are also
predominators. Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Lord, and
Nityananda Prabhu and Advaita Prabhu are manifestations of the Supreme
Lord. All of Them are Visnu-tattva, the Supreme, and are therefore
worshipable by the living entities. Although the other two tattvas
within the category of Panca-tattva -- namely, sakti-tattva and jiva-
tattva, represented by Gadadhara and Srivasa -- are worshipers of the
Supreme Lord, they are in the same category because they eternally
engage in the transcendental loving service of the Lord.
Adi 7.16
TEXT 16
TEXT
srivasadi yata koti koti bhakta-gana
'suddha-bhakta'-tattva-madhye tan-sabara ganana
SYNONYMS
srivasa-adi -- devotees headed by Srivasa Thakura; yata -- all others;
koti koti -- innumerable; bhakta-gana -- devotees; suddha-bhakta -- pure
devotees; tattva-madhye -- in the truth; tan-sabara -- all of them;
ganana -- accounted.
TRANSLATION
There are innumerable pure devotees of the Lord, headed by Srivasa
Thakura, who are known as unalloyed devotees.
Adi 7.17
TEXT 17
TEXT
gadadhara-panditadi prabhura 'sakti'-avatara
'antaranga-bhakta' kari' ganana yanhara
SYNONYMS
gadadhara -- of the name Gadadhara; pandita -- of the learned scholar;
adi -- headed by; prabhura -- of the Lord; sakti -- potency; avatara --
incarnation; antaranga -- very confidential; bhakta -- devotee; kari' --
accepting; ganana -- counting; yanhara -- of whom.
TRANSLATION
The devotees headed by Gadadhara Pandita are to be considered
incarnations of the potency of the Lord. They are internal
potential devotees engaged in the service of the Lord.
PURPORT
In connection with verses sixteen and seventeen, Sri Bhaktisiddhanta
Sarasvati Thakura explains in his Anubhasya: "There are specific
symptoms by which the internal devotees and the unalloyed or pure
devotees are to be known. All unalloyed devotees are sakti-tattvas, or
potencies of the Lord. Some of them are situated in conjugal love and
others in filial affection, fraternity and servitude. Certainly all of
them are devotees, but by making a comparative study it is found that
the devotees or potencies who are engaged in conjugal love are better
situated than the others. Thus devotees who are in a relationship with
the Supreme Personality of Godhead in conjugal love are considered to be
the most confidential devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Those
who engage in the service of Lord Nityananda Prabhu and Lord Advaita
Prabhu generally have relationships of parental love, fraternity,
servitude and neutrality. When such devotees develop great attachment
for Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, they too become situated within the
intimate circle of devotees in conjugal love." This gradual development
of devotional service is described by Sri Narottama dasa Thakura as
follows:
gauranga balite habe pulaka sarira
hari hari balite nayane ba'be nira
ara kabe nitaicanda karuna karibe
samsara-vasana mora kabe tuccha habe
visaya chadiya kabe suddha habe mana
kabe hama heraba sri-vrndavana
rupa-raghunatha-pade ha-ibe akuti
kabe hama bujhaba sri-yugala-piriti
"When will there be eruptions on my body as soon as I chant the name of
Lord Caitanya, and when will there be incessant torrents of tears as
soon as I chant the holy names Hare Krsna? When will Lord Nityananda be
merciful toward me and free me from all desires for material enjoyment?
When will my mind be completely freed from all contamination of desires
for material pleasure? Only at that time will it be possible for me to
understand Vrndavana. Only if I become attached to the instructions
given by the six Gosvamis headed by Rupa Gosvami and Raghunatha dasa
Gosvami will it be possible for me to understand the conjugal love of
Radha and Krsna." By attachment to the devotional service of Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu one immediately comes to the ecstatic position.
When he develops his love for Nityananda Prabhu he is freed from all
attachment to the material world, and at that time he becomes eligible
to understand the Lord's pastimes in Vrndavana. In that condition, when
one develops his love for the six Gosvamis, he can understand the
conjugal love between Radha and Krsna. These are the different stages of
a pure devotee's promotion to conjugal love in the service of Radha and
Krsna in an intimate relationship with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Adi 7.18-19
TEXTS 18-19
TEXT
yan-saba lana prabhura nitya vihara
yan-saba lana prabhura kirtana-pracara
yan-saba lana karena prema asvadana
yan-saba lana dana kare prema-dhana
SYNONYMS
yan-saba -- all; lana -- taking company; prabhura -- of the Lord; nitya -
- eternal; vihara -- pastime; yan-saba -- all those who are; lana --
taking company; prabhura -- of the Lord; kirtana -- sankirtana; pracara -
- movement; yan-saba -- persons with whom; lana -- in accompaniment;
karena -- He does; prema -- love of God; asvadana -- taste; yan-saba --
those who are; lana -- in accompaniment; dana kare -- gives in charity;
prema-dhana -- love of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
The internal devotees or potencies are all eternal associates in the
pastimes of the Lord. Only with them does the Lord advent to propound
the sankirtana movement, only with them does the Lord taste the mellow
of conjugal love, and only with them does He distribute this love of God
to people in general.
PURPORT
Distinguishing between pure devotees and internal or confidential
devotees, Sri Rupa Gosvami, in his book Upadesamrta, traces the
following gradual process of development. Out of many thousands of
karmis, one is better when he is situated in perfect Vedic knowledge.
Out of many such learned scholars and philosophers, one who is actually
liberated from material bondage is better, and out of many such persons
who are actually liberated, one who is a devotee of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is considered to be the best. Among the many such
transcendental lovers of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the gopis
are the best, and among the gopis Srimati Radhika is the best. Srimati
Radhika is very dear to Lord Krsna, and similarly Her ponds, namely,
Syamakunda and Radhakunda, are also very much dear to the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments in his Anubhasya that
among the five tattvas, two are energies (sakti-tattva) and the three
others are energetic (saktiman tattva). Unalloyed and internal devotees
are both engaged in the favorable culture of Krsna consciousness
untinged by philosophical speculation or fruitive activities. They are
all understood to be pure devotees, and those among them who simply
engage in conjugal love are called madhurya-bhaktas or internal
devotees. The potential loving services in parental love, fraternity and
servitude are included in conjugal love of God. In conclusion, therefore,
every confidential devotee is a pure devotee of the Lord.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu enjoys His pastimes with His immediate expansion
Nityananda Prabhu. His pure devotees and His three purusa incarnations,
namely, Karanodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi
Visnu, always accompany the Supreme Lord to propound the sankirtana
movement.
Adi 7.20-21
TEXTS 20-21
TEXT
sei panca-tattva mili' prthivi asiya
purva-premabhandarera mudra ughadiya
pance mili' lute prema, kare asvadana
yata yata piye, trsna badhe anuksana
SYNONYMS
sei -- those; panca-tattva -- five truths; mili' -- combined together;
prthivi -- on this earth; asiya -- descending; purva -- original; prema-
bhandarera -- the store of transcendental love; mudra -- seal; ughadiya -
- opening; pance mili' -- mixing together all these five; lute --
plunder; prema -- love of Godhead; kare asvadana -- taste; yata yata --
as much as; piye -- drink; trsna -- thirst; badhe -- increases; anuksana
-- again and again.
TRANSLATION
The characteristics of Krsna are understood to be a storehouse of
transcendental love. Although that storehouse of love certainly came
with Krsna when He was present, it was sealed. But when Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu came with His other associates of the Panca-tattva, they
broke the seal and plundered the storehouse to taste transcendental love
of Krsna. The more they tasted it, the more their thirst for it grew.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is called maha-vadanyavatara because although He
is Sri Krsna Himself, He is even more favorably disposed to the poor
fallen souls than Lord Sri Krsna. When Lord Sri Krsna Himself was
personally present He demanded that everyone surrender unto Him and
promised that He would then give one all protection, but when Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to this earth with His associates, He simply
distributed transcendental love of God without discrimination. Sri Rupa
Gosvami, therefore, could understand that Lord Caitanya was none other
than Sri Krsna Himself, for no one but the Supreme Personality of
Godhead can distribute confidential love of the Supreme Person.
Adi 7.22
TEXT 22
TEXT
punah punah piyaiya haya mahamatta
nace, kande, hase, gaya, yaiche mada-matta
SYNONYMS
punah punah -- again and again; piyaiya -- causing to drink; haya --
becomes; mahamatta -- highly ecstatic; nace -- dances; kande --
cries; hase -- laughs; gaya -- chants; yaiche -- as if; mada-matta --
one is drunk.
TRANSLATION
Sri Panca-tattva themselves danced again and again and thus made it
easier to drink nectarean love of Godhead. They danced, cried, laughed
and chanted like madmen, and in this way they distributed love of
Godhead.
PURPORT
People generally cannot understand the actual meaning of chanting and
dancing. Describing the Gosvamis, Sri Srinivasa Acarya stated,
krsnotkirtana-gana-nartana-parau: not only did Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu
and His associates demonstrate this chanting and dancing, but the six
Gosvamis also followed in the next generation. The present Krsna
consciousness movement follows the same principle, and therefore simply
by chanting and dancing we have received good responses all over the
world. It is to be understood, however, that this chanting and dancing
do not belong to this material world. They are actually transcendental
activities, for the more one engages in chanting and dancing, the more
he can taste the nectar of transcendental love of Godhead.
Adi 7.23
TEXT 23
TEXT
patrapatra-vicara nahi, nahi sthanasthana
yei yanha paya, tanha kare prema-dana
SYNONYMS
patra -- recipient; apatra -- not a recipient; vicara -- consideration;
nahi -- there is none; nahi -- there is none; sthana -- favorable place;
asthana -- unfavorable place; yei -- anyone; yanha -- wherever; paya --
gets the opportunity; tanha -- there only; kare -- does; prema-dana --
distribution of love of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
In distributing love of Godhead, Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His associates
did not consider who was a fit candidate and who was not, nor where such
distribution should or should not take place. They made no conditions.
Wherever they got the opportunity the members of the Panca-tattva
distributed love of Godhead.
PURPORT
There are some rascals who dare to speak against the mission of Lord
Caitanya by criticizing the Krsna consciousness movement for accepting
Europeans and Americans as brahmanas and offering them sannyasa. But
here is an authoritative statement that in distributing love of Godhead
one should not consider whether the recipients are Europeans, Americans,
Hindus, Muslims, etc. The Krsna consciousness movement should be spread
wherever possible, and one should accept those who thus become Vaisnavas
as being greater than brahmanas, Hindus or Indians. Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu desired that His name be spread in each and every town and
village on the surface of the globe. Therefore, when the cult of
Caitanya Mahaprabhu is spread all over the world, should those who
embrace it not be accepted as Vaisnavas, brahmanas and sannyasis? These
foolish arguments are sometimes raised by envious rascals, but Krsna
conscious devotees do not care about them. We strictly follow the
principles set down by the Panca-tattva.
Adi 7.24
TEXT 24
TEXT
lutiya, khaiya, diya, bhandara ujade
ascarya bhandara, prema sata-guna bade
SYNONYMS
lutiya -- plundering; khaiya -- eating; diya -- distributing; bhandara --
store; ujade -- emptied; ascarya -- wonderful; bhandara -- store; prema
-- love of Godhead; sata-guna -- one hundred times; bade -- increases.
TRANSLATION
Although the members of the Panca-tattva plundered the storehouse of
love of Godhead and ate and distributed its contents, there was no
scarcity, for this wonderful storehouse is so complete that as the love
is distributed, the supply increases hundreds of times.
PURPORT
A pseudo-incarnation of Krsna once told his disciple that he had emptied
himself by giving him all knowledge and was thus spiritually bankrupt.
Such bluffers speak in this way to cheat the public, but actual
spiritual consciousness is so perfect that the more it is distributed,
the more it increases. Bankruptcy is a term which applies in the
material world, but the storehouse of love of Godhead in the spiritual
world can never be depleted. Krsna is providing for millions and
trillions of living entities by supplying all their necessities, and
even if all the innumerable living entities wanted to become Krsna
conscious, there would be no scarcity of love of Godhead, nor would
there be insufficiency in providing for their maintenance. Our Krsna
consciousness movement was started single-handedly, and no one provided
for our livelihood, but at present we are spending hundreds and
thousands of dollars all over the world, and the movement is increasing
more and more. Thus there is no question of scarcity. Although jealous
persons may be envious, if we stick to our principles and follow in the
footsteps of the Panca-tattva, this movement will go on unchecked by
imitation svamis, sannyasis, religionists, philosophers or scientists,
for it is transcendental to all material considerations. Therefore those
who propagate the Krsna consciousness movement should not be afraid of
such rascals and fools.
Adi 7.25
TEXT 25
TEXT
uchalila prema-vanya caudike vedaya
stri, vrddha, balaka, yuva, sabare duvaya
SYNONYMS
uchalila -- became agitated; prema-vanya -- the inundation of love of
Godhead; caudike -- in all directions; vedaya -- surrounding; stri --
woman; vrddha -- old man; balaka -- child; yuva -- young man; sabare -
- all of them; duvaya -- merged into.
TRANSLATION
The flood of love of Godhead swelled in all directions, and thus young
men, old men, women and children were all immersed in that inundation.
PURPORT
When the contents of the storehouse of love of Godhead is thus
distributed, there is a powerful inundation which covers the entire land.
In Sridhama Mayapura there is sometimes a great flood after the rainy
season. This is an indication that from the birthplace of Lord Caitanya
the inundation of love of Godhead should be spread all over the world,
for this will help everyone, including old men, young men, women and
children. The Krsna consciousness movement of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is
so powerful that it can inundate the entire world and interest all
classes of men in the subject of love of Godhead.
Adi 7.26
TEXT 26
TEXT
saj-jana, dur-jana, pangu, jada, andha-gana
prema-vanyaya duvaila jagatera jana
SYNONYMS
sat-jana -- gentlemen; dur-jana -- rogues; pangu -- lame; jada --
invalid; andha-gana -- blind men; prema-vanyaya -- in the inundation of
love of Godhead; duvaila -- drowned; jagatera -- all over the world;
jana -- people.
TRANSLATION
The Krsna consciousness movement will inundate the entire world and
drown everyone, whether one be a gentleman, a rogue or even lame,
invalid or blind.
PURPORT
Here again it may be emphasized that although jealous rascals protest
that Europeans and Americans cannot be given the sacred thread or
sannyasa, there is no need even to consider whether one is a gentleman
or a rogue because this is a spiritual movement which is not concerned
with the external body of skin and bones. Because it is being properly
conducted under the guidance of the Panca-tattva, strictly following the
regulative principles, it has nothing to do with external impediments.
Adi 7.27
TEXT 27
TEXT
jagat duvila, jivera haila bija nasa
taha dekhi' panca janera parama ullasa
SYNONYMS
jagat -- the whole world; duvila -- drowned; jivera -- of the living
entities; haila -- it so became; bija -- the seed; nasa -- completely
finished; taha -- then; dekhi' -- by seeing; panca -- five; janera -- of
the persons; parama -- highest; ullasa -- happiness.
TRANSLATION
When the five members of the Panca-tattva saw the entire world drowned
in love of Godhead and the seed of material enjoyment in the living
entities completely destroyed, they all became exceedingly happy.
PURPORT
In this connection, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura writes in
his Anubhasya that since the living entities all belong to the marginal
potency of the Lord, each and every living entity has a natural tendency
to become Krsna conscious, although at the same time the seed of
material enjoyment is undoubtedly within him. The seed of material
enjoyment, watered by the course of material nature, fructifies to
become a tree of material entanglement which endows the living entity
with all kinds of material enjoyment. To enjoy such material facilities
is to be afflicted with the three material miseries. However, when by
nature's law there is a flood, the seeds within the earth become
inactive. Similarly, as the inundation of love of Godhead spreads all
over the world, the seeds of material enjoyment become impotent. Thus
the more the Krsna consciousness movement spreads, the more the desire
for material enjoyment decreases. The seed of material enjoyment
automatically becomes impotent with the increase of the Krsna
consciousness movement. Instead of being envious that Krsna
consciousness is spreading all over the world by the grace of Lord
Caitanya, those who are jealous should be happy, as indicated here by
the words parama ullasa. But because they are kanistha-adhikaris or
prakrta-bhaktas (materialistic devotees who are not advanced in
spiritual knowledge), they are envious instead of happy, and they try to
find faults in Krsna consciousness. Yet Srimat Prabodhananda Sarasvati
writes in his Caitanya-candramrta that when influenced by Lord Caitanya'
s Krsna consciousness movement, materialists become averse to talking
about their wives and children, supposedly learned scholars give up
their tedious studies of Vedic literature, yogis give up their
impractical practices of mystic yoga, ascetics give up their austere
activities of penance and austerity, and sannyasis give up their study
of Sankhya philosophy. Thus they are all attracted by the bhakti-yoga
practices of Lord Caitanya and cannot relish a mellow taste superior to
that of Krsna consciousness.
Adi 7.28
TEXT 28
TEXT
yata yata prema-vrsti kare panca-jane
tata tata badhe jala, vyape tri-bhuvane
SYNONYMS
yata -- as many; yata -- so many; prema-vrsti -- showers of love of
Godhead; kare -- causes; panca-jane -- the five members of the Panca-
tattva; tata tata -- as much as; badhe -- increases; jala -- water;
vyape -- spreads; tri-bhuvane -- all over the three worlds.
TRANSLATION
The more the five members of the Panca-tattva cause the rains of love of
Godhead to fall, the more the inundation increases and spreads all over
the world.
PURPORT
The Krsna consciousness movement is not stereotyped or stagnant. It will
spread all over the world in spite of all objections by fools and
rascals that European and American mlecchas cannot be accepted as
brahmanas or sannyasis. Here it is indicated that this process will
spread and inundate the entire world with Krsna consciousness.
Adi 7.29-30
TEXTS 29-30
TEXT
mayavadi, karma-nistha kutarkika-gana
nindaka, pasandi, yata paduya adhama
sei saba mahadaksa dhana palaila
sei vanya ta-sabare chunite narila
SYNONYMS
mayavadi -- the impersonalist philosophers; karma-nistha -- the fruitive
workers; kutarkika-gana -- the false logicians; nindaka -- the
blasphemers; pasandi -- nondevotees; yata -- all; paduya -- students;
adhama -- the lowest class; sei saba -- all of them; mahadaksa --
they are very expert; dhana -- running; palaila -- went away; sei vanya -
- that inundation; ta-sabare -- all of them; chunite -- touching; narila
-- could not.
TRANSLATION
The impersonalists, fruitive workers, false logicians, blasphemers,
nondevotees and lowest among the student community are very expert in
avoiding the Krsna consciousness movement, and therefore the inundation
of Krsna consciousness cannot touch them.
PURPORT
Like Mayavadi philosophers in the past such as Prakasananda Sarasvati of
Benares, modern impersonalists are not interested in Lord Caitanya's
Krsna consciousness movement. They do not know the value of this
material world; they consider it false and cannot understand how the
Krsna consciousness movement can utilize it. They are so absorbed in
impersonal thought that they take it for granted that all spiritual
variety is material. Because they do not know anything beyond their
misconception of the brahmajyoti, they cannot understand that Krsna, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, is spiritual and therefore beyond the
conception of material illusion. Whenever Krsna incarnates personally or
as a devotee, these Mayavadi philosophers accept Him as an ordinary
human being. This is condemned in Bhagavad-gita:
avajananti mam mudha
manusim tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto
mama bhuta-mahesvaram
"Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My
transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." (Bg. 9.
11)
There are also other unscrupulous persons who exploit the Lord's
appearance by posing as incarnations to cheat the innocent public. An
incarnation of God should pass the tests of the statements of the
sastras and also perform uncommon activities. One should not accept a
rascal as an incarnation of God but should test his ability to act as
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For example, Krsna taught Arjuna in
Bhagavad-gita, and Arjuna also accepted Him as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, but for our understanding Arjuna requested the
Lord to manifest His universal form, thus testing whether He was
actually the Supreme Lord. Similarly, one must test a so-called
incarnation of Godhead according to the standard criteria. To avoid
being misled by an exhibition of mystic powers, it is best to examine a
so-called incarnation of God in the light of the statements of
sastras. Caitanya Mahaprabhu is described in the sastras as an
incarnation of Krsna; therefore if one wants to imitate Lord Caitanya
and claim to be an incarnation, he must show evidence from the sastras
about his appearance to substantiate his claim.
Adi 7.31-32
TEXTS 31-32
TEXT
taha dekhi' mahaprabhu karena cintana
jagat duvaite ami karilun yatana
keha keha edaila, pratijna ha-ila bhanga
ta-saba dubaite patiba kichu ranga
SYNONYMS
taha dekhi' -- observing this advancement; mahaprabhu -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; karena -- does; cintana -- thinking; jagat -- the
whole world; duvaite -- to drown; ami -- I; karilun -- endeavored;
yatana -- attempts; keha keha -- some of them; edaila -- escaped;
pratijna -- promise; ha-ila -- became; bhanga -- broken; ta-saba -- all
of them; duvaite -- to make them drown; patiba -- shall devise; kichu --
some; ranga -- trick.
TRANSLATION
Seeing that the Mayavadis and others were fleeing, Lord Caitanya thought:
I wanted everyone to be immersed in this inundation of love of Godhead,
but some of them have escaped. Therefore I shall devise a trick to
drown them also.
PURPORT
Here is an important point. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu wanted to invent a
way to capture the Mayavadis and others who did not take interest in the
Krsna consciousness movement. This is the symptom of an acarya. An
acarya who comes for the service of the Lord cannot be expected to
conform to a stereotype, for he must find the ways and means by which
Krsna consciousness may be spread. Sometimes jealous persons criticize
the Krsna consciousness movement because it engages equally both boys
and girls in distributing love of Godhead. Not knowing that boys and
girls in countries like Europe and America mix very freely, these fools
and rascals criticize the boys and girls in Krsna consciousness for
intermingling. But these rascals should consider that one cannot
suddenly change a community's social customs. However, since both the
boys and girls are being trained to become preachers, those girls
are not ordinary girls but are as good as their brothers who are
preaching Krsna consciousness. Therefore, to engage both boys and girls
in fully transcendental activities is a policy intended to spread the
Krsna consciousness movement. These jealous fools who criticize the
intermingling of boys and girls will simply have to be satisfied with
their own foolishness because they cannot think of how to spread Krsna
consciousness by adopting ways and means which are favorable for this
purpose. Their stereotyped methods will never help spread Krsna
consciousness. Therefore, what we are doing is perfect by the grace of
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, for it is He who proposed to invent a way to
capture those who strayed from Krsna consciousness.
Adi 7.33
TEXT 33
TEXT
eta bali' mane kichu kariya vicara
sannyasa-asrama prabhu kaila angikara
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; mane -- within the mind; kichu -- something;
kariya -- doing; vicara -- consideration; sannyasa-asrama -- the
renounced order of life; prabhu -- the Lord; kaila -- did; angikara --
accept.
TRANSLATION
Thus the Lord accepted the sannyasa order of life after full
consideration.
PURPORT
There was no need for Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to accept sannyasa,
for He is God Himself and therefore has nothing to do with the material
bodily concept of life. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu did not identify Himself
with any of the eight varnas and asramas, namely, brahmana, ksatriya,
vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. He
identified Himself as the Supreme Spirit. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, or
for that matter any pure devotee, never identifies with these social and
spiritual divisions of life, for a devotee is always transcendental to
these different gradations of society. Nevertheless, Lord Caitanya
decided to accept sannyasa on the grounds that when He became a sannyasi
everyone would show Him respect and in that way be favored. Although
there was actually no need for Him to accept sannyasa, He did so for the
benefit of those who might think Him an ordinary human being. The main
purpose of His accepting sannyasa was to deliver the Mayavadi sannyasis.
This will be evident later in this chapter.
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura has explained the term "Mayavadi"
as follows: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental to
the material conception of life. A Mayavadi is one who considers the
body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna to be made of maya and
who also considers the abode of the Lord and the process of approaching
Him, devotional service, to be maya. The Mayavadi considers all the
paraphernalia of devotional service to be maya." Maya refers to material
existence, which is characterized by the reactions of fruitive
activities. Mayavadis consider devotional service to be among such
fruitive activities. According to them, when bhagavatas or devotees are
purified by philosophical speculation, they will come to the real point
of liberation. Those who speculate in this way regarding devotional
service are called kutarkikas (false logicians), and those who consider
devotional service to be fruitive activity are also called karma-nisthas.
Those who criticize devotional service are called nindakas (blasphemers)
. Similarly, nondevotees who consider devotional activities to be
material are also called pasandis, and scholars with a similar viewpoint
are called adhama paduyas. The kutarkikas, nindakas, pasandis and adhama
paduyas all avoided the benefit of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's movement of
developing love of Godhead. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu felt compassion for
them, and it is for this reason that He decided to accept the sannyasa
order, for by seeing Him as a sannyasi they would offer Him respects.
The sannyasa order is still respected in India. Indeed, the very dress
of a sannyasi still commands respect from the Indian public. Therefore
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa to facilitate preaching His
devotional cult, although otherwise He had no need to accept the fourth
order of spiritual life.
Adi 7.34
TEXT 34
TEXT
cabbisa vatsara chila grhastha-asrame
panca-vimsati varse kaila yati-dharme
SYNONYMS
cabbisa -- twenty-four; vatsara -- years; chila -- He remained; grhastha
-- householder life; asrame -- the order of; panca -- five; vimsati --
twenty; varse -- in the year; kaila -- did; yati-dharme -- accepted the
sannyasa order.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu remained in householder life for twenty-four
years, and on the verge of His twenty-fifth year He accepted the
sannyasa order.
PURPORT
There are four orders of spiritual life, namely, brahmacarya, grhastha,
vanaprastha and sannyasa, and in each of these asramas there are four
divisions. The divisions of the brahmacaryasrama are savitrya,
prajapatya, brahma and brhat, and the divisions of the grhasthasrama are
varta (professionals), sancaya (accumulators), salina (those who do not
ask anything from anyone) and silonchana (those who collect grains from
the paddy fields). Similarly, the divisions of the
vanaprasthasrama are vaikhanasa, balikhilya, audumbara and
phenapa, and the divisions of sannyasa are kuticaka, bahudaka, hamsa and
niskriya. There are two kinds of sannyasis, who are called dhiras and
narottamas, as stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.13.26-27). At the end of
the month of January in the year 1432 sakabda, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu accepted the sannyasa order from Kesava Bharati, who belonged
to the Sankara-sampradaya.
Adi 7.35
TEXT 35
TEXT
sannyasa kariya prabhu kaila akarsana
yateka palanachila tarkikadigana
SYNONYMS
sannyasa -- the sannyasa order; kariya -- accepting; prabhu -- the Lord;
kaila -- did; akarsana -- attract; yateka -- all; palanachila -- fled;
tarkika-adi-gana -- all persons, beginning with the logicians.
TRANSLATION
After accepting the sannyasa order, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu attracted
the attention of all those who had evaded Him, beginning with the
logicians.
Adi 7.36
TEXT 36
TEXT
paduya, pasandi, karmi, nindakadi yata
tara asi' prabhu-paya haya avanata
SYNONYMS
paduya -- students; pasandi -- material adjusters; karmi -- fruitive
actors; nindaka-adi -- critics; yata -- all; tara -- they; asi' --
coming; prabhu -- the Lord's; paya -- lotus feet; haya -- became;
avanata -- surrendered.
TRANSLATION
Thus the students, infidels, fruitive workers and critics all came to
surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord.
Adi 7.37
TEXT 37
TEXT
aparadha ksamaila, dubila prema-jale
keba edaibe prabhura prema-mahajale
SYNONYMS
aparadha -- offense; ksamaila -- excused; dubila -- merged into; prema-
jale -- in the ocean of love of Godhead; keba -- who else; edaibe --
will go away; prabhura -- the Lord's; prema -- loving; maha-jale --
network.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya excused them all, and they merged into the ocean of
devotional service, for no one can escape the unique loving network of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was an ideal acarya. An acarya is an ideal
teacher who knows the purpose of the revealed scriptures, behaves
exactly according to their injunctions and teaches his students to adopt
these principles also. As an ideal acarya, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
devised ways to capture all kinds of atheists and materialists. Every
acarya has a specific means of propagating his spiritual movement with
the aim of bringing men to Krsna consciousness. Therefore, the method of
one acarya may be different from that of another, but the ultimate goal
is never neglected. Srila Rupa Gosvami recommends:
yena tena prakarena manah krsne nivesayet
sarve vidhi-nisedha syur etayor eva kinkarah
An acarya should devise a means by which people may somehow or other
come to Krsna consciousness. First they should become Krsna conscious,
and all the prescribed rules and regulations may later gradually be
introduced. In our Krsna consciousness movement we follow this policy of
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. For example, since boys and girls in the
Western countries freely intermingle, special concessions regarding
their customs and habits are necessary to bring them to Krsna
consciousness. The acarya must devise a means to bring them to
devotional service. Therefore, although I am a sannyasi I sometimes take
part in getting boys and girls married, although in the history of
sannyasa no sannyasi has personally taken part in marrying his disciples.
Adi 7.38
TEXT 38
TEXT
saba nistarite prabhu krpa-avatara
saba nistarite kare caturi apara
SYNONYMS
saba -- all; nistarite -- to deliver; prabhu -- the Lord; krpa -- mercy;
avatara -- incarnation; saba -- all; nistarite -- to deliver; kare --
did; caturi -- devices; apara -- unlimited.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared to deliver all the fallen
souls. Therefore He devised many methods to liberate them from the
clutches of maya.
PURPORT
It is the concern of the acarya to show mercy to the fallen souls. In
this connection, desa-kala-patra (the place, the time and the object)
should be taken into consideration. Since the European and American boys
and girls in our Krsna consciousness movement preach together, less
intelligent men criticize that they are mingling without restriction. In
Europe and America boys and girls mingle unrestrictedly and have equal
rights; therefore it is not possible to completely separate the men from
the women. However, we are thoroughly instructing both men and women how
to preach, and actually they are preaching wonderfully. Of course, we
very strictly prohibit illicit sex. Boys and girls who are not married
are not allowed to sleep together or live together, and there are
separate arrangements for boys and girls in every temple. Grhasthas live
outside the temple, for in the temple we do not allow even husband and
wife to live together. The results of this are wonderful. Both men and
women are preaching the gospel of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord
Krsna with redoubled strength. In this verse the words saba nistarite
kare caturi apara indicate that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu wanted to
deliver one and all. Therefore it is a principle that a preacher must
strictly follow the rules and regulations laid down in the sastras yet
at the same time devise a means by which the preaching work to reclaim
the fallen may go on with full force.
Adi 7.39
TEXT 39
TEXT
tabe nija bhakta kaila yata mleccha adi
sabe edaila matra kasira mayavadi
SYNONYMS
tabe -- thereafter; nija -- own; bhakta -- devotee; kaila -- converted;
yata -- all; mleccha -- one who does not follow the Vedic principles;
adi -- heading the list; sabe -- all those; edaila -- escaped; matra --
only; kasira -- of Varanasi; mayavadi -- impersonalists.
TRANSLATION
All were converted into devotees of Lord Caitanya, even the mlecchas and
yavanas. Only the impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya evaded Him.
PURPORT
In this verse it is clearly indicated that although Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu converted Mohammedans and other mlecchas into devotees, the
impersonalist followers of Sankaracarya could not be converted. After
accepting the renounced order of life, Caitanya Mahaprabhu converted
many karma-nisthas who were addicted to fruitive activities, many great
logicians like Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, nindakas (blasphemers) like
Prakasananda Sarasvati, pasandis (nondevotees) like Jagai and Madhai,
and adhama paduyas (degraded students) like Mukunda and his friends. All
of them gradually became devotees of the Lord, even the Pathans or
Muslims, but the worst offenders, the impersonalists, were extremely
difficult to convert, for they very tactfully escaped the devices of
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
In describing the Kasira Mayavadis, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Thakura has explained that persons who are bewildered by empiric
knowledge or direct sensual perception, and who thus consider that even
this limited material world can be gauged by their material estimations,
conclude that anything that one can discern by direct sense perception
is but maya or illusion. They maintain that although the Absolute Truth
is beyond the range of sense perception, it includes no spiritual
variety or enjoyment. According to the Kasira Mayavadis, the spiritual
world is simply void. They do not believe in the Personality of the
Absolute Truth nor in His varieties of activities in the spiritual world.
Although they have their own arguments which are not very strong, they
have no conception of the variegated activities of the Absolute Truth.
These impersonalists, who are followers of Sankaracarya, are generally
known as Kasira Mayavadis.
Near Varanasi there is another group of impersonalists, who are known as
Saranatha Mayavadis. Outside the city of Varanasi is a place known as
Saranatha where there is a big Buddhist stupa. Many followers of
Buddhist philosophy live there, and they are known as Saranatha
Mayavadis. The impersonalists of Saranatha differ from those of Varanasi,
for the Varanasi impersonalists propagate the idea that the impersonal
Brahman is truth whereas material varieties are false, but the Saranatha
impersonalists do not even believe that the Absolute Truth or Brahman
can be understood as the opposite of maya or illusion. According to
their vision, materialism is the only manifestation of the Absolute
Truth.
Factually both the Kasira and Saranatha Mayavadis, as well as any
other philosophers who have no knowledge of the spirit soul, are
advocates of utter materialism. None of them have clear knowledge
regarding the Absolute or the spiritual world. Philosophers like the
Saranatha Mayavadis who do not believe in the spiritual existence of the
Absolute Truth but consider material varieties to be everything do not
believe that there are two kinds of nature, inferior (material) and
superior (spiritual), as described in Bhagavad-gita. Actually,
neither the Varanasi nor Saranatha Mayavadis accept the principles of
Bhagavad-gita, due to a poor fund of knowledge.
Since these impersonalists who do not have perfect spiritual knowledge
cannot understand the principles of bhakti-yoga, they must be classified
among the nondevotees who are against the Krsna consciousness movement.
We sometimes feel inconvenienced by the hindrances offered by these
impersonalists, but we do not care about their so-called philosophy, for
we are propagating our own philosophy as presented in Bhagavad-gita As
It Is and getting successful results. Theorizing as if devotional
service were subject to their mental speculation, both kinds of Mayavadi
impersonalists conclude that the subject matter of bhakti-yoga is a
creation of maya and that Krsna, devotional service and the devotee are
also maya. Therefore, as stated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, mayavadi
krsne aparadhi: "All the Mayavadis are offenders to Lord Krsna." (Cc.
Madhya 17.129) It is not possible for them to understand the Krsna
consciousness movement; therefore we do not value their philosophical
conclusions. However expert such quarrelsome impersonalists are in
putting forward their so-called logic, we defeat them in every respect
and go forward with our Krsna consciousness movement. Their imaginative
mental speculation cannot deter the progress of the Krsna consciousness
movement, which is completely spiritual and is never under the control
of such Mayavadis.
Adi 7.40
TEXT 40
TEXT
vrndavana yaite prabhu rahila kasite
mayavadi-gana tanre lagila nindite
SYNONYMS
vrndavana -- the holy place called Vrndavana; yaite -- while going there;
prabhu -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rahila -- remained; kasite --
at Varanasi; mayavadi-gana -- the Mayavadi philosophers; tanre -- unto
Him; lagila -- began; nindite -- to speak against Him.
TRANSLATION
While Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu was passing through Varanasi on His way
to Vrndavana, the Mayavadi sannyasi philosophers blasphemed against Him
in many ways.
PURPORT
While preaching Krsna consciousness with full vigor, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu faced many Mayavadi philosophers. Similarly, we are also
facing opposing svamis, yogis, impersonalists, scientists, philosophers
and other mental speculators, and by the grace of Lord Krsna we
successfully defeat all of them without difficulty.
Adi 7.41
TEXT 41
TEXT
sannyasi ha-iya kare gayana, nacana
na kare vedanta-patha, kare sankirtana
SYNONYMS
sannyasi -- a person in the renounced order of life; ha-iya -- accepting
such a position; kare -- does; gayana -- singing; nacana -- dancing; na
kare -- does not practice; vedanta-patha -- study of the Vedanta
philosophy; kare sankirtana -- but simply engages in sankirtana.
TRANSLATION
"Although a sannyasi, He does not take interest in
the study of Vedanta but instead always engages in chanting and dancing
in sankirtana.
PURPORT
Fortunately or unfortunately, we also meet such Mayavadis who criticize
our method of chanting and accuse us of not being interested in study.
They do not know that we have translated volumes and volumes of books
into English and that the students in our temples regularly study them
in the morning, afternoon and evening. We are writing and printing books,
and our students study them and distribute them all over the world. No
Mayavadi school can present as many books as we have; nevertheless, they
accuse us of not being fond of study. Such accusations are completely
false. But although we study, we do not study the nonsense of the
Mayavadis.
Mayavadi sannyasis neither chant nor dance. Their technical objection is
that this method of chanting and dancing is called tauryatrika, which
indicates that a sannyasi should completely avoid such activities and
engage his time in the study of Vedanta. Actually, such men do not
understand what is meant by Vedanta. In Bhagavad-gita it is
said: vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham. "
By all the Vedas I am to be known; indeed I am the compiler of Vedanta,
and I am the knower of the Vedas." (Bg. 15.15) Lord Krsna is the actual
compiler of Vedanta, and whatever He speaks is Vedanta philosophy.
Although they are lacking the knowledge of Vedanta presented by the
Supreme Personality of Godhead in the transcendental form of Srimad-
Bhagavatam, the Mayavadis are very proud of their study. Foreseeing the
bad effects of their presenting Vedanta philosophy in a perverted way,
Srila Vyasadeva compiled Srimad-Bhagavatam as a commentary on
Vedanta-sutra. Srimad-Bhagavatam is bhasyam brahma-sutranam; in
other words, all the Vedanta philosophy in the codes of the Brahma-
sutras is thoroughly described in the pages of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Thus
the factual propounder of Vedanta philosophy is a Krsna conscious person
who always engages in reading and understanding Bhagavad-gita and
Srimad-Bhagavatam and teaching the purport of these books to the entire
world. The Mayavadis are very proud of having monopolized the Vedanta
philosophy, but devotees have their own commentaries on Vedanta such as
Srimad-Bhagavatam and others written by the acaryas. The commentary of
the Gaudiya Vaisnavas is the Govinda-bhasya.
The Mayavadis' accusation that devotees do not study Vedanta is false.
They do not know that chanting, dancing and preaching the
principles of Srimad-Bhagavatam, called Bhagavata-dharma, are the same
as studying Vedanta. Since they think that reading Vedanta philosophy is
the only function of a sannyasi and they did not find Caitanya
Mahaprabhu engaged in such direct study, they criticized the Lord.
Sripada Sankaracarya has given special stress to the study of Vedanta
philosophy. Vedanta-vakyesu sada ramantah kaupinavantah khalu
bhagyavantah. "A sannyasi, accepting the renounced order very strictly
and wearing nothing more than a loincloth, should always enjoy the
philosophical statements in the Vedanta-sutra. Such a person in the
renounced order is to be considered very fortunate." The Mayavadis in
Varanasi blasphemed Lord Caitanya because His behavior did not follow
these principles. Lord Caitanya, however, bestowed His mercy upon these
Mayavadi sannyasis and delivered them by means of His Vedanta discourses
with Prakasananda Sarasvati and Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya.
Adi 7.42
TEXT 42
TEXT
murkha sannyasi nija-dharma nahi jane
bhavuka ha-iya phere bhavukera sane
SYNONYMS
murkha -- illiterate; sannyasi -- one in the renounced order of life;
nija-dharma -- own duty; nahi -- does not; jane -- know; bhavuka -- in
ecstasy; ha-iya -- becoming; phere -- wanders; bhavukera -- with another
ecstatic person; sane -- with.
TRANSLATION
"This Caitanya Mahaprabhu is an illiterate sannyasi and therefore does
not know His real function. Guided only by His sentiments, He wanders
about in the company of other sentimentalists."
PURPORT
Foolish Mayavadis, not knowing that the Krsna consciousness movement is
based on a solid philosophy of transcendental science, superficially
conclude that those who dance and chant do not have philosophical
knowledge. Those who are Krsna conscious actually have full knowledge of
the essence of Vedanta philosophy, for they study the real commentary on
the Vedanta philosophy, Srimad-Bhagavatam, and follow the actual words
of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as found in Bhagavad-gita As It Is.
After understanding the Bhagavata philosophy or Bhagavata-dharma, they
become fully spiritually conscious or Krsna conscious, and therefore
their chanting and dancing is not material but is on the spiritual
platform. Although everyone admires the ecstatic chanting and dancing of
the devotees, who are therefore popularly known as the "Hare Krsna
people," Mayavadis cannot appreciate these activities because of their
poor fund of knowledge.
Adi 7.43
TEXT 43
TEXT
e saba suniya prabhu hase mane mane
upeksa kariya karo na kaila sambhasane
SYNONYMS
e saba -- all these; suniya -- after hearing; prabhu -- the Lord; hase --
smiled; mane mane -- within His mind; upeksa -- rejection; kariya --
doing so; karo -- with anyone; na -- did not; kaila -- make; sambhasane -
- conversation.
TRANSLATION
Hearing all this blasphemy, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu merely smiled to
Himself, rejected all these accusations and did not talk with the
Mayavadis.
PURPORT
As Krsna conscious devotees, we do not like to converse with Mayavadi
philosophers simply to waste valuable time, but whenever there is an
opportunity we impress our philosophy upon them with great vigor and
success.
Adi 7.44
TEXT 44
TEXT
upeksa kariya kaila mathura gamana
mathura dekhiya punah kaila agamana
SYNONYMS
upeksa -- neglecting them; kariya -- doing so; kaila -- did; mathura --
the town named Mathura; gamana -- traveling; mathura -- Mathura; dekhiya
-- after seeing it; punah -- again; kaila agamana -- came back.
TRANSLATION
Thus neglecting the blasphemy of the Varanasi Mayavadis, Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu proceeded to Mathura, and after visiting Mathura He returned
to meet the situation.
PURPORT
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu did not talk with the Mayavadi philosophers
when He first visited Varanasi, but He returned there from Mathura to
convince them of the real purpose of Vedanta.
Adi 7.45
TEXT 45
TEXT
kasite lekhaka sudra-sricandrasekhara
tanra ghare rahila prabhu svatantra isvara
SYNONYMS
kasite -- in Varanasi; lekhaka -- writer; sudra -- born of a sudra
family; sri-candrasekhara -- of the name Candrasekhara; tanra ghare --
in his house; rahila -- remained; prabhu -- the Lord; svatantra --
independent; isvara -- the supreme controller.
TRANSLATION
This time Lord Caitanya stayed at the house of Candrasekhara, although
he was regarded as a sudra or kayastha, for the Lord, as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, is completely independent.
PURPORT
Lord Caitanya stayed at the house of Candrasekhara, a clerk, although a
sannyasi is not supposed to reside in a sudra's house. Five hundred
years ago, especially in Bengal, it was the system that persons who were
born in the families of brahmanas were accepted as brahmanas, and all
those who took birth in other families -- even the higher castes, namely,
the ksatriyas and vaisyas -- were considered sudra non-brahmanas.
Therefore although Sri Candrasekhara was a clerk from a kayastha family
in upper India, he was considered a sudra. Similarly, vaisyas,
especially those of the suvarna-vanik community, were accepted as sudras
in Bengal, and even the vaidyas, who were generally physicians, were
also considered sudras. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, however, did not
accept this artificial principle, which was introduced in society by
self-interested men, and later the kayasthas, vaidyas and vaniks all
began to accept the sacred thread, despite objections from the so-called
brahmanas.
Before the time of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the suvarna-vanik class was
condemned by Ballal Sen, who was then the King of Bengal, due to a
personal grudge. In Bengal the suvarna-vanik class are always very rich,
for they are bankers and dealers in gold and silver. Therefore, Ballal
Sen used to borrow money from a suvarna-vanik banker. Ballal Sen's
bankruptcy later obliged the suvarna-vanik banker to stop advancing
money to him, and thus he became angry and condemned the entire
suvarna-vanik society as belonging to the sudra community. Ballal Sen
tried to induce the brahmanas not to accept the suvarna-vaniks as
followers of the instructions of the Vedas under the brahminical
directions, but although some brahmanas approved of Ballal Sen's
actions, others did not. Thus the brahmanas also became divided amongst
themselves, and those who supported the suvarna-vanik class were
rejected from the brahmana community. At the present day the same biases
are still being followed.
There are many Vaisnava families in Bengal whose members, although not
actually born brahmanas, act as acaryas by initiating disciples and
offering the sacred thread as enjoined in the Vaisnava tantras. For
example, in the families of Thakura Raghunanda, Acarya Thakura
Krsnadasa, Navani Hoda and Rasikananda-deva (a disciple of Syamananda
Prabhu), the sacred thread ceremony is performed, as it is for the caste
Gosvamis, and this system has continued for the past three to four
hundred years. Accepting disciples born in brahmana families, they are
bona fide spiritual masters who have the facility to worship the
Salagrama-sila which is worshiped with the Deity. As of this writing,
Salagrama-sila worship has not yet been introduced in our Krsna
consciousness movement, but soon it will be introduced in all our
temples as an essential function of arcana-marga (Deity worship).
Adi 7.46
TEXT 46
TEXT
tapana-misrera ghare bhiksa-nirvahana
sannyasira sange nahi mane nimantrana
SYNONYMS
tapana-misrera -- of Tapana Misra; ghare -- in the house; bhiksa --
accepting food; nirvahana -- regularly executed; sannyasira -- with
other Mayavadi sannyasis; sange -- in company with them; nahi -- never;
mane -- accepted; nimantrana -- invitation.
TRANSLATION
As a matter of principle, Lord Caitanya regularly accepted His food at
the house of Tapana Misra. He never mixed with other sannyasis, nor did
He accept invitations from them.
PURPORT
This exemplary behavior of Lord Caitanya definitely proves that a
Vaisnava sannyasi cannot accept invitations from Mayavadi sannyasis nor
intimately mix with them.
Adi 7.47
TEXT 47
TEXT
sanatana gosani asi' tanhai milila
tanra siksa lagi' prabhu du-masa rahila
SYNONYMS
sanatana -- of the name Sanatana; gosani -- a great devotee; asi' --
coming there; tanhai -- there at Varanasi; milila -- visited Him; tanra -
- His; siksa -- instruction; lagi' -- for the matter of; prabhu -- Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; du-masa -- two months; rahila -- remained there.
TRANSLATION
When Sanatana Gosvami came from Bengal, he met Lord Caitanya at the
house of Tapana Misra, where Lord Caitanya remained continuously for two
months to teach him devotional service.
PURPORT
Lord Caitanya taught Sanatana Gosvami in the line of disciplic
succession. Sanatana Gosvami was a very learned scholar in Sanskrit and
other languages, but until instructed by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu he did
not write anything about Vaisnava behavior. His very famous book Hari-
bhakti-vilasa, which gives directions for Vaisnava candidates, was
written completely in compliance with the instructions of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu. In this Hari-bhakti-vilasa Sri Sanatana Gosvami gives
definite instructions that by proper initiation by a bona fide spiritual
master one can immediately become a brahmana. In this connection he says:
yatha kancanatam yati kamsyam rasa-vidhanatah
tatha diksa-vidhanena dvijatvam jayate nrnam
"As bell metal is turned to gold when mixed with mercury in an
alchemical process, so one who is properly trained and initiated by a
bona fide spiritual master immediately becomes a brahmana." Sometimes
those born in brahmana families protest this, but they have no strong
arguments against this principle. By the grace of Krsna and His devotee,
one's life can change. This is confirmed in the Srimad-Bhagavatam by the
words jahati bandham and suddhanti. Jahati bandham indicates that a
living entity is conditioned by a particular type of body. The body is
certainly an impediment, but one who associates with a pure devotee and
follows his instructions can avoid this impediment and become a regular
brahmana by initiation under his strict guidance. Srila Jiva Gosvami
states how a non-brahmana can be turned into a brahmana by the
association of a pure devotee. Prabha visnave namah: Lord Visnu
is so powerful that He can do anything He likes. Therefore it is not
difficult for Visnu to change the body of a devotee who is under the
guidance of a pure devotee of the Lord.
Adi 7.48
TEXT 48
TEXT
tanre sikhaila saba vaisnavera dharma
bhagavata-adi sastrera yata gudha marma
SYNONYMS
tanre -- unto him (Sanatana Gosvami); sikhaila -- the Lord taught him;
saba -- all; vaisnavera -- of the devotees; dharma -- regular activities;
bhagavata -- Srimad-Bhagavatam; adi -- beginning with; sastrera -- of
the revealed scriptures; yata -- all; gudha -- confidential; marma --
purpose.
TRANSLATION
On the basis of scriptures like Srimad-Bhagavatam which reveal these
confidential directions, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed Sanatana
Gosvami regarding all the regular activities of a devotee.
PURPORT
In the parampara system, the instructions taken from the bona fide
spiritual master must also be based on revealed Vedic scriptures. One
who is in the line of disciplic succession cannot manufacture his own
way of behavior. There are many so-called followers of the Vaisnava cult
in the line of Caitanya Mahaprabhu who do not scrupulously follow the
conclusions of the sastras, and therefore they are considered to be apa-
sampradaya, which means "outside of the sampradaya." Some of these
groups are known as aula, baula, karttabhaja, neda, daravesa, sani
sahajiya, sakhibheki, smarta, jata-gosani, ativadi, cudadhari and
gauranga-nagari. In order to follow strictly the disciplic succession of
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, one should not associate with these
apa-sampradaya communities.
One who is not taught by a bona fide spiritual master cannot understand
the Vedic literature. To emphasize this point, Lord Krsna, while
instructing Arjuna, clearly said that it was because Arjuna was His
devotee and confidential friend that he could understand the mystery of
Bhagavad-gita. It is to be concluded, therefore, that one who wants
to understand the mystery of revealed scriptures must approach a bona
fide spiritual master, hear from him very submissively and render
service to him. Then the import of the scriptures will be revealed. It
is stated in the Vedas:
yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau
tasyaite kathita hy artha prakasante mahatmanah
"The real import of the scriptures is revealed to one who has
unflinching faith in both the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the
spiritual master." Srila Narottama dasa Thakura advises, sadhu-sastra-
guru-vakya, hrdaye kariya aikya. The meaning of this instruction is that
one must consider the instructions of the sadhu, the revealed scriptures
and the spiritual master in order to understand the real purpose of
spiritual life. Neither a sadhu (saintly person or Vaisnava) nor a bona
fide spiritual master says anything that is beyond the scope of the
sanction of the revealed scriptures. Thus the statements of the revealed
scriptures correspond to those of the bona fide spiritual master and
saintly persons. One must therefore act with reference to these three
important sources of understanding.
Adi 7.49
TEXT 49
TEXT
itimadhye candrasekhara, misra-tapana
duhkhi hana prabhu-paya kaila nivedana
SYNONYMS
iti-madhye -- in the meantime; candrasekhara -- the clerk of the name
Candrasekhara; misra-tapana -- as well as Tapana Misra; duhkhi hana --
becoming very unhappy; prabhu-paya -- at the lotus feet of the Lord;
kaila -- made; nivedana -- an appeal.
TRANSLATION
While Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu was instructing Sanatana Gosvami, both
Candrasekhara and Tapana Misra became very unhappy. Therefore they
submitted an appeal unto the lotus feet of the Lord.
Adi 7.50
TEXT 50
TEXT
kateka suniba prabhu tomara nindana
na pari sahite, ebe chadiba jivana
SYNONYMS
kateka -- how much; suniba -- shall we hear; prabhu -- O Lord; tomara --
Your; nindana -- blasphemy; na pari -- we are not able; sahite -- to
tolerate; ebe -- now; chadiba -- give up; jivana -- life.
TRANSLATION
"How long can we tolerate the blasphemy of Your critics against Your
conduct? We should give up our lives rather than hear such blasphemy.
PURPORT
One of the most important instructions by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
regarding regular Vaisnava behavior is that a Vaisnava should be
tolerant like a tree and submissive like grass.
trnad api sunicena
taror api sahisnuna
amanina manadena
kirtaniyah sada harih
"One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind,
thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more
tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige and should
be ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can
chant the holy name of the Lord constantly." Nevertheless, the author of
these instructions, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, did not tolerate the
misbehavior of Jagai and Madhai. When they harmed Lord Nityananda Prabhu,
He immediately became angry and wanted to kill them, and it was only by
the mercy of Lord Nityananda Prabhu that they were saved. One should be
very meek and humble in his personal transactions, and if insulted a
Vaisnava should be tolerant and not angry. But if there is blasphemy
against one's guru or another Vaisnava, one should be as angry as fire.
This was exhibited by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. One should not tolerate
blasphemy against a Vaisnava but should immediately take one of three
actions. If someone blasphemes a Vaisnava, one should stop him with
arguments and higher reason. If one is not expert enough to do this he
should give up his life on the spot, and if he cannot do this, he must
go away. While Caitanya Mahaprabhu was in Benares or Kasi, the Mayavadi
sannyasis blasphemed Him in many ways because although He was a sannyasi
He was indulging in chanting and dancing. Tapana Misra and Candrasekhara
heard this criticism, and it was intolerable for them because they were
great devotees of Lord Caitanya. They could not stop it, however, and
therefore they appealed to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu because this
blasphemy was so intolerable that they had decided to give up their
lives.
Adi 7.51
TEXT 51
TEXT
tomare nindaye yata sannyasira gana
sunite na pari, phate hrdaya-sravana
SYNONYMS
tomare -- unto You; nindaye -- blasphemes; yata -- all; sannyasira gana -
- the Mayavadi sannyasis; sunite -- to hear; na -- cannot; pari --
tolerate; phate -- it breaks; hrdaya -- our hearts; sravana -- while
hearing such blasphemy.
TRANSLATION
"The Mayavadi sannyasis are all criticizing Your Holiness. We cannot
tolerate hearing such criticism, for this blasphemy breaks our hearts."
PURPORT
This is a manifestation of real love for Krsna and Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu. There are three categories of Vaisnavas: kanistha-adhikaris,
madhyama-adhikaris and uttama-adhikaris. The kanistha-adhikari, or the
devotee in the lowest stage of Vaisnava life, has firm faith but is not
familiar with the conclusions of the sastras. The devotee in the second
stage, the madhyama-adhikari, is completely aware of the sastric
conclusion and has firm faith in his guru and the Lord. He, therefore,
avoiding non-devotees, preaches to the innocent. However, the
maha-bhagavata or uttama-adhikari, the devotee in the highest stage of
devotional life, does not see anyone as being against the Vaisnava
principles, for he regards everyone as a Vaisnava but himself. This is
the essence of Caitanya Mahaprabhu's instruction that one be more
tolerant than a tree and think oneself lower than the straw in the
street (trnadapi sunicena taror api sahisnuna). However, even
if a devotee is in the uttama-bhagavata status he must come down to the
second status of life, madhyama-adhikari, to be a preacher, for a
preacher should not tolerate blasphemy against another Vaisnava.
Although a kanistha-adhikari also cannot tolerate such blasphemy, he is
not competent to stop it by citing sastric evidences. Therefore Tapana
Misra and Candrasekhara are understood to be kanistha-adhikaris because
they could not refute the arguments of the sannyasis in Benares. They
appealed to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu to take action, for they felt that
they could not tolerate such criticism although they also could not stop
it.
Adi 7.52
TEXT 52
TEXT
iha suni rahe prabhu isat ha-iya
sei kale eka vipra milila asiya
SYNONYMS
iha -- this; suni -- hearing; rahe -- remained; prabhu -- Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; isat -- slightly; hasiya -- smiling; sei kale -- at that
time; eka -- one; vipra -- brahmana; milila -- met; asiya -- coming
there.
TRANSLATION
While Tapana Misra and Candrasekhara were thus talking with Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, He only smiled slightly and remained silent. At that time a
brahmana came there to meet the Lord.
PURPORT
Because the blasphemy was cast against Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself,
He did not feel sorry, and therefore He was smiling. This is ideal
Vaisnava behavior. One should not become angry upon hearing criticism of
himself, but if other Vaisnavas are criticized one must be prepared to
act as previously suggested. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very
compassionate for His pure devotees Tapana Misra and Candrasekhara;
therefore by His grace this brahmana immediately came to Him. By His
omnipotency the Lord created this situation for the happiness of His
devotees.
Adi 7.53
TEXT 53
TEXT
asi' nivedana kare carane dhariya
eka vastu magon, deha prasanna ha-iya
SYNONYMS
asi' -- coming there; nivedana -- submissive statement; kare -- made;
carane -- unto the lotus feet; dhariya -- capturing; eka -- one; vastu --
thing; magon -- beg from You; deha -- kindly give it to me; prasanna --
being pleased; ha-iya -- becoming so.
TRANSLATION
The brahmana immediately fell at the lotus feet of Caitanya Mahaprabhu
and requested Him to accept his proposal in a joyful mood.
PURPORT
The Vedic injunctions state, tad viddhi pranipatena pariprasnena sevaya:
one must approach a superior authority in humbleness (Bg.4.34). One
cannot challenge a superior authority, but with great submission one can
submit his proposal for acceptance by the spiritual master or spiritual
authorities. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is an ideal teacher by His personal
behavior, and so also are all His disciples. Thus this brahmana, being
purified in association with Caitanya Mahaprabhu, followed these
principles in submitting his request to the higher authority. He fell
down at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and then spoke as
follows.
Adi 7.54
TEXT 54
TEXT
sakala sannyasi muni kainu nimantrana
tumi yadi aisa, purna haya mora mana
SYNONYMS
sakala -- all; sannyasi -- renouncers; muni -- I; kainu -- made;
nimantrana -- invited; tumi -- Your good self; yadi -- if; aisa -- come;
purna -- fulfillment; haya -- becomes; mora -- my; mana -- mind.
TRANSLATION
"My dear Lord, I have invited all the sannyasis of Benares to my home.
My desires will be fulfilled if You also accept my invitation.
PURPORT
This brahmana knew that Caitanya Mahaprabhu was the only Vaisnava
sannyasi in Benares at that time and all the others were Mayavadis. It
is the duty of a grhastha to sometimes invite sannyasis to take food at
his home. This grhastha-brahmana wanted to invite all the sannyasis to
his house, but he also knew that it would be very difficult to induce
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu to accept such an invitation because the
Mayavadi sannyasis would be present. Therefore he fell down at His feet
and fervently appealed to the Lord to be compassionate and grant his
request. Thus he humbly submitted his desire.
Adi 7.55
TEXT 55
TEXT
na yaha sannyasi-gosthi, iha ami jani
more anugraha kara nimantrana mani'
SYNONYMS
na -- not; yaha -- You go; sannyasi-gosthi -- the association of
Mayavadi sannyasis; iha -- this; ami -- I; jani -- know; more -- unto me;
anugraha -- merciful; kara -- become; nimantrana -- invitation; mani' --
accepting.
TRANSLATION
"My dear Lord, I know that You never mix with other sannyasis, but
please be merciful unto me and accept my invitation."
PURPORT
An acarya or great personality of the Vaisnava school is very strict
in his principles, but although he is as hard as a thunderbolt,
sometimes he is as soft as a rose. Thus actually he is independent. He
follows all the rules and regulations strictly, but sometimes he
slackens this policy. It was known that Lord Caitanya never mixed with
the Mayavadi sannyasis, yet He conceded to the request of the brahmana,
as stated in the next verse.
Adi 7.56
TEXT 56
TEXT
prabhu hasi' nimantrana kaila angikara
sannyasire krpa lagi' e bhangi tanhara
SYNONYMS
prabhu -- the Lord; hasi' -- smiling; nimantrana -- invitation; kaila --
made; angikara -- acceptance; sannyasire -- unto the Mayavadi sannyasis;
krpa -- to show them mercy; lagi' -- for the matter of; e -- this;
bhangi -- gesture; tanhara -- His.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya smiled and accepted the invitation of the brahmana. He
made this gesture to show His mercy to the Mayavadi sannyasis.
PURPORT
Tapana Misra and Candrasekhara appealed to the lotus feet of the Lord
regarding their grief at the criticism of Him by the sannyasis in
Benares. Caitanya Mahaprabhu merely smiled, yet He wanted to fulfill the
desires of His devotees, and the opportunity came when the brahmana came
to request Him to accept his invitation to be present in the midst of
the other sannyasis. This coincidence was made possible by the
omnipotency of the Lord.
Adi 7.57
TEXT 57
TEXT
se vipra janena prabhu na ya'na ka'ra ghare
tanhara preranaya tanre atyagraha kare
SYNONYMS
se -- that; vipra -- brahmana; janena -- knew it; prabhu -- Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu; na -- never; ya'na -- goes; ka'ra -- anyone's;
ghare -- house; tanhara -- His; preranaya -- by inspiration; tanre --
unto Him; atyagraha kare -- strongly urging to accept the invitation.
TRANSLATION
The brahmana knew that Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu never went to anyone
else's house, yet due to inspiration from the Lord he earnestly
requested Him to accept this invitation.
Adi 7.58
TEXT 58
TEXT
ara dine gela prabhu se vipra-bhavane
dekhilena, vasiyachena sannyasira gane
SYNONYMS
ara -- next; dine -- day; gela -- went; prabhu -- the Lord; se -- that;
vipra -- brahmana; bhavane -- in the house of; dekhilena -- He saw;
vasiyachena -- there were sitting; sannyasira -- all the sannyasis; gane
-- in a group.
TRANSLATION
The next day, when Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to the house of
that brahmana, he saw all the sannyasis of Benares sitting there.
Adi 7.59
TEXT 59
TEXT
saba namaskari' gela pada-praksalane
pada praksalana kari vasila sei sthane
SYNONYMS
saba -- to all; namaskari' -- offering obeisances; gela -- went; pada --
foot; praksalane -- for washing; pada -- foot; praksalana -- washing;
kari -- finishing; vasila -- sat down; sei -- in that; sthane -- place.
TRANSLATION
As soon as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw the sannyasis He immediately
offered obeisances, and then He went to wash His feet. After washing His
feet, He sat down by the place where He had done so.
PURPORT
By offering His obeisances to the Mayavadi sannyasis Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu very clearly exhibited His humbleness to everyone. Vaisnavas
must not be disrespectful to anyone, to say nothing of a sannyasi. Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu teaches, amanina manadena: one should always be
respectful to others but should not demand respect for himself. A
sannyasi should always walk barefoot, and therefore when he enters a
temple or a society of devotees he should first wash his feet and then
sit down in a proper place. In India it is still the prevalent custom
that one put his shoes in a specified place and then enter the temple
barefoot after washing his feet. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is an ideal
acarya, and those who follow in His footsteps should practice the
methods of devotional life that He teaches us.
Adi 7.60
TEXT 60
TEXT
vasiya karila kichu aisvarya prakasa
mahatejomaya vapu koti-suryabhasa
SYNONYMS
vasiya -- after sitting; karila -- exhibited; kichu -- some; aisvarya --
mystic power; prakasa -- manifested; mahatejomaya -- very
brilliantly; vapu -- body; koti -- millions; surya -- sun; abhasa --
reflection.
TRANSLATION
After sitting on the ground, Caitanya Mahaprabhu exhibited His mystic
power by manifesting an effulgence as brilliant as the illumination of
millions of suns.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna, is
full of all potencies. Therefore it is not remarkable for Him to
manifest the illumination of millions of suns. Lord Sri Krsna is known
as Yogesvara, the master of all mystic powers. Sri Krsna Caitanya
Mahaprabhu is Lord Krsna Himself; therefore He can exhibit any mystic
power.
Adi 7.61
TEXT 61
TEXT
prabhave akarsila saba sannyasira mana
uthila sannyasi saba chadiya asana
SYNONYMS
prabhave -- by such illumination; akarsila -- He attracted; saba -- all;
sannyasira -- the Mayavadi sannyasis; mana -- mind; uthila -- stood up;
sannyasi -- all the Mayavadi sannyasis; saba -- all; chadiya -- giving
up; asana -- sitting places.
TRANSLATION
When the sannyasis saw the brilliant illumination of the body of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, their minds were attracted, and they all
immediately gave up their sitting places and stood in respect.
PURPORT
To draw the attention of common men, sometimes saintly persons, acaryas
and teachers exhibit extraordinary opulences. This is necessary to
attract the attention of fools, but a saintly person should not misuse
such power for personal sense gratification like false saints who
declare themselves to be God. Even a magician can exhibit extraordinary
feats which are not understandable to common men, but this does not mean
that the magician is God. It is a most sinful activity to attract
attention by exhibiting mystic powers and utilizing this
opportunity to declare oneself to be God. A real saintly person never
declares himself to be God but always places himself in the position of
a servant of God. For a servant of God there is no need to exhibit
mystic powers, and he does not like to do so, but on behalf of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead a humble servant of God performs his
activities in such a wonderful way that no common man can dare try to
act like him. Yet a saintly person never takes credit for such actions
because he knows very well that when wonderful things are done on his
behalf by the grace of the Supreme Lord, all credit goes to the master
and not to the servant.
Adi 7.62
TEXT 62
TEXT
prakasananda-name sarva sannyasi-pradhana
prabhuke kahila kichu kariya sammana
SYNONYMS
prakasananda -- Prakasananda; name -- of the name; sarva -- all;
sannyasi-pradhana -- chief of the Mayavadi sannyasis; prabhuke -- unto
the Lord; kahila -- said; kichu -- something; kariya -- showing Him;
sammana -- respect.
TRANSLATION
The leader of all the Mayavadi sannyasis present was named Prakasananda
Sarasvati, and after standing up he addressed Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu
as follows with great respect.
PURPORT
As Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu showed respect to all the Mayavadi
sannyasis, similarly the leader of the Mayavadi sannyasis, Prakasananda,
also showed his respects to the Lord.
Adi 7.63
TEXT 63
TEXT
ihan aisa, ihan aisa, sunaha sripada
apavitra sthane vaisa, kiba avasada
SYNONYMS
ihan aisa -- come here; ihan aisa -- come here; sunaha -- kindly hear;
sripada -- Your Holiness; apavitra -- unholy; sthane -- place; vaisa --
You are sitting; kiba -- what is that; avasada -- lamentation.
TRANSLATION
"Please come here. Please come here, Your Holiness. Why do You sit in
that unclean place? What has caused Your lamentation?"
PURPORT
Here is the distinction between Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and
Prakasananda Sarasvati. In the material world everyone wants to
introduce himself as very important and great, but Caitanya Mahaprabhu
introduced Himself very humbly and meekly.The Mayavadis were sitting in
an exalted position, and Caitanya Mahaprabhu sat in a place which was
not even clean. Therefore the Mayavadi sannyasis thought that He must
have been aggrieved for some reason, and Prakasananda Sarasvati inquired
about the cause for His lamentation.
Adi 7.64
TEXT 64
TEXT
prabhu kahe, -- ami ha-i hina-sampradaya
toma-sabara sabhaya vasite na yuyaya
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord replied; ami -- I; ha-i -- am; hina-sampradaya --
belonging to a lower spiritual school; toma-sabara -- of all of you;
sabhaya -- in the assembly; vasite -- to sit down; na -- never; yuyaya --
I can dare.
TRANSLATION
The Lord replied: "I belong to a lower order of sannyasis. Therefore I
do not deserve to sit with you."
PURPORT
Mayavadi sannyasis are always very puffed up because of their knowledge
of Sanskrit and because they belong to the Sankara-sampradaya. They are
always under the impression that unless one is a brahmana and a very
good Sanskrit scholar, especially in grammar, one cannot accept the
renounced order of life nor become a preacher. Mayavadi sannyasis always
misinterpret all the sastras with their word jugglery and grammatical
compositions, yet Sripada Sankaracarya himself condemned such jugglery
of words in the verse, prapte sannihite khalu marane nahi nahi
raksati dukrn-karane. Dukrn refers to suffixes and prefixes in Sanskrit
grammar. Sankaracarya warned his disciples that if they concerned
themselves only with the principles of grammar, not worshiping Govinda,
they were fools who would never be saved. Yet in spite of Sripada
Sankaracarya's instructions, foolish Mayavadi sannyasis are always busy
juggling words on the basis of strict Sanskrit grammar.
Mayavadi sannyasis are very puffed up if they hold the elevated sannyasa
titles tirtha, asrama, and sarasvati. Even among Mayavadis, those who
belong to other sampradayas and hold other titles such as Vana, Aranya,
Bharati, etc., are considered to be lower-grade sannyasis. Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa from the Bharati-sampradaya, and
thus He considered Himself a lower sannyasi than Prakasananda Sarasvati.
To remain distinct from Vaisnava sannyasis, the sannyasis of the
Mayavadi-sampradaya always think themselves to be situated in a very
elevated spiritual order, but Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in
order to teach them how to become humble and meek, accepted Himself as
belonging to a lower sampradaya of sannyasis. Thus He wanted to point
out clearly that a sannyasi is one who is advanced in spiritual
knowledge. One who is advanced in spiritual knowledge should be accepted
as occupying a better position than those who lack such knowledge.
The Mayavadi-sampradaya sannyasis are generally known as Vedantis, as if
Vedanta were their monopoly. Actually, however, Vedanti refers to a
person who perfectly knows Krsna. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita
, vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo: "By all the Vedas it is
Krsna who is to be known." (Bg.15.15) The so-called Mayavadi Vedantis do
not know who Krsna is; therefore their title of Vedanti, or knower of
Vedanta philosophy, is simply a pretension. Mayavadi sannyasis always
think of themselves as real sannyasis and consider sannyasis of the
Vaisnava order to be brahmacaris. A brahmacari is supposed to engage in
the service of a sannyasi and accept him as his guru. Mayavadi sannyasis
therefore declare themselves to be not only gurus but jagad-gurus, or
the spiritual masters of the entire world, although, of course, they
cannot see the entire world. Sometimes they dress gorgeously and travel
on the backs of elephants in processions, and thus they are always
puffed up, accepting themselves as jagad-gurus. Srila Rupa Gosvami,
however, has explained that jagad-guru properly refers to one who is the
controller of his tongue, mind, words, belly, genitals and anger.
Prthivim sa sisyat: such a jagad-guru is completely fit to make
disciples all over the world. Due to false prestige, Mayavadi sannyasis
who do not have these qualifications sometimes harass and blaspheme a
Vaisnava sannyasi who humbly engages in the service of the Lord.
Adi 7.65
TEXT 65
TEXT
apane prakasananda hatete dhariya
vasaila sabha-madhye sammana kariya
SYNONYMS
apane -- personally; prakasananda -- Prakasananda; hatete -- by His hand;
dhariya -- capturing; vasaila -- made Him sit; sabha-madhye -- in the
assembly of; sammana -- with great respect; kariya -- offering Him.
TRANSLATION
Prakasananda Sarasvati, however, caught Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
personally by the hand and seated Him with great respect in the midst of
the assembly.
PURPORT
The respectful behavior of Prakasananda Sarasvati toward Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu is very much to be appreciated. Such behavior is calculated
to be ajnata-sukrti, or pious activities that one executes without
his knowledge. Thus Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu very tactfully gave
Prakasananda Sarasvati an opportunity to advance in ajnata-sukrti so
that in the future he might actually become a Vaisnava sannyasi.
Adi 7.66
TEXT 66
TEXT
puchila, tomara nama 'sri-krsna-caitanya'
kesava-bharatira sisya, tate tumi dhanya
SYNONYMS
puchila -- inquired; tomara -- Your; nama -- name; sri-krsna-caitanya --
the name Sri Krsna Caitanya; kesava-bharatira sisya -- You are a
disciple of Kesava Bharati; tate -- in that connection; tumi -- You are;
dhanya -- glorious.
TRANSLATION
Prakasananda Sarasvati then said: "I understand that Your name is Sri
Krsna Caitanya. You are a disciple of Sri Kesava Bharati, and therefore
You are glorious.
Adi 7.67
TEXT 67
TEXT
sampradayika sannyasi tumi, raha ei grame
ki karane ama-sabara na kara darsane
SYNONYMS
sampradayika -- of the community; sannyasi -- Mayavadi sannyasi; tumi --
You are; raha -- live; ei -- this; grame -- in Varanasi; ki karane --
for what reason; ama-sabara -- with us; na -- do not; kara -- endeavor;
darsane -- to mix.
TRANSLATION
"You belong to our Sankara-sampradaya and live in our village, Varanasi.
Why then do You not associate with us? Why is it that You avoid even
seeing us?
PURPORT
A Vaisnava sannyasi or a Vaisnava in the second stage of advancement in
spiritual knowledge can understand four principles -- namely, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, the devotees, the innocent and the
jealous -- and he behaves differently with each. He tries to increase
his love for Godhead, make friendship with devotees and preach Krsna
consciousness among the innocent, but he avoids the jealous who are
envious of the Krsna consciousness movement. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu
Himself exemplified such behavior, and this is why Prakasananda
Sarasvati inquired why He did not associate or even talk with them.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu confirmed by example that a preacher of the Krsna
consciousness movement generally should not waste his time talking with
Mayavadi sannyasis, but when there are arguments on the basis of sastra,
a Vaisnava must come forward to talk and defeat them in philosophy.
According to Mayavadi sannyasis, only one who takes sannyasa in the
disciplic succession from Sankaracarya is a Vedic sannyasi. Sometimes it
is challenged that the sannyasis who are preaching in the Krsna
consciousness movement are not genuine because they do not belong to
brahmana families, for Mayavadis do not offer sannyasa to one who does
not belong to a brahmana family by birth. Unfortunately, however, they
do not know that at present everyone is born a sudra (kalau sudra
sambhava). It is to be understood that there are no brahmanas in this
age because those who claim to be brahmanas simply on the basis of
birthright do not have the brahminical qualifications. However, even if
one is born in a non-brahmana family, if he has the brahminical
qualifications he should be accepted as a brahmana, as confirmed by
Srila Narada Muni and the great saint Sridhara Svami. This is also
stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam. Both Narada and Sridhara Svami completely
agree that one cannot be a brahmana by birthright but must possess the
qualities of a brahmana. Thus in our Krsna consciousness movement we
never offer the sannyasa order to a person whom we do not find to be
qualified in terms of the prescribed brahminical principles. Although it
is a fact that unless one is a brahmana he cannot become a sannyasi, it
is not a valid principle that an unqualified man who is born in a
brahmana family is a brahmana whereas a brahminically qualified person
born in a non-brahmana family cannot be accepted. The Krsna
consciousness movement strictly follows the injunctions of Srimad-
Bhagavatam, avoiding misleading heresy and manufactured conclusions.
Adi 7.68
TEXT 68
TEXT
sannyasi ha-iya kara nartana-gayana
bhavuka saba sange lana kara sankirtana
SYNONYMS
sannyasi -- the renounced order of life; ha-iya -- accepting; kara --
You do; nartana-gayana -- dancing and chanting; bhavuka -- fanatics;
saba -- all; sange -- in Your company; lana -- accepting them; kara --
You do; sankirtana -- chanting of the holy name of the Lord.
TRANSLATION
"You are a sannyasi. Why then do You indulge in chanting and dancing,
engaging in Your sankirtana movement in the company of fanatics?
PURPORT
This is a challenge by Prakasananda Sarasvati to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura writes in his Anubhasya that
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is the object of Vedanta philosophical
research, has very kindly determined who is an appropriate candidate for
study of Vedanta philosophy. The first qualification of such a candidate
is expressed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in His Siksastaka:
trnad api sunicena taror api sahisnuna
amanina manadena kirtaniyah sada harih
This statement indicates that one can hear or speak about Vedanta
philosophy through the disciplic succession. One must be very humble and
meek, more tolerant than a tree and more humble than the grass. One
should not claim respect for himself but should be prepared to give all
respect to others. One must have these qualifications to be eligible to
understand Vedic knowledge.
Adi 7.69
TEXT 69
TEXT
vedanta-pathana, dhyana, -- sannyasira dharma
taha chadi' kara kene bhavukera karma
SYNONYMS
vedanta-pathana -- studying Vedanta philosophy; dhyana -- meditation;
sannyasira -- of a sannyasi; dharma -- duties; taha chadi' -- giving
them up; kara -- You do; kene -- why; bhavukera -- of the fanatics;
karma -- activities.
TRANSLATION
"Meditation and the study of Vedanta are the sole duties of a sannyasi.
Why do You abandon these to dance with fanatics?
PURPORT
As explained in regard to verse 41, Mayavadi sannyasis do not approve of
chanting and dancing. Prakasananda Sarasvati, like Sarvabhauma
Bhattacarya, misunderstood Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to be a misled young
sannyasi, and therefore he asked Him why He indulged in the association
of fanatics instead of executing the duty of a sannyasi.
Adi 7.70
TEXT 70
TEXT
prabhave dekhiye toma saksat narayana
hinacara kara kene, ithe ki karana
SYNONYMS
prabhave -- in Your opulence; dekhiye -- I see; toma -- You; saksat --
directly; narayana -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hina-acara --
lower-class behavior; kara -- You do; kene -- why; ithe -- in this; ki --
what is; karana -- reason.
TRANSLATION
"You look as brilliant as if You were Narayana Himself. Will You kindly
explain the reason that You have adopted the behavior of lower-class
people?"
PURPORT
Due to renunciation, Vedanta study, meditation and the strict regulative
principles of their daily routine, Mayavadi sannyasis are certainly in a
position to execute pious activities. Thus Prakasananda Sarasvati, on
account of his piety, could understand that Caitanya Mahaprabhu was not
an ordinary person but the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Saksat
narayana: he considered Him to be Narayana Himself. Mayavadi sannyasis
address each other as Narayana because they think that they are all
going to be Narayana or merge with Narayana in the next life.
Prakasananda Sarasvati appreciated that Caitanya Mahaprabhu had already
directly become Narayana and did not need to wait until His next life.
One difference between the Vaisnava and Mayavadi philosophies is that
Mayavadi philosophers think that after giving up their bodies they are
going to become Narayana by merging with His body, whereas Vaisnava
philosophers understand that after the body dies they are going to have
a transcendental, spiritual body in which to associate with Narayana.
Adi 7.71
TEXT 71
TEXT
prabhu kahe -- suna, sripada, ihara karana
guru more murkha dekhi' karila sasana
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord replied; suna -- kindly hear; sripada -- Your
Holiness; ihara -- of this; karana -- reason; guru -- My spiritual
master; more -- Me; murkha -- fool; dekhi' -- understanding; karila --
he did; sasana -- chastisement.
TRANSLATION
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied to Prakasananda Sarasvati: "My dear sir,
kindly hear the reason. My spiritual master considered Me a fool, and
therefore he chastised Me.
PURPORT
When Prakasananda Sarasvati inquired from Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu why
He neither studied Vedanta nor performed meditation, Lord Caitanya
presented Himself as a number one fool in order to indicate that the
present age, Kali-yuga, is an age of fools and rascals in which it is
not possible to obtain perfection simply by reading Vedanta philosophy
and meditating. The sastras strongly recommend:
harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha
"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is
the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. There is no other way. There
is no other way. There is no other way." People in general in Kali-yuga
are so fallen that it is not possible for them to obtain perfection
simply by studying Vedanta-sutra. One should therefore seriously
take to the constant chanting of the holy name of the Lord.
Adi 7.72
TEXT 72
TEXT
murkha tumi, tomara nahika vedantadhikara
'krsna-mantra' japa sada, -- ei mantra-sara
SYNONYMS
murkha tumi -- You are a fool; tomara -- Your; nahika -- there is not;
vedanta -- Vedanta philosophy; adhikara -- qualification to study; krsna-
mantra -- the hymn of Krsna (Hare Krsna); japa -- chant; sada -- always;
ei -- this; mantra -- hymn; sara -- essence of all Vedic knowledge.
TRANSLATION
"'You are a fool,' he said. 'You are not qualified to study Vedanta
philosophy, and therefore You must always chant the holy name of Krsna.
This is the essence of all mantras or Vedic hymns.
PURPORT
Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Maharaja comments in this
connection, "One can become perfectly successful in the mission of his
life if he acts exactly according to the words he hears from the mouth
of his spiritual master." This acceptance of the words of the spiritual
master is called srauta-vakya, which indicates that the disciple must
carry out the spiritual master's instructions without deviation. Srila
Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks in this connection that a disciple
must accept the words of his spiritual master as his life and soul. Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu here confirms this by saying that since His
spiritual master ordered Him only to chant the holy name of Krsna, He
always chanted the Hare Krsna maha-mantra according to this direction ('
krsna-mantra' japa sada -- ei mantra-sara).
Krsna is the origin of everything. Therefore when a person is fully
Krsna conscious it is to be understood that his relationship with Krsna
has been fully confirmed. Lacking Krsna consciousness, one is only
partially related with Krsna and is therefore not in his constitutional
position. Although Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of
Godhead Krsna, the spiritual master of the entire universe, He
nevertheless took the position of a disciple in order to teach by
example how a devotee should strictly follow the orders of a spiritual
master in executing the duty of always chanting the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra. One who is very much attracted to the study of Vedanta
philosophy must take lessons from Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In this age,
no one is actually competent to study Vedanta, and therefore it is
better that one chant the holy name of the Lord, which is the essence of
all Vedic knowledge, as Krsna Himself confirms in Bhagavad-gita
:
vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham
"By all the Vedas am I to be known; indeed I am the compiler of
Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas." (Bg. 15.15)
Only fools give up the service of the spiritual master and think
themselves advanced in spiritual knowledge. In order to check such fools,
Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself presented the perfect example of how to be
a disciple. A spiritual master knows very well how to engage each
disciple in a particular duty, but if a disciple, thinking himself more
advanced than his spiritual master, gives up his orders and acts
independently, he checks his own spiritual progress. Every disciple must
consider himself completely unaware of the science of Krsna and must
always be ready to carry out the orders of the spiritual master to
become competent in Krsna consciousness. A disciple should always remain
a fool before his spiritual master. Therefore sometimes pseudo-
spiritualists accept a spiritual master who is not even fit to become a
disciple because they want to keep him under their control. This is
useless for spiritual realization.
One who imperfectly knows Krsna consciousness cannot know Vedanta
philosophy. A showy display of Vedanta study without Krsna consciousness
is a feature of the external energy, maya, and as long as one is
attracted by the inebrieties of this ever changing material energy, he
deviates from devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. An actual
follower of Vedanta philosophy is a devotee of Lord Visnu, who is the
greatest of the great and the maintainer of the entire universe. Unless
one surpasses the field of activities in service to the limited, one
cannot reach the unlimited. Knowledge of the unlimited is actual brahma
jnana, or knowledge of the Supreme. Those who are addicted to fruitive
activities and speculative knowledge cannot understand the value of the
holy name of the Lord, Krsna, who is always completely pure, eternally
liberated and full of spiritual bliss. One who has taken shelter of the
holy name of the Lord, which is identical with the Lord, does not have
to study Vedanta philosophy, for he has already completed all such study.
One who is unfit to chant the holy name of Krsna but thinks that the
holy name is different from Krsna and thus takes shelter of Vedanta
study in order to understand Him must be considered a number one fool,
as confirmed by Caitanya Mahaprabhu by His personal behavior, and
philosophical speculators who want to make Vedanta philosophy an
academic career are also considered to be within the material energy. A
person who always chants the holy name of the Lord, however, is already
beyond the ocean of nescience, and thus even a person born in a low
family who engages in chanting the holy name of the Lord is considered
to be beyond the study of Vedanta philosophy. In this connection the
Srimad-Bhagavatam states:
aho bata svapaco 'to gariyan
yaj jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam
tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya
brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te
"If a person born in a family of dog-eaters takes to the chanting of the
holy name of Krsna, it is to be understood that in his previous life he
must have executed all kinds of austerities and penances and performed
all the Vedic yajnas." (Bhag. 3.33.7) Another quotation states:
rg-vedo 'tha yajur-vedah sama-vedo 'py atharvanah
adhitas tena yenoktam harir ity aksara-dvayam
"A person who chants the two syllables Ha-ri has already studied the
four Vedas -- Sama, Rk, Yajuh and Atharva."
Taking advantage of these verses, there are some sahajiyas who, taking
everything very cheaply, consider themselves elevated Vaisnavas but do
not care even to touch the Vedanta-sutras or Vedanta philosophy. A real
Vaisnava should, however, study Vedanta philosophy, but if after
studying Vedanta one does not adopt the chanting of the holy name of the
Lord, he is no better than a Mayavadi. Therefore, one should not be a
Mayavadi, yet one should not be unaware of the subject matter of Vedanta
philosophy. Indeed, Caitanya Mahaprabhu exhibited His knowledge of
Vedanta in His discourses with Prakasananda Sarasvati. Thus it is to be
understood that a Vaisnava should be completely conversant with Vedanta
philosophy, yet he should not think that studying Vedanta is all in all
and therefore be unattached to the chanting of the holy name. A devotee
must know the importance of simultaneously understanding Vedanta
philosophy and chanting the holy names. If by studying Vedanta one
becomes an impersonalist, he has not been able to understand Vedanta.
This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (Bg. 15.15). Vedanta means "the
end of knowledge." The ultimate end of knowledge is knowledge of Krsna,
who is identical with His holy name. Cheap Vaisnavas (sahajiyas) do not
care to study the Vedanta philosophy as commented upon by the four
acaryas. In the Gaudiya-sampradaya there is a Vedanta commentary called
the Govinda-bhasya, but the sahajiyas consider such commentaries to be
untouchable philosophical speculation, and they consider the acaryas to
be mixed devotees. Thus they clear their way to hell.
Adi 7.73
TEXT 73
TEXT
krsna-mantra haite habe samsara-mocana
krsna-nama haite pabe krsnera carana
SYNONYMS
krsna-mantra -- the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra; haite --
from; habe -- it will be; samsara -- material existence; mocana --
deliverance; krsna-nama -- the holy name of Lord Krsna; haite -- from;
pabe -- one will get; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; carana -- lotus feet.
TRANSLATION
"'Simply by chanting the holy name of Krsna one can obtain freedom from
material existence. Indeed, simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra one
will be able to see the lotus feet of the Lord.
PURPORT
In the Anubhasya, Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami says that the
actual effect that will be visible as soon as one achieves
transcendental knowledge is that he will immediately become free from
the clutches of maya and fully engage in the service of the Lord. Unless
one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Mukunda one cannot become
free from fruitive activities under the external energy. However, when
one chants the holy name of the Lord offenselessly, he can realize a
transcendental position which is completely aloof from the material
conception of life. Rendering service to the Lord, a devotee relates to
the Supreme Personality of Godhead in one of five relationships --
namely, santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhurya -- and thus he
relishes transcendental bliss in that relationship. Such a relationship
certainly transcends the body and mind. When one realizes that the holy
name of the Lord is identical with the Supreme Person, he becomes
completely eligible to chant the holy name of the Lord. Such an ecstatic
chanter and dancer must be considered to have a direct relationship with
the Lord.
According to the Vedic principles, there are three stages of spiritual
advancement, namely, sambandha-jnana, abhidheya and prayojana. Sambandha-
jnana refers to establishing one's original relationship with the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, abhidheya refers to acting according to
that constitutional relationship, and prayojana is the ultimate goal of
life, which is to develop love of Godhead (prema pumartho mahan).
If one adheres to the regulative principles under the order of the
spiritual master, he very easily achieves the ultimate goal of his life.
A person who is addicted to the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra very
easily gets the opportunity to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead
directly. There is no need for such a person to understand the
grammatical jugglery in which Mayavadi sannyasis generally indulge. Sri
Sankaracarya also stressed this point. Nahi nahi raksati dukrn-
karane: "Simply by juggling grammatical suffixes and prefixes one cannot
save himself from the clutches of death." The grammatical word jugglers
cannot bewilder a devotee who engages in chanting the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra. Simply addressing the energy of the Supreme Lord as Hare and the
Lord Himself as Krsna very soon situates the Lord within the heart of
the devotee. By thus addressing Radha and Krsna one directly engages in
His Lordship's service. The essence of all revealed scriptures and all
knowledge is present when one addresses the Lord and His energy by the
Hare Krsna mantra, for this transcendental vibration can completely
liberate a conditioned soul and directly engage him in the service of
the Lord.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu presented Himself as a grand fool, yet He
maintained that all the words that He had heard from His spiritual
master strictly followed the principles stated by Vyasadeva in Srimad-
Bhagavatam.
anarthopasamam saksad
bhakti-yogam adhoksaje
lokasyajanato vidvams
cakre satvata-samhitam
"The material miseries of a living entity, which are superfluous to him,
can be directly mitigated by the linking process of devotional service.
But the mass of people do not know this, and therefore the learned
Vyasadeva compiled this Vedic literature, which is
in relation to the Supreme Truth." (Bhag. 1.7.6) One can overcome all
misconceptions and entanglement in the material world by practicing
bhakti-yoga, and therefore Vyasadeva, acting on the instruction of Sri
Narada, has very kindly introduced Srimad-Bhagavatam to relieve the
conditioned souls from the clutches of maya. Lord Caitanya's spiritual
master instructed Him, therefore, that one must read Srimad-Bhagavatam
regularly and with scrutiny to gradually become attached to the chanting
of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.
The holy name and the Lord are identical. One who is completely free
from the clutches of maya can understand this fact. This knowledge,
which is achieved by the mercy of the spiritual master, places one on
the supreme transcendental platform. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu presented
Himself as a fool because prior to accepting the shelter of a spiritual
master He could not understand that simply by chanting one can be
relieved from all material conditions. But as soon as He became a
faithful servant of His spiritual master and followed his instructions,
He very easily saw the path of liberation. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's
chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra must be understood to be devoid of all
offenses. The ten offenses against the holy name are as follows: (1) to
blaspheme a devotee of the Lord, (2) to consider the Lord and the
demigods to be on the same level or to think that there are many gods, (
3) to neglect the orders of the spiritual master, (4) to minimize the
authority of scriptures (Vedas), (5) to interpret the holy name of God, (
6) to commit sins on the strength of chanting, (7) to instruct the
glories of the Lord's name to the unfaithful, (8) to compare the
chanting of the holy name with material piety, (9) to be inattentive
while chanting the holy name, and (10) to be attached to material things
in spite of chanting the holy name.
Adi 7.74
TEXT 74
TEXT
nama vinu kali-kale nahi ara dharma
sarva-mantra-sara nama, ei sastra-marma
SYNONYMS
nama -- the holy name; vinu -- without; kali-kale -- in this age of Kali;
nahi -- there is none; ara -- or any alternative; dharma -- religious
principle; sarva -- all; mantra -- hymns; sara -- essence; nama -- the
holy name; ei -- this is; sastra -- revealed scriptures; marma --
purport.
TRANSLATION
"'In this age of Kali there is no other religious principle than
the chanting of the holy name, which is the essence of all Vedic hymns.
This is the purport of all scriptures.'
PURPORT
The principles of the parampara system were strictly honored in the
ages Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga and Dvapara-yuga, but in the present
age, Kali-yuga, people neglect the importance of this system of srauta-
parampara, or receiving knowledge by disciplic succession. In this age,
people are prepared to argue that they can understand that which is
beyond their limited knowledge and perception through so-called
scientific observations and experiments, not knowing that actual truth
comes down to man from authorities. This argumentative attitude is
against the Vedic principles, and it is very difficult for one who
adopts it to understand that the holy name of Krsna is as good as Krsna
Himself. Since Krsna and His holy name are identical, the holy name is
eternally pure and beyond material contamination. It is the Supreme
Personality of Godhead as a transcendental vibration. The holy name is
completely different from material sound, as confirmed by Narottama dasa
Thakura. Golokera prema-dhana, hari-nama-sankirtana: the transcendental
vibration of hari-nama-sankirtana is imported from the spiritual world.
Thus although materialists who are addicted to experimental knowledge
and the so-called "scientific method" cannot place their faith in the
chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, it is a fact that simply by
chanting the Hare Krsna mantra offenselessly one can be freed from all
subtle and gross material conditions. The spiritual world is called
Vaikuntha, which means "without anxiety." In the material world
everything is full of anxiety (kuntha), whereas in the spiritual world (
Vaikuntha) everything is free from anxiety. Therefore those who are
afflicted by a combination of anxieties cannot understand the Hare Krsna
mantra, which is free from all anxiety. In the present age the vibration
of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is the only process which is in a
transcendental position beyond material contamination. Since the holy
name can deliver a conditioned soul, it is explained here to be sarva-
mantra-sara, the essence of all Vedic hymns.
A name which represents an object of this material world may be
subjected to arguments and experimental knowledge, but in the absolute
world a name and its owner, fame and the famous, are identical, and
similarly the qualities, pastimes and everything else pertaining to the
Absolute are also absolute. Although Mayavadis profess monism, they
differentiate between the holy name of the Supreme Lord and the Lord
Himself. For this offense of namaparadha they gradually glide down from
their exalted position of brahma-jnana, as confirmed in the Srimad-
Bhagavatam (Bhag. 10.2.32):
aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah
patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah
Although by severe austerities they rise to the exalted position of
brahma-jnana, they nevertheless fall down due to imperfect knowledge of
the Absolute Truth. Although they profess to understand the Vedic mantra,
sarvam khalv idam brahma ("
everything is brahman"), they are unable to understand that the holy
name is also brahman. If they regularly chant the maha-mantra, however,
they can be relieved from this misconception. Unless one properly takes
shelter of the holy name, he cannot be relieved from the offensive stage
in chanting the holy name.
Adi 7.75
TEXT 75
TEXT
eta bali' eka sloka sikhaila more
kanthe kari' ei sloka kariha vicare
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; eka sloka -- one verse; sikhaila -- taught;
more -- Me; kanthe -- in the throat; kari' -- keeping; ei -- this; sloka
-- verse; kariha -- You should do; vicare -- in consideration.
TRANSLATION
"After describing the potency of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, My
spiritual master taught Me another verse, advising Me to always keep the
name within My throat.
Adi 7.76
TEXT 76
TEXT
harer nama harer nama
harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva
nasty eva gatir anyatha
SYNONYMS
hareh nama -- the holy name of the Lord; hareh nama -- the holy name of
the Lord; hareh nama -- the holy name of the Lord; eva -- certainly;
kevalam -- only; kalau -- in this age of Kali; na asti -- there is none;
eva -- certainly; na asti -- there is none; eva -- certainly; na asti --
there is none; eva -- certainly; gatih -- progress; anyatha -- otherwise.
TRANSLATION
"'In this age of Kali there is no alternative,
there is no alternative, there is no alternative for spiritual progress
than the holy name, the holy name, the holy name of the Lord.'
PURPORT
For progress in spiritual life, the sastras recommend meditation in
Satya-yuga, sacrifice for the satisfaction of Lord Visnu in Treta-yuga
and gorgeous worship of the Lord in the temple in Dvapara-yuga, but in
the age of Kali one can achieve spiritual progress only by chanting the
holy name of the Lord. This is confirmed in various scriptures. In the
Srimad-Bhagavatam there are many references to this fact. In the Twelfth
Canto it is said, kirtanad eva krsnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet:
In the age of Kali there are many faults, for people are subjected to
many miserable conditions, yet in this age there is one great
benediction -- simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra one can be freed
from all material contamination and thus be elevated to the spiritual
world. The Narada-pancaratra also praises the Hare Krsna maha-mantra as
follows:
trayo vedah sad-angani
chandamsi vividhah surah
sarvam astaksarantahstham
yac canyad api van-mayam
sarva
-vedanta-sararthah
samsararnava-taranah
"The essence of all Vedic knowledge -- comprehending the three kinds of
Vedic activity [karma-kanda, jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda], the
chandah or Vedic hymns, and the processes for satisfying the demigods --
is included in the eight syllables Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna. This is the
reality of all Vedanta. The chanting of the holy name is the only means
to cross the ocean of nescience." Similarly, the Kalisantarana
Upanisad states, "Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare
Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare -- these sixteen names composed of
thirty-two syllables are the only means to counteract the evil effects
of Kali-yuga. In all the Vedas it is seen that to cross the ocean of
nescience there is no alternative to the chanting of the holy name."
Similarly, Sri Madhvacarya, while commenting upon the Mundaka Upanisad,
has said:
dvapariyair janair visnuh
pancaratrais ca kevalam
kalau tu nama-matrena
pujyate bhagavan harih
"In the Dvapara-yuga one could satisfy Krsna or Visnu only by worshiping
Him gorgeously according to the Pancaratriki system, but in the age of
Kali one can satisfy and worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari
simply by chanting the holy name." In his Bhakti-sandarbha (verse 284),
Srila Jiva Gosvami strongly emphasizes the chanting of the holy name of
the Lord as follows:
nanu bhagavan-namatmaka eva mantrah; tatra visesena namah-sabdady-
alankrtah sri-
bhagavata srimad-rsibhis cahita-sakti-visesah, sri-bhagavata samam atma-
sambandha-visesa-
pratipadakas ca tatra kevalani sri-bhagavan-namany api nirapeksany eva
parama-purusartha-
phala-paryanta-dana-samarthani tato mantresu namato 'py adhika-samarthye
labdhe katham
diksady-apeksa? ucyate -- yady api svarupato nasti, tathapi prayah
svabhavato dehadi-
sambandhena kadarya-silanam viksipta-cittanam jananam tat-
sankocikaranaya srimad-rsi-
prabhrtibhir atrarcana-marge kvacit kvacit kacit kacin maryada
sthapitasti
Srila Jiva Gosvami states that the substance of all the Vedic mantras is
the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. Every mantra begins with the
prefix nama om and eventually addresses by name the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. By the supreme will of the Lord there is a specific potency
in each and every mantra chanted by great sages like Narada Muni and
other rsis. Chanting the holy name of the Lord immediately renovates the
transcendental relationship of the living being with the Supreme Lord.
To chant the holy name of the Lord, one need not depend upon other
paraphernalia, for one can immediately get all the desired results of
connecting or linking with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It may
therefore be questioned why there is a necessity for initiation or
further spiritual activities in devotional service for one who engages
in the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. The answer is that
although it is correct that one who fully engages in chanting the holy
name need not depend upon the process of initiation, generally a devotee
is addicted to many abominable material habits due to material
contamination from his previous life. In order to get quick relief from
all these contaminations, it is required that one engage in the worship
of the Lord in the temple. The worship of the Deity in the temple is
essential to reduce one's restlessness due to the contaminations of
conditional life. Thus Narada, in his Pancaratriki-vidhi, and other
great sages have sometimes stressed that since every conditioned soul
has a bodily concept of life aimed at sense enjoyment, to restrict this
sense enjoyment the rules and regulations for worshiping the Deity in
the temple are essential. Srila Rupa Gosvami has described that the holy
name of the Lord can be chanted by liberated souls, but almost all the
souls we have to initiate are conditioned. It is advised that one chant
the holy name of the Lord without offenses and according to the
regulative principles, yet due to their past bad habits they violate
these rules and regulations. Thus the regulative principles for worship
of the Deity are also simultaneously essential.
Adi 7.77
TEXT 77
TEXT
ei ajna pana nama la-i anuksana
nama laite laite mora bhranta haila mana
SYNONYMS
ei -- this; ajna -- order; pana -- receiving; nama -- the holy name; la-
i -- chant; anuksana -- always; nama -- the holy name; laite --
accepting; laite -- accepting; mora -- My; bhranta -- bewilderment;
haila -- taking place; mana -- in the mind.
TRANSLATION
"Since I received this order from My spiritual master, I always chant
the holy name, but I think that by chanting and chanting the holy name
I have been bewildered.
Adi 7.78
TEXT 78
TEXT
dhairya dharite nari, hailama unmatta
hasi, kandi, naci, gai, yaiche madamatta
SYNONYMS
dhairya -- patience; dharite -- capturing; nari -- unable to take;
hailama -- I have become; unmatta -- mad after it; hasi -- laugh; kandi -
- cry; naci -- dance; gai -- sing; yaiche -- as much as; madamatta --
madman.
TRANSLATION
"While chanting the holy name of the Lord in pure ecstasy, I lose myself,
and thus I laugh, cry, dance and sing just like a madman.
Adi 7.79
TEXT 79
TEXT
tave dhairya dhari' mane karilun vicara
krsna-name jnanacchana ha-ila amara
SYNONYMS
tave -- thereafter; dhairya -- patience; dhari' -- accepting; mane -- in
the mind; karilun -- I did; vicara -- consideration; krsna-name -- in
the holy name of Krsna; jnana-acchanna -- covering of My knowledge; ha-
ila -- has become; amara -- of Me.
TRANSLATION
"Collecting My patience, therefore, I began to consider that chanting
the holy name of Krsna had covered all My spiritual knowledge.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu hints in this verse that to chant the holy name
of Krsna one does not need to speculate on the philosophical aspects of
the science of God, for one automatically becomes ecstatic and without
consideration immediately chants, dances, laughs, cries and sings just
like a madman.
Adi 7.80
TEXT 80
TEXT
pagala ha-ilan ami, dhairya nahi mane
eta cinti' nivedilun gurura carane
SYNONYMS
pagala -- madman; ha-ilan -- I have become; ami -- I; dhairya --
patience; nahi -- not; mane -- in the mind; eta -- thus; cinti' --
considering; nivedilun -- I submitted; gurura -- of the spiritual master;
carane -- on his lotus feet.
TRANSLATION
"I saw that I had become mad by chanting the holy name, and I
immediately submitted this at the lotus feet of my spiritual master.
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, as an ideal teacher, shows us how a disciple
should deal with his spiritual master. Whenever there is doubt regarding
any point, he should refer the matter to his spiritual master for
clarification. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said that while chanting and
dancing He had developed the kind of mad ecstasy that is possible only
for a liberated soul. Yet even in His liberated position, He referred
everything to His spiritual master whenever there were doubts. Thus in
any condition, even when liberated, we should never think ourselves
independent of the spiritual master, but must refer to him as soon as
there is some doubt regarding our progressive spiritual life.
Adi 7.81
TEXT 81
TEXT
kiba mantra dila, gosani, kiba tara bala
japite japite mantra karila pagala
SYNONYMS
kiba -- what kind of; mantra -- hymn; dila -- you have given; gosani --
My lord; kiba -- what is; tara -- its; bala -- strength; japite --
chanting; japite -- chanting; mantra -- the hymn; karila -- has made Me;
pagala -- madman.
TRANSLATION
"'My dear lord, what kind of mantra have you given Me? I have become mad
simply by chanting this maha-mantra!
PURPORT
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu prays in His Siksastaka:
yugayitam nimesena
caksusa pravrsayitam
sunyayitam jagat sarvam
govinda virahena me
"O Govinda! Feeling Your separation, I am considering a moment to be
like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents
of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence." It
is the aspiration of a devotee that while he chants the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra his eyes will fill with tears, his voice falter and his heart
throb. These are good signs in chanting the holy name of the Lord. In
ecstasy, one should feel the entire world to be vacant without the
presence of Govinda. This is a sign of separation from Govinda. In
material life we are all separated from Govinda and are absorbed in
material sense gratification. Therefore, when one comes to his senses on
the spiritual platform he becomes so eager to meet Govinda that without
Govinda the entire world becomes a vacant place.
Adi 7.82
TEXT 82
TEXT
hasaya, nacaya, more karaya krandana
eta suni' guru hasi balila vacana
SYNONYMS
hasaya -- it causes Me to laugh; nacaya -- it causes Me to dance; more --
unto Me; karaya -- it causes; krandana -- crying; eta -- thus; suni' --
hearing; guru -- My spiritual master; hasi -- smiling; balila -- said;
vacana -- words.
TRANSLATION
"'Chanting the holy name in ecstasy causes one to dance, laugh and cry.'
When My spiritual master heard all this, he smiled and then began to
speak.
PURPORT
When a disciple very perfectly makes progress in spiritual life, this
gladdens the spiritual master, who then also smiles in ecstasy, thinking,
"How successful my disciple has become!" He feels so glad that he
smiles as he enjoys the progress of the disciple, just as a smiling
parent enjoys the activities of a child who is trying to stand up or
crawl perfectly.
Adi 7.83
TEXT 83
TEXT
krsna-nama-maha-mantrera ei ta' svabhava
yei jape, tara krsne upajaye bhava
SYNONYMS
krsna-nama -- the holy name of Krsna; maha-mantrera -- of the supreme
hymn; ei ta' -- this is its; svabhava -- nature; yei -- anyone; jape --
chants; tara -- his; krsne -- unto Krsna; upajaye -- develops; bhava --
ecstasy.
TRANSLATION
"'It is the nature of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra that anyone who chants
it immediately develops his loving ecstasy for Krsna.
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita it is said
:
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
budha bhava-samanvitah
"I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything
emanates from Me. The wise who know this perfectly engage in My
devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts." (Bg. 10.8) In
this verse it is explained that one who chants the Hare Krsna mantra
develops bhava, ecstasy, which is the point at which revelation begins.
It is the preliminary stage in developing one's original love for God. A
neophyte disciple begins by hearing and chanting, associating with
devotees and practicing the regulative principles, and thus he
vanquishes all of his unwanted bad habits. In this way he develops
attachment for Krsna and cannot forget Krsna even for a moment. Bhava is
almost the successful stage of spiritual life. A sincere student aurally
receives the holy name from the spiritual master, and after being
initiated he follows the regulative principles given by the spiritual
master. When the holy name is properly served in this way, automatically
the spiritual nature of the holy name spreads; in other words, the
devotee becomes qualified in offenselessly chanting the holy name. When
one is completely fit to chant the holy name in this way, he is eligible
to make disciples all over the world, and he actually becomes jagad-guru.
Then the entire world, under his influence, begins to chant the holy
names of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Thus all the disciples of such a
spiritual master increase in attachment for Krsna, and therefore he
sometimes cries, sometimes laughs, sometimes dances and sometimes chants.
These symptoms are very prominently manifest in the body of a pure
devotee. Sometimes when our students of the Krsna consciousness movement
chant and dance, even in India people are astonished to see how these
foreigners have learned to chant and dance in this ecstatic fashion. As
explained by Caitanya Mahaprabhu, however, actually this is not due to
practice, for without extra endeavor these symptoms become manifest in
anyone who sincerely chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.
Many fools, not knowing the transcendental nature of the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra, sometimes impede our loudly chanting this mantra, yet one who is
actually advanced in the fulfillment of chanting the Hare Krsna maha-
mantra induces others to chant also. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami explains,
krsna-sakti vina nahe tara pravartana: unless one receives special
power of attorney from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he cannot
preach the glories of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. As devotees propagate
the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, the general population of the entire world
gets the opportunity to understand the glories of the holy name. While
chanting and dancing or hearing the holy name of the Lord, one
automatically remembers the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and because
there is no difference between the holy name and Krsna, the chanter is
immediately linked with Krsna. Thus connected, a devotee develops his
original attitude of service to the Lord. In this attitude of constantly
serving Krsna, which is called bhava, one always thinks of Krsna in many
different ways. One who has attained this bhava stage is no longer under
the clutches of the illusory energy. When other spiritual ingredients,
such as trembling, perspiration, tears, etc., are added to this bhava
stage, the devotee gradually attains love of Krsna.
The holy name of Krsna is called the maha-mantra. Other mantras
mentioned in the Narada-pancaratra are known simply as mantras, but the
chanting of the holy name of the Lord is called the maha-mantra.
Adi 7.84
TEXT 84
TEXT
krsna-visayaka prema -- parama purusartha
yara age trna-tulya cari purusartha
SYNONYMS
krsna-visayaka -- in the subject of Krsna; prema -- love; parama -- the
highest; purusa-artha -- achievement of the goal of life; yara -- whose;
age -- before; trna-tulya -- like the grass in the street; cari -- four;
purusa-artha -- achievements.
TRANSLATION
"'Religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation
are known as the four goals of life, but before love of Godhead, the
fifth and highest goal, these appear as insignificant as straw in the
street.
PURPORT
While chanting the holy name of the Lord, one should not desire the
material advancements represented by economic development,
religiosity, sense gratification and ultimately liberation from the
material world. As stated by Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the highest perfection
in life is to develop one's love for Krsna (prema pumartho mahan
sri-caitanya-mahaprabhor matam idam). When we compare love of Godhead
with religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and
liberation, we can understand that these achievements may be desirable
objectives for bubhuksus, or those who desire to enjoy this material
world, and mumuksus, or those who desire liberation from it, but they
are very insignificant in the eyes of a pure devotee who has developed
bhava, the preliminary stage of love of Godhead.
Dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kama (sense
gratification) and moksa (liberation) are the four principles of
religion which pertain to the material world. Therefore in the beginning
of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is declared, dharmah projjhita-kaitavo 'tra:
cheating religious systems in terms of these four material
principles are completely discarded from Srimad-Bhagavatam, for Srimad-
Bhagavatam teaches only how to develop one's dormant love of God.
Bhagavad-gita is the preliminary study of Srimad-Bhagavatam, and
therefore it ends with the words, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam
saranam vraja: "Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender
unto Me." (Bg. 18.66) To adopt this means, one should reject all ideas
of religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation
and fully engage in the service of the Lord, which is transcendental to
these four principles. Love of Godhead is the original function of the
spirit soul, and it is as eternal as the soul and the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. This eternity is called sanatana. When one
revives his loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
it should be understood that he has been successful in achieving the
desired goal of his life. At that time everything is automatically done
by the mercy of the holy name, and the devotee automatically advances in
his spiritual progress.
Adi 7.85
TEXT 85
TEXT
pancama purusartha -- premanandamrta-sindhu
moksadi ananda yara nahe eka bindu
SYNONYMS
pancama -- fifth; purusa-artha -- goal of life; prema-ananda -- the
spiritual bliss of love of Godhead; amrta -- eternal; sindhu -- ocean;
moksa-adi -- liberation and other principles of religiosity; ananda --
pleasures derived from them; yara -- whose; nahe -- never comparable;
eka -- one; bindu -- drop.
TRANSLATION
"'For a devotee who has actually developed bhava, the pleasure derived
from dharma, artha, kama and moksa appears like a drop in the presence
of the sea.
Adi 7.86
TEXT 86
TEXT
krsna-namera phala -- 'prema', sarva-sastre kaya
bhagye sei prema tomaya karila udaya
SYNONYMS
krsna-namera -- of the holy name of the Lord; phala -- result; prema --
love of Godhead; sarva -- in all; sastre -- revealed scriptures; kaya --
describe; bhagye -- fortunately; sei -- that; prema -- love of Godhead;
tomaya -- Your; karila -- has done; udaya -- arisen.
TRANSLATION
"'The conclusion of all revealed scriptures is that one should awaken
his dormant love of Godhead. You are greatly fortunate to have already
done so.
Adi 7.87
TEXT 87
TEXT
premara sva-bhave kare citta-tanu ksobha
krsnera carana-praptye upajaya lobha
SYNONYMS
premara -- out of love of Godhead; sva-bhave -- by nature; kare --
it induces; citta -- the consciousness; tanu -- the body; ksobha --
agitated; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; carana -- lotus feet; praptye --
having obtained; upajaya -- it so becomes; lobha -- aspiration.
TRANSLATION
"'It is a characteristic of love of Godhead that by nature it induces
transcendental symptoms in one's body and makes one more and more greedy
to achieve the shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord.
Adi 7.88
TEXT 88
TEXT
premara sva-bhave bhakta hase, kande, gaya
unmatta ha-iya nace, iti-uti dhaya
SYNONYMS
premara -- by such love of Godhead; sva-bhave -- by nature; bhakta -
- the devotee; hase -- laughs; kande -- cries; gaya -- chants; unmatta --
mad; ha-iya -- becoming; nace -- dances; iti -- here; uti -- there;
dhaya -- moves.
TRANSLATION
"'When one actually develops love of Godhead, he naturally sometimes
cries, sometimes laughs, sometimes chants and sometimes runs here and
there just like a madman.
PURPORT
In this connection Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami says that sometimes
persons who have no love of Godhead at all display ecstatic bodily
symptoms. Artificially they sometimes laugh, cry and dance just like
madmen, but this cannot help one progress in Krsna consciousness. Rather,
such artificial agitation of the body is to be given up when one
naturally develops the necessary bodily symptoms. Actual blissful life,
manifested in genuine spiritual laughing, crying and dancing, is the
symptom of real advancement in Krsna consciousness, which can be
achieved by a person who always voluntarily engages in the
transcendental loving service of the Lord. If one who is not yet
developed imitates such symptoms artificially, he creates chaos in the
spiritual life of human society.
Adi 7.89-90
TEXTS 89-90
TEXT
sveda, kampa, romancasru, gadgada, vaivarnya
unmada, visada, dhairya, garva, harsa, dainya
eta bhave prema bhaktaganere nacaya
krsnera anandamrta-sagare bhasaya
SYNONYMS
sveda -- perspiration; kampa -- trembling; romanca -- standing of the
hairs on the body; asru -- tears; gadgada -- faltering; vaivarnya --
changing of bodily color; unmada -- madness; visada -- melancholy;
dhairya -- patience; garva -- pride; harsa -- joyfulness; dainya --
humbleness; eta -- in many ways; bhave -- in ecstasy; prema -- love of
Godhead; bhakta-ganere -- unto the devotees; nacaya -- causes to dance;
krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; ananda -- transcendental bliss; amrta --
nectar; sagare -- in the ocean; bhasaya -- floats.
TRANSLATION
"'Perspiration, trembling, standing of one's bodily hairs, tears,
faltering, fading, madness, melancholy, patience, pride,
joy and humility -- these are various natural symptoms of ecstatic love
of Godhead, which causes a devotee to dance and float in an ocean of
transcendental bliss while chanting the Hare Krsna mantra.
PURPORT
Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Priti-sandarbha (verse 66), explains this
stage of love of Godhead: bhagavat-priti-rupa vrttir mayadimayi na
bhavati; kintu svarupa-saktyananda-rupa, yadananda-
paradhinah sri-bhagavan apiti. Similarly, in the 69th verse he
offers further explanation: tad evam priter laksanam citta-dravas tasya
ca romaharsadikam. kathancij jate'pi citta-drave
romaharsadike va na ced asaya-suddhis tadapi na bhakteh samyag-
avirbhava iti jnapitam. asaya-suddhir nama canya-tatparya-parityagah
priti-tatparyam ca. ataevanimitta svabhaviki ceti tad
visesanam. Transcendental love of Godhead is not under the jurisdiction
of the material energy, for it is the transcendental bliss and pleasure
potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since the Supreme Lord is
also under the influence of transcendental bliss, when one comes in
touch with such bliss in love of Godhead, one's heart melts, and the
symptoms of this are standing of the hairs on end, etc. Sometimes a
person thus melts and manifests these transcendental symptoms yet at the
same time is not well behaved in his personal transactions.This
indicates that he has not yet reached complete perfection in devotional
life. In other words, a devotee who dances in ecstasy but after dancing
and crying appears to be attracted to material affairs has not yet
reached the perfection of devotional service, which is called asaya-
suddhi, or the perfection of existence. One who attains the perfection
of existence is completely averse to material enjoyment and engrossed in
transcendental love of Godhead. It is therefore to be concluded that the
ecstatic symptoms of asaya-suddhi are visible when a devotee's service
has no material cause and is purely spiritual in nature. These are
characteristics of transcendental love of Godhead, as stated in Srimad-
Bhagavatam:
sa vai pumsam paro dharmo
yato bhaktir adhoksaje
ahaituky apratihata
yayatma suprasidati
"That religion is best which causes its followers to become ecstatic in
love of God which is unmotivated and free from material impediments, for
this only can completely satisfy the self." (Bhag. 1.2.6)
Adi 7.91
TEXT 91
TEXT
bhala haila, paile tumi parama-purusartha
tomara premete ami hailan krtartha
SYNONYMS
bhala haila -- let it be good; paile -- You have gotten; tumi -- You;
parama-purusartha -- superexcellent goal of life; tomara -- Your;
premete -- by development in love of Godhead; ami -- I; hailan -- become;
krta-artha -- very much obliged.
TRANSLATION
"'It is very good, my dear child, that You have attained the supreme
goal of life by developing love of Godhead. Thus You have pleased me
very much, and I am very much obliged to You.
PURPORT
According to revealed scriptures, if a spiritual master can convert
even one soul into a perfectly pure devotee, his mission in life is
fulfilled. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura always used to say, "
Even at the expense of all the properties, temples and mathas that I
have, if I could convert even one person into a pure devotee, my mission
would be fulfilled." It is very difficult, however, to understand the
science of Krsna, not to speak of developing love of Godhead. Therefore
if by the grace of Lord Caitanya and the spiritual master a disciple
attains the standard of pure devotional service, the spiritual master is
very happy. The spiritual master is not actually happy if the disciple
brings him money, but when he sees that a disciple is following the
regulative principles and advancing in spiritual life, he is very glad
and feels obliged to such an advanced disciple.
Adi 7.92
TEXT 92
TEXT
naca, gao, bhakta-sange kara sankirtana
krsna-nama upadesi' tara' sarva-jana
SYNONYMS
naca -- go on dancing; gao -- chant; bhakta-sange -- in the society of
devotees; kara -- continue; sankirtana -- chanting of the holy name in
assembly; krsna-nama -- the holy name of Krsna; upadesi' -- by
instructing; tara' -- deliver; sarva-jana -- all fallen souls.
TRANSLATION
"'My dear child, continue dancing, chanting and performing sankirtana in
association with devotees. Furthermore, go out and preach the value of
chanting Krsna-nama, for by this process You will be able to deliver all
fallen souls.'
PURPORT
It is another ambition of the spiritual master to see his disciples not
only chant, dance and follow the regulative principles but also preach
the sankirtana movement to others in order to deliver them, for the
Krsna consciousness movement is based on the principle that one should
become as perfect as possible in devotional service oneself and also
preach the cult for others' benefit. There are two classes of unalloyed
devotees -- namely, gosthy-anandis and bhajananandis. Bhajananandi
refers to one who is satisfied to cultivate devotional service for
himself, and gosthy-anandi is one who is not satisfied simply to become
perfect himself but wants to see others also take advantage of the holy
name of the Lord and advance in spiritual life. The outstanding example
is Prahlada Maharaja. When he was offered a benediction by Lord
Nrsimhadeva, Prahlada Maharaja said:
naivodvije para duratyaya-vaitaranyas
tvad-virya-gayana-mahamrta-magna-cittah
soce tato vimukha-cetasa indriyartha-
maya-sukhaya bharam udvahato vimudhan
"My dear Lord, I have no problems and want no benediction from You
because I am quite satisfied to chant Your holy name. This is sufficient
for me because whenever I chant I immediately merge in an ocean of
transcendental bliss. I only lament to see others bereft of Your love.
They are rotting in material activities for transient material pleasure
and spoiling their lives toiling all day and night simply for sense
gratification, with no attachment for love of Godhead. I am simply
lamenting for them and devising various plans to deliver them from the
clutches of maya." (Bhag. 7.9.43)
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura explains in his Anubhasya, "A
person who has attracted the attention of the spiritual master by his
sincere service likes to dance and chant with similarly developed Krsna
conscious devotees. The spiritual master authorizes such a devotee to
deliver fallen souls in all parts of the world. Those who are not
advanced prefer to chant the Hare Krsna mantra in a solitary place."
Such activities constitute, in the language of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta
Sarasvati Thakura, a type of cheating process in the sense that they
imitate the activities of exalted personalities like Haridasa Thakura.
One should not attempt to imitate such exalted devotees. Rather,
everyone should endeavor to preach the cult of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
in all parts of the world and thus become successful in spiritual life.
One who is not very expert in preaching may chant in a secluded place,
avoiding bad association, but for one who is actually advanced,
preaching and meeting people who are not engaged in devotional service
are not disadvantages. A devotee gives the nondevotees his association
but is not affected by their misbehavior. Thus by the activities of a
pure devotee even those who are bereft of love of Godhead get a chance
to become devotees of the Lord one day. In this connection Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura advises that one discuss the verse in
Srimad-Bhagavatam, naitat samacarej jatu manasapi hy anisvarah
(10.33.31), and the following verse in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu:
anasaktasya visayan yatharham upayunjatah
nirbandhah krsna-sambandhe yuktam vairagyam ucyate
(B.r.s. 1.2.255)
One should not imitate the activities of great personalities. One should
be detached from material enjoyment and should accept everything in
connection with Krsna's service.
Adi 7.93
TEXT 93
TEXT
eta bali' eka sloka sikhaila more
bhagavatera sara ei -- bale vare vare
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; eka -- one; sloka -- verse; sikhaila -- has
taught; more -- unto Me; bhagavatera -- of Srimad-Bhagavatam; sara --
essence; ei -- this is; bale -- he said; vare vare -- again and again.
TRANSLATION
"Saying this, My spiritual master taught Me one verse from Srimad-
Bhagavatam. It is the essence of all the Bhagavatam's instructions;
therefore he instructed Me this verse again and again.
PURPORT
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.40) was spoken by Sri Narada
Muni to Vasudeva to teach him about Bhagavata-dharma. Vasudeva had
already achieved the result of Bhagavata-dharma because Lord Krsna
appeared in his house as his son, yet in order to teach others, he
desired to hear from Sri Narada Muni to be enlightened in the process of
Bhagavata-dharma. This is the humbleness of a great devotee.
Adi 7.94
TEXT 94
TEXT
evamvratah sva-priya-nama-kirtya
jatanurago druta-citta uccaih
hasaty atho roditi rauti gayaty
unmadavan nrtyati loka-bahyah
SYNONYMS
evamvratah -- when one thus engages in the vow to chant and dance;
sva -- own; priya -- very dear; nama -- holy name; kirtya -- by
chanting; jata -- in this way develops; anuragah -- attachment; druta-
cittah -- very eagerly; uccaih -- loudly; hasati -- laughs; atho -- also;
roditi -- cries; rauti -- becomes agitated; gayati -- chants;
unmadavat -- like a madman; nrtyati -- dancing; loka-bahyah --
without caring for outsiders.
TRANSLATION
"'When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the
holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and
loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and
chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders.'
Adi 7.95-96
TEXTS 95-96
TEXT
ei tanra vakye ami drdha visvasa dhari'
nirantara krsna-nama sankirtana kari
sei krsna-nama kabhu gaoyaya, nacaya
gahi, naci nahi ami apana-icchaya
SYNONYMS
ei -- this; tanra -- his (My spiritual master's); vakye -- in the words
of; ami -- I; drdha -- firm; visvasa -- faith; dhari' -- depend;
nirantara -- always; krsna-nama -- the holy name of Lord Krsna;
sankirtana -- chanting; kari -- continue; sei -- that; krsna-nama -- the
holy name of Lord Krsna; kabhu -- sometimes; gaoyaya -- causes Me to
chant; nacaya -- causes Me to dance; gahi -- by chanting; naci --
dancing; nahi -- not; ami -- Myself; apana -- own; icchaya -- will.
TRANSLATION
"I firmly believe in these words of My spiritual master, and therefore I
always chant the holy name of the Lord, alone and in the association of
devotees. That holy name of Lord Krsna sometimes causes Me to chant and
dance, and therefore I chant and dance. Please do not think that I
intentionally do it. I do it automatically.
PURPORT
A person who cannot keep his faith in the words of his spiritual master
but acts independently never receives the authority to chant the holy
name of the Lord. It is said in the Vedas:
yasya deve para bhaktir yatha deve tatha gurau
tasyaite kathita hy arthah prakasante mahatmanah
"Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord
and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge
automatically revealed." This Vedic injunction is very important, and
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu supported it by His personal behavior. Believing
in the words of His spiritual master, He introduced the sankirtana
movement, just as the present Krsna consciousness movement was started
with belief in the words of our spiritual master. He wanted to preach,
we believed in his words and tried somehow or other to fulfill them, and
now this movement has become successful all over the world. Therefore
faith in the words of the spiritual master and in the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is the secret of success. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
never disobeyed the orders of His spiritual master and stopped
propagating the sankirtana movement. Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Gosvami, at the time of his passing away, ordered all his disciples to
work conjointly to preach the mission of Caitanya Mahaprabhu all over
the world. Later, however, some self-interested, foolish disciples
disobeyed his orders. Each one of them wanted to become head of the
mission, and they fought in the courts, neglecting the order of the
spiritual master, and the entire mission was defeated. We are not proud
of this; however, the truth must be explained. We believed in the words
of our spiritual master and started in a humble way -- in a helpless way
-- but due to the spiritual force of the order of the supreme authority,
this movement has become successful.
It is to be understood that when Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu chanted and
danced, He did so by the influence of the pleasure potency of the
spiritual world. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu never considered the holy name
of the Lord to be a material vibration, nor does any pure devotee
mistake the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra to be a material musical
manifestation. Lord Caitanya never tried to be the master of the holy
name; rather He taught us how to be servants of the holy name. If one
chants the holy name of the Lord just to make a show, not knowing the
secret of success, he may increase his bile secretion, but he will never
attain perfection in chanting the holy name. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu
presented himself in this way: "I am a great fool and do not have
knowledge of right and wrong. In order to understand the real meaning of
Vedanta-sutra, I never followed the explanation of the Sankara-
sampradaya or Mayavadi sannyasis. I'm very much afraid of the illogical
arguments of the Mayavadi philosophers. Therefore I think I have no
authority regarding their explanations of Vedanta-sutra. I firmly
believe that simply chanting the holy name of the Lord can remove all
misconceptions of the material world. I believe that simply by chanting
the holy name of the Lord one can attain the shelter of the lotus feet
of the Lord. In this age of quarrel and disagreement, the chanting of
the holy names is the only way to liberation from the material clutches.
"By chanting the holy name," Lord Caitanya continued, "I became almost
mad. However, after inquiring from My spiritual master I have come to
the conclusion that instead of striving for achievement in the four
principles of religiosity (dharma), economic development (artha), sense
gratification (kama) and liberation (moksa), it is better if somehow or
other one develops transcendental love of Godhead. That is the greatest
success in life. One who has attained love of Godhead chants and dances
by his nature, not caring for the public." This stage of life is known
as bhagavata-jivana, or the life of a devotee.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "I never chanted and danced to make
an artificial show. I dance and chant because I firmly believe in the
words of My spiritual master. Although the Mayavadi philosophers do not
like this chanting and dancing, I nevertheless perform it on the
strength of his words. Therefore it is to be concluded that I deserve
very little credit for these activities of chanting and dancing, for
they are being done automatically by the grace of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead."
Adi 7.97
TEXT 97
TEXT
krsna-name ye ananda-sindhu-asvadana
brahmananda tara age khatodaka-sama
SYNONYMS
krsna-name -- in the holy name of the Lord; ye -- which; ananda --
transcendental bliss; sindhu -- ocean; asvadana -- tasting;
brahmananda -- the transcendental bliss of impersonal
understanding; tara -- its; age -- in front; khata-udaka -- shallow
water in the canals; sama -- like.
TRANSLATION
"Compared to the ocean of transcendental bliss which is tasted by
chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, the pleasure derived from impersonal
Brahman realization [brahmananda] is like the shallow water in a canal.
PURPORT
In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu it is stated:
brahmanando bhaved esa
cet pararddha-gunikrtah
naiti bhakti-sukhambodheh
paramanu-tulam api
"If brahmananda, the transcendental bliss derived from understanding
impersonal Brahman, were multiplied a million times, such a quantity of
brahmananda could not compare with even an atomic portion of the
pleasure relished in pure devotional service." (B.r.s. 1.1.38)
Adi 7.98
TEXT 98
TEXT
tvat-saksatkaranahlada-
visuddhabdhi-sthitasya me
sukhani gospadayante
brahmany api jagad-guro
SYNONYMS
tvat -- Your; saksat -- meeting; karana -- such action; ahlada --
pleasure; visuddha -- spiritually purified; abdhi -- ocean; sthitasya --
being situated; me -- by me; sukhani -- happiness; gospadayante -- a
small hole created by the hoof of a calf; brahmani -- the pleasure
derived from impersonal Brahman understanding; api -- also; jagat-guro --
O master of the universe.
TRANSLATION
"'My dear Lord, O master of the universe, since I have directly seen You,
my transcendental bliss has taken the shape of a great ocean. Being
situated in that ocean, I now realize all other so-called happiness to
be like the water contained in the hoofprint of a calf.'"
PURPORT
The transcendental bliss enjoyed in pure devotional service is like an
ocean, whereas material happiness and even the happiness to be derived
from the realization of impersonal Brahman are just like the water in
the hoofprint of a calf. This is a verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (
14.36).
Adi 7.99
TEXT 99
TEXT
prabhura mista-vakya suni' sannyasira gana
citta phiri' gela, kahe madhura vacana
SYNONYMS
prabhura -- of the Lord; mista-vakya -- sweet words; suni' -- after
hearing; sannyasira gana -- all the groups of sannyasis; citta --
consciousness; phiri' -- moved; gela -- went; kahe -- said; madhura --
pleasing; vacana -- words.
TRANSLATION
After hearing Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, all the Mayavadi sannyasis
were moved. Their minds changed, and thus they spoke with pleasing words.
PURPORT
The Mayavadi sannyasis met Caitanya Mahaprabhu at Varanasi to criticize
the Lord regarding His participation in the sankirtana movement, which
they did not like. This demonic nature of opposition to the sankirtana
movement perpetually exists. As it existed in the time of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, similarly it existed long before that, even in the time of
Prahlada Maharaja. He used to chant in sankirtana although his father
did not like it, and that was the reason for misunderstanding
between the father and son. In Bhagavad-gita the Lord says:
na mam duskrtino mudhah
prapadyante naradhamah
mayayapahrta-jnana
asuram bhavam asritah
"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind,
whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic
nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me." (Bg. 7.15) The Mayavadi
sannyasis are asuram bhavam asritah, which means that they have taken
the path of the asuras (demons) who do not believe in the existence of
the form of the Lord. The Mayavadis say that the ultimate source of
everything is impersonal, and in this way they deny the existence of God.
Saying that there is no God is direct denial of God, and saying that
God exists but has no head, legs and hands and cannot speak, hear or eat
is a negative way of denying His existence. A person who cannot see is
called blind, one who cannot walk can be called lame, one who has no
hands can be called helpless, one who cannot speak can be called dumb,
and one who cannot hear can be called deaf. The Mayavadis' proposition
that God has no legs, no eyes, no ears and no hands is an indirect way
of insulting Him by defining Him as blind, deaf, dumb, lame, helpless,
etc. Therefore although they present themselves as great Vedantists,
they are factually mayayapahrta-jnana; in other words, they seem to be
very learned scholars, but the essence of their knowledge has been taken
away.
Impersonalist Mayavadis always try to defy Vaisnavas because Vaisnavas
accept the Supreme Personality as the supreme cause and want to serve
Him, talk with Him and see Him, just as the Lord is also eager to see
His devotees and talk, eat and dance with them. These personal exchanges
of love do not appeal to the Mayavadi sannyasis. Therefore the original
purpose of the Mayavadi sannyasis of Benares in meeting Caitanya
Mahaprabhu was to defeat His personal conception of God. Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu, however, as a preacher, turned the minds of the Mayavadi
sannyasis. They were melted by the sweet words of Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu and thus became friendly and spoke to Him also in sweet words.
Similarly, all preachers will have to meet opponents, but they should
not make them more inimical. They are already enemies, and if we talk
with them harshly or impolitely their enmity will merely increase. We
should therefore follow in the footsteps of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu as
far as possible and try to convince the opposition by quoting from the
sastras and presenting the conclusion of the acaryas. It is in this way
that we should try to defeat all the enemies of the Lord.
Adi 7.100
TEXT 100
TEXT
ye kichu kahile tumi, saba satya haya
krsna-prema sei paya, yara bhagyodaya
SYNONYMS
ye -- all; kichu -- that; kahile -- You spoke; tumi -- You; saba --
everything; satya -- truth; haya -- becomes; krsna-prema -- love of
Godhead; sei -- anyone; paya -- achieves; yara -- whose; bhagya-udaya --
fortune is now awakened.
TRANSLATION
"Dear Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, what You have said is all true. Only one
who is favored by fortune attains love of Godhead.
PURPORT
One who is actually very fortunate can begin Krsna consciousness, as
stated by Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Srila Rupa Gosvami:
brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva
guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija
(Cc. Madhya 19.151)
There are millions of living entities who have become conditioned by the
laws of material nature, and they are wandering throughout the planetary
systems of this universe in different bodily forms. Among them, one who
is fortunate meets a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna
and comes to understand the meaning of devotional service. By
discharging devotional service under the direction of the bona fide
spiritual master or acarya, he develops love of Godhead. One whose love
of Godhead (Krsna-prema) is awakened and who thus becomes a devotee of
the inconceivable Supreme Personality of Godhead is to be considered
extremely fortunate. The Mayavadi sannyasis admitted this fact to Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It is not easy for one to become a Krsna conscious
person, but by the mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu it can be possible,
as will be proven in the course of this narration.
Adi 7.101
TEXT 101
TEXT
krsne bhakti kara -- ihaya sabara santosa
vedanta na suna kene, tara kiba dosa
SYNONYMS
krsne -- unto Krsna; bhakti -- devotional service; kara -- do; ihaya --
in this matter; sabara -- of everyone; santosa -- there is satisfaction;
vedanta -- the philosophy of Vedanta-sutra; na -- do not; suna --
hear; kene -- why; tara -- of the philosophy; kiba -- what is; dosa --
fault.
TRANSLATION
"Dear sir, there is no objection to Your being a great devotee of Lord
Krsna. Everyone is satisfied with this. But why do You avoid discussion
on the Vedanta-sutra? What is the fault in it?"
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments in this connection, "
Mayavadi sannyasis accept that the commentary by Sri Sankaracarya known
as Sariraka-bhasya gives the real meaning of Vedanta-sutra. In other
words, Mayavadi sannyasis accept the meanings expressed in the
explanations of Vedanta-sutra by Sankaracarya, which are based on
monism. Thus they explain Vedanta-sutra, the Upanisads and all such
Vedic literatures in their own impersonal way." The great Mayavadi
sannyasi Sadananda Yogindra has written a book known as Vedanta-sara in
which he writes:
vedanto nama upanisat-pramanam
tad-upakarini sariraka-sutradini ca
According to Sadananda Yogindra, the Vedanta and Upanisads, as presented
by Sri Sankaracarya in his Sariraka-bhasya commentary, are the only
sources of Vedic evidence. Actually, however, Vedanta refers to the
essence of Vedic knowledge, and it is not a fact that there is nothing
more than Sankaracarya's Sariraka-bhasya. There are other Vedanta
commentaries written by Vaisnava acaryas, none of whom follow Sri
Sankaracarya or accept the imaginative commentary of his school. Their
commentaries are based on the philosophy of duality. Monist philosophers
like Sankaracarya and his followers want to establish that God and the
living entity are one, and instead of worshiping the Supreme Personality
of Godhead they present themselves as God. They want to be worshiped as
God by others. Such persons do not accept the philosophies of the
Vaisnava acaryas, which are known as suddhadvaita (purified monism),
suddha-dvaita (purified dualism), visistadvaita (specific monism),
dvaitadvaita (monism and dualism) and acintya-bhedabheda (inconceivable
oneness and difference). Mayavadis do not discuss these philosophies,
for they are firmly convinced of their own philosophy of kevaladvaita,
exclusive monism. Accepting this system of philosophy as the pure
understanding of Vedanta-sutra, they believe that Krsna has a body made
of material elements and that the activities of loving service to Krsna
are sentimentality. They are known as Mayavadis because according to
their opinion Krsna has a body which is made of maya, and the loving
service of the Lord executed by devotees is also maya. They consider
such devotional service to be an aspect of fruitive activities (karma-
kanda). According to their view, bhakti consists of mental speculation
or sometimes meditation. This is the difference between the Mayavadi and
Vaisnava philosophies.
Adi 7.102
TEXT 102
TEXT
eta suni' hasi' prabhu balila vacana
duhkha na manaha yadi, kari nivedana
SYNONYMS
eta -- thus; suni' -- hearing; hasi' -- smiling; prabhu -- Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; balila -- said; vacana -- His words; duhkha -- unhappy; na --
do not; manaha -- take it; yadi -- if; kari -- I say; nivedana --
something unto you.
TRANSLATION
After hearing the Mayavadi sannyasis speak in that way, Lord Caitanya
Mahaprabhu smiled slightly and said, "My dear sirs, if you don't mind I
can say something to you regarding Vedanta philosophy."
PURPORT
The Mayavadi sannyasis, appreciating Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, inquired
from Him why He did not discuss Vedanta philosophy. Actually, however,
the entire system of Vaisnava activities is based on Vedanta philosophy.
Vaisnavas do not neglect Vedanta, but they do not care to understand
Vedanta on the basis of the Sariraka-bhasya commentary. Therefore, to
clarify the situation, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, with the permission
of the Mayavadi sannyasis, wanted to speak regarding Vedanta philosophy.
The Vaisnavas are by far the greatest philosophers in the world, and the
greatest among them was Srila Jiva Gosvami Prabhu, whose philosophy was
again presented less than four hundred years later by Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Maharaja. Therefore one must know very
well that Vaisnava philosophers are not sentimentalists or cheap
devotees like the sahajiyas. All the Vaisnava acaryas were vastly
learned scholars who understood Vedanta philosophy fully, for unless one
knows Vedanta philosophy he cannot be an acarya. To be accepted as an
acarya among Indian transcendentalists who follow the Vedic principles,
one must become a vastly learned scholar in Vedanta philosophy, either
by studying it or hearing it.
Bhakti develops in pursuance of Vedanta philosophy. This is stated in
Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.12):
tac chraddadhana munayo
jnana-vairagya-yuktaya
pasyanty atmani catmanam
bhaktya sruta-grhitaya
The words bhaktya sruta-grhitaya in this verse are very important, for
they indicate that bhakti must be based upon the philosophy of the
Upanisads and Vedanta-sutra. Srila Rupa Gosvami said:
sruti-smrti-puranadi-
pancaratra-vidhim vina
aikantiki harer bhaktir
utpatayaiva kalpate
"Devotional service performed without reference to the Vedas, Puranas,
Pancaratras, etc., must be considered sentimentalism, and it causes
nothing but disturbance to society." There are different grades of
Vaisnavas (kanistha-adhikari, madhyama-adhikari, uttama-adhikari),
but to be a madhyama-adhikari preacher one must be a learned scholar in
Vedanta-sutra and other Vedic literature because when bhakti-yoga
develops on the basis of Vedanta philosophy it is factual and steady. In
this connection we may quote the translation and purport of the verse
mentioned above (Srimad-Bhagavatam, 1.2.12):
TRANSLATION
That Absolute Truth is realized by the seriously inquisitive student or
sage who is well equipped with knowledge and who has
become detached by rendering devotional service and
hearing the Vedanta-sruti.
PURPORT
The Absolute Truth is realized in full by the process of devotional
service to the Lord Vasudeva or the Personality of Godhead who is the
full-fledged Absolute Truth. Brahman is His transcendental bodily
effulgence, and Paramatma is His partial representation. As such,
Brahman or Paramatma realization of the Absolute Truth is but a partial
realization. There are four different types of living beings, the
karmis, the jnanis, the yogis and the devotees. The karmis are
materialistic, whereas the other three are transcendental. The first-
class transcendentalists are the devotees who have realized the Supreme
Person. The second-class transcendentalists are those who have partially
realized the plenary portion of the absolute person. And the third-class
transcendentalists are those who have barely realized the spiritual
focus of the absolute person. As stated in the Bhagavad-gita and other
Vedic literatures, the Supreme Person is realized by devotional service,
which is backed by full knowledge and detachment from the material
association. We have already discussed the point that devotional service
is followed by knowledge and detachment from material association. As
Brahman and Paramatma realization are imperfect realizations of the
Absolute Truth, so the means of realizing Brahman and Paramatma, i.e.,
the paths of jnana and yoga, are also imperfect means of realizing the
Absolute Truth. Devotional service, which is based on the foreground of
full knowledge combined with detachment from material association
fixed up on the aural reception of the Vedanta-sruti, is
the only perfect method of realizing the Absolute Truth by
the seriously inquisitive student. Devotional service is not,
therefore, meant for the less intelligent class of transcendentalist.
There are three classes of devotees, namely first, second and third
class. The third-class devotees, or the neophytes, who have no knowledge
nor are detached from the material association, but who are simply
attracted by the preliminary processes of worshiping the Deity in the
temple, are called material devotees. Material devotees are more
attached to material benefit than transcendental profit. Therefore, one
has to make definite progress from the position of material devotional
service to the second-class devotional position. In the second-class
position, the devotee can see four principles in the devotional line,
namely the Personality of Godhead, His devotees, the ignorant and the
envious. One has to raise himself at least to the stage of a second-
class devotee and thus become eligible to know the Absolute Truth.
A third-class devotee, therefore, has to receive the instructions of
devotional service from the authoritative sources of Bhagavatam. The
number one Bhagavatam is the established personality of devotee, and the
other Bhagavatam is the message of Godhead. The third-class devotee has,
therefore, to go to the personality of devotee in order to learn the
instructions of devotional service. Such a personality of devotee is not
a professional man who earns his livelihood by the business of
Bhagavatam. Such a devotee must be a representative of Sukadeva Gosvami,
like Suta Gosvami, and must preach the cult of devotional service for
the all-around benefit of all people. A neophyte devotee has very little
taste for hearing from the authorities. Such a neophyte devotee makes a
show of hearing from the professional man to satisfy his senses. This
sort of hearing and chanting has spoiled the whole thing, so one should
be very careful about the faulty process. The holy messages of Godhead,
as inculcated in the Bhagavad-gita or in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, are
undoubtedly transcendental subjects, but even though they are so, such
transcendental matters are not to be received from the professional man
who spoils them like the serpent spoils the milk simply by the touch of
his tongue.
A sincere devotee must, therefore, be prepared to hear the Vedic
literature like the Upanisads, Vedanta and other literatures left
by the previous authorities or Gosvamis, for the benefit of his
progress. Without hearing such literatures, one cannot make actual
progress. And without hearing and following the instructions, the show
of devotional service becomes worthless and therefore a sort of
disturbance in the path of devotional service. Unless, therefore,
devotional service is established on the principles of sruti, smrti,
purana or pancaratra authorities, the make-show of devotional service
should at once be rejected. An unauthorized devotee should never be
recognized as a pure devotee. By assimilation of such messages from the
Vedic literatures, one can see the all-pervading localized aspect of the
Personality of Godhead within his own self constantly. This is called
samadhi.
Adi 7.103
TEXT 103
TEXT
iha suni' bale sarva sannyasira gana
tomake dekhiye yaiche saksat narayana
SYNONYMS
iha -- this; suni' -- hearing; bale -- spoke; sarva -- all; sannyasira --
of the Mayavadi sannyasis; gana -- group; tomake -- unto You; dekhiye --
we see; yaiche -- exactly like; saksat -- directly; narayana -- the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
Hearing this, the Mayavadi sannyasis became somewhat humble and
addressed Caitanya Mahaprabhu as Narayana Himself, who they all agreed
He was.
PURPORT
Mayavadi sannyasis address each other as Narayana. Whenever they see
another sannyasi, they offer him respect by calling, namo narayana ("
I offer my respect unto you, Narayana"), although they know perfectly
well what kind of Narayana he is. Narayana has four hands, but although
they are puffed-up with the idea of being Narayana, they cannot exhibit
more than two. Since their philosophy declares that Narayana and an
ordinary human being are both on the same level, they sometimes use the
term daridra-narayana ("poor Narayana"), which was invented by a so-
called svami who did not know anything about Vedanta philosophy.
Therefore although all these Mayavadi sannyasis who called themselves
Narayana were actually unaware of the position of Narayana, due to their
austerities Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu enabled them to understand Him to
be Narayana Himself. Lord Caitanya is certainly the Supreme Personality
of Godhead Narayana appearing as a devotee of Narayana, and thus the
Mayavadi sannyasis, understanding that He was directly Narayana Himself
whereas they were false puffed-up Narayanas, spoke to Him as follows.
Adi 7.104
TEXT 104
TEXT
tomara vacana suni' judaya sravana
tomara madhuri dekhi' judaya nayana
SYNONYMS
tomara -- Your; vacana -- speeches; suni' -- hearing; judaya -- very
much satisfied; sravana -- aural reception; tomara -- Your; madhuri --
nectar; dekhi' -- seeing; judaya -- satisfies; nayana -- our eyes.
TRANSLATION
"Dear Caitanya Mahaprabhu," they said, "to tell You the truth, we are
greatly pleased to hear Your words, and furthermore Your bodily features
are so pleasing that we feel extraordinary satisfaction in seeing You.
PURPORT
In the sastras it is said:
atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih
sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah
"One cannot understand the
Supreme Personality of Godhead or His name, form, qualities or
paraphernalia, but if one renders service unto Him the Lord reveals
Himself." (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.2.234) Here one can see the effect
of the Mayavadi sannyasis' service toward Narayana. Because they
offered a little respect to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and
because they were pious and actually followed the austere rules and
regulations of sannyasa, they had some understanding of Vedanta
philosophy, and by the grace of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu they could
appreciate that He was none other than the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, who is endowed with all six opulences. One of these opulences
is His beauty. By His extraordinarily beautiful bodily features the
Mayavadi sannyasis recognized Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as Narayana
Himself. He was not a farcical Narayana like the daridra-narayanas
invented by so-called sannyasis.
Adi 7.105
TEXT 105
TEXT
tomara prabhave sabara anandita mana
kabhu asangata nahe tomara vacana
SYNONYMS
tomara -- Your; prabhave -- by influence; sabara -- of everyone;
anandita -- joyful; mana -- mind; kabhu -- at any time; asangata --
unreasonable; nahe -- does not; tomara -- Your; vacana -- speeches.
TRANSLATION
"Dear sir, by Your influence our minds are greatly satisfied, and we
believe that Your words will never be unreasonable. Therefore You can
speak on Vedanta-sutra."
PURPORT
In this verse the words tomara prabhave ("Your influence") are very
important. Unless one is spiritually advanced he cannot influence an
audience. Bhaktivinoda Thakura has sung, suddha bhakata carana renu,
bhajana-anukula: "Unless one associates with a pure devotee he cannot
be influenced to understand devotional service." These Mayavadi
sannyasis were fortunate enough to meet the Supreme Personality of
Godhead in the form of a devotee, and certainly they were greatly
influenced by the Lord. They knew that since a perfectly advanced
spiritualist never says anything false, all his words are reasonable and
agree with the Vedic version. A highly realized person never says
anything that has no meaning. Mayavadi philosophers claim to be the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, and this has no meaning, but Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu never uttered such nonsense. The Mayavadi sannyasis
were convinced about His personality, and therefore they wanted to hear
from Him the purport of Vedanta philosophy.
Adi 7.106
TEXT 106
TEXT
prabhu kahe, vedanta-sutra isvara-vacana
vyasa-rupe kaila yaha sri-narayana
SYNONYMS
prabhu kahe -- the Lord began to speak; vedanta-sutra -- the philosophy
of Vedanta-sutra; isvara-vacana -- spoken by the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; vyasa-rupe -- in the form of Vyasadeva; kaila -- He has made;
yaha -- whatever; sri-narayana -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
The Lord said: "Vedanta philosophy consists of words spoken by the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana in the form of Vyasadeva.
PURPORT
Vedanta-sutra, which consists of codes revealing the method of
understanding Vedic knowledge, is the concise form of all Vedic
knowledge. It begins with the words athato brahma-jijnasa ("now is the
time to inquire about the Absolute Truth"). The human form of life is
especially meant for this purpose, and therefore the Vedanta-sutra very
concisely explains the human mission. This is confirmed by the words of
the Vayu and Skanda Puranas, which define a sutra as follows:
alpaksaram asandigdham saravat visvatomukham
astobhamanavadyam ca sutram sutra-vido viduh
"A sutra is a code that expresses the essence of all
knowledge in a minimum of words. It must be universally applicable and
faultless in its linguistic presentation." Anyone familiar with such
sutras must be aware of the Vedanta-sutra, which is well known among
scholars by the following different names: (1) Brahma-sutra, (2)
Sariraka, (3) Vyasa-sutra, (4) Badarayana-sutra, (5) Uttara-mimamsa and (
6) Vedanta-darsana.
There are four chapters (adhyayas) in the Vedanta-sutra, and there are
four divisions (padas) in each chapter. Therefore the Vedanta-sutra may
be referred to as sodasa-pada, or sixteen divisions of codes. The
theme of each and every division is fully described in terms of five
different subject matters (adhikaranas), which are technically called
pratijna, hetu, udaharana, upanaya and nigamana. Every theme must
necessarily be explained with reference to pratijna, or a solemn
declaration of the purpose of the treatise. The solemn declaration given
in the beginning of the Vedanta-sutra is athato brahma-jijnasa, which
indicates that this book was written with the solemn declaration to
inquire about the Absolute Truth. Similarly, reasons must be expressed (
hetu), examples must be given in terms of various facts (udaharana), the
theme must gradually be brought nearer for understanding (upanaya), and
finally it must be supported by authoritative quotations from the Vedic
sastras (nigamana).
According to the great dictionary compiler Hemacandra, also known as
Kosakara, Vedanta refers to the purport of the Upanisads and the
Brahmana portion of the Vedas. Professor Apte, in his dictionary,
describes the Brahmana portion of the Vedas as that portion which states
the rules for employment of hymns at various sacrifices and gives
detailed explanations of their origin, sometimes with lengthy
illustrations in the form of legends and stories. It is distinct from
the mantra portion of the Vedas. Hemacandra said that the supplement of
the Vedas is called the Vedanta-sutra. Veda means knowledge, and anta
means the end. In other words, proper understanding of the ultimate
purpose of the Vedas is called Vedanta knowledge. Such knowledge, as
given in the codes of the Vedanta-sutra, must be supported by the
Upanisads.
According to learned scholars, there are three different sources of
knowledge, which are called prasthana-traya. According to these scholars,
Vedanta is one of such sources, for it presents Vedic knowledge on the
basis of logic and sound arguments. In Bhagavad-gita (13.5) the Lord
said, brahma-sutra-padais caiva hetumadbhir viniscitaih: "Understanding
of the ultimate goal of life is ascertained in the Brahma-sutra by
legitimate logic and argument concerning cause and effect." Therefore
the Vedanta-sutra is known as nyaya-prasthana, the Upanisads are known
as sruti-prasthana, and the Gita, Mahabharata and Puranas are known as
smrti-prasthana. All scientific knowledge of transcendence must be
supported by sruti, smrti and a sound logical basis.
It is said that both the Vedic knowledge and the supplement of the Vedas
called the Satvata-pancaratra emanated from the breathing of Narayana,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Vedanta-sutra codes were
compiled by Srila Vyasadeva, the powerful incarnation of Sri Narayana,
although it is sometimes said that they were compiled by a great sage
named Apantaratama. Both the Pancaratra and Vedanta-sutra, however,
express the same opinions. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore confirms
that there is no difference in opinion between the two, and He declares
that because Vedanta-sutra was compiled by Srila Vyasadeva, it may
be understood to have emanated from the breathing of Sri Narayana. Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that while Vyasadeva was
compiling the Vedanta-sutra, seven of his great saintly contemporaries
were also engaged in similar work. These saints were Atreya Rsi,
Asmarathya, Audulomi, Karsnajini, Kasakrtsna, Jaimini and Badari. In
addition, it is stated that Parasari and Karmandi-bhiksu also discussed
the Vedanta-sutra codes before Vyasadeva.
The Vedanta-sutra consists of four chapters. The
first two chapters discuss the relationship of the living entity with
the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is known as sambandha-jnana, or
knowledge of the relationship. The third chapter describes how one can
act in his relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is
called abhidheya-jnana. The relationship of the living entity with the
Supreme Lord is described by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Jivera svarupa
haya krsnera 'nitya-dasa': the living entity is an eternal servant of
the Supreme God. (Cc. Madhya 20.108) Therefore, to act in that
relationship, one must perform sadhana-bhakti, or the prescribed duties
of service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called
abhidheya-jnana. The fourth chapter describes the result of such
devotional service (prayojana-jnana). This ultimate goal of life is to
go back home, back to Godhead. The words anavrttih sabdat in the Vedanta-
sutra indicate this ultimate goal.
Srila Vyasadeva, the powerful incarnation of Narayana, compiled
Vedanta-sutra, and in order to protect it from unauthorized commentaries,
he personally composed Srimad-Bhagavatam on the instruction of his
spiritual master, Narada Muni, as the original commentary on the Vedanta-
sutra. Besides Srimad-Bhagavatam, there are commentaries on the Vedanta-
sutra composed by all the major Vaisnava acaryas, and in each of them
devotional service to the Lord is described very explicitly. Only those
who follow Sankara's commentary have described Vedanta-sutra in an
impersonal way, without reference to Visnu-bhakti, or devotional service
to the Lord, Visnu. Generally people very much appreciate this Sariraka-
bhasya or impersonal description of the Vedanta-sutra, but all
commentaries which are devoid of devotional service to Lord Visnu must
be considered to differ in purpose from the original Vedanta-sutra. In
other words, Lord Caitanya definitely confirmed that the commentaries
or bhasyas written by the Vaisnava acaryas on the basis of devotional
service to Lord Visnu, and not the Sariraka-bhasya of Sankaracarya, give
the actual explanation of Vedanta-sutra.
Adi 7.107
TEXT 107
TEXT
bhrama, pramada, vipralipsa, karanapatava
isvarera vakye nahi dosa ei saba
SYNONYMS
bhrama -- mistake; pramada -- illusion; vipralipsa -- cheating purposes;
karanapatava -- inefficiency of the material senses; isvarera --
of the Lord; vakye -- in the speech; nahi -- there is not; dosa -- fault;
ei saba -- all this.
TRANSLATION
"The material defects of mistakes, illusions, cheating and sensory
inefficiency do not exist in the words of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead.
PURPORT
A mistake is the acceptance of an object to be different than what it is
or the acceptance of false knowledge. For example, one may see a rope in
the dark and think it to be a serpent, or one may see a glittering
oyster shell and think it to be gold. These are mistakes. Similarly, an
illusion is a misunderstanding which arises from inattention while
hearing, and cheating is the transmission of such defective knowledge to
others. Materialistic scientists and philosophers generally use such
words as "maybe" and "perhaps" because they do not have actual knowledge
of complete facts. Therefore their instructing others is an example of
cheating. The final defect of the materialistic person is his
inefficient senses. Although our eyes, for example, have the power to
see, they cannot see that which is situated at a distance, nor can they
see the eyelid, which is the object nearest to the eye. To our untrained
eyes the sun appears to be just like a plate, and to the eyes of one who
is suffering from jaundice everything appears to be yellow. Therefore we
cannot rely on the knowledge acquired through such imperfect eyes. The
ears are equally imperfect. We cannot hear a sound vibrated a long
distance away unless we put a telephone to our ear. Similarly, if we
analyze all our senses in this way, we will find them all to be
imperfect. Therefore it is useless to acquire knowledge through the
senses. The Vedic process is to hear from authority. In Bhagavad-
gita the Lord says, evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh: "
The supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic
succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way." (Bg. 4.2)
We have to hear not from a telephone but from an authorized person, for
it is he who has real knowledge.
Adi 7.108
TEXT 108
TEXT
upanisat-sahita sutra kahe yei tattva
mukhya-vrttye sei artha parama mahattva
SYNONYMS
upanisat -- the authorized Vedic version; sahita -- along with; sutra --
the Vedanta-sutra; kahe -- it is said; yei -- the subject matter; tattva
-- in truth; mukhya-vrttye -- by direct understanding; sei -- that truth;
artha -- meaning; parama -- ultimate; mahattva -- glory.
TRANSLATION
"The Absolute Truth is described by the Upanisads and Brahma-sutra, but
one must understand the verses as they are. That is the supreme glory in
understanding.
PURPORT
It has become fashionable since the time of Sankaracarya to explain
everything regarding the sastras in an indirect way. Scholars take pride
in explaining everything in their own way, and they declare that one can
understand the Vedic scriptures in any way he likes. This "any way you
like" method is foolishness, and it has created havoc in the Vedic
culture. One cannot accept scientific knowledge in his own whimsical way.
In the science of mathematics, for example, two plus two equals four,
and one cannot make it equal three or five. Yet although it is not
possible to alter real knowledge, people have taken to the fashion of
understanding Vedic knowledge in any way they like. It is for this
reason that we have presented Bhagavad-gita As It Is. We do not create
meanings by concoction. Sometimes commentators say that the word
kuruksetra in the first verse of Bhagavad-gita refers to one's body,
but we do not accept this. We understand that Kuruksetra is a place
which still exists, and according to the Vedic version it is a
dharmaksetra, or place of pilgrimage. People still go there to
perform Vedic sacrifices. Foolish commentators, however, say that
Kuruksetra means the body and that Panca Pandavas refers to the five
senses. In this way they distort the meaning, and people are misled.
Here Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu confirms that all Vedic literatures,
including the Upanisads, Brahma-sutras and others, whether sruti, smrti
or nyaya, must be understood according to their original statements. To
describe the direct meaning of the Vedic literatures is glorious, but to
describe them in one's own way, using imperfect senses and imperfect
knowledge, is a disastrous blunder. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu fully
deprecated the attempt to describe the Vedas in this way.
Regarding the Upanisads, the following eleven Upanisads are considered
to be the topmost: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya,
Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhad-aranyaka and Svetasvatara.
However, in the Muktikopanisad, verses 30-39, there is a description of
108 Upanisads. They are as follows: (1) Isopanisad, (2) Kenopanisad, (3)
Kathopanisad, (4) Prasnopanisad, (5) Mundakopanisad, (6) Mandukyopanisad,
(7) Taittiriyopanisad, (8) Aitareyopanisad, (9) Chandogyopanisad, (10)
Brhad-aranyakopanisad, (11) Brahmopanisad, (12) Kaivalyopanisad, (13)
Jabalopanisad, (14) Svetasvataropanisad, (15) Hamsopanisad, (16)
Aruneyopanisad, (17) Garbhopanisad, (18) Narayanopanisad, (19)
Paramahamsopanisad, (20) Amrta-bindupanisad, (21) Nada-bindupanisad, (22)
Sira-upanisad, (23) Atharva-sikhopanisad, (24) Maitrayany-
upanisad, (25) Kausitaky-upanisad, (26) Brhaj-jabalopanisad, (27)
Nrsimha-tapaniyopanisad, (28) Kalagni-rudropanisad, (29) Maitreyy-
upanisad, (30) Subalopanisad, (31) Ksurikopanisad, (32) Mantrikopanisad,
(33) Sarva-saropanisad, (34) Niralambopanisad, (35) Suka-rahasyopanisad,
(36) Vajra-sucikopanisad, (37) Tejo-bindupanisad, (38) Nada-bindupanisad,
(39) Dhyana-bindupanisad, (40) Brahma-vidyopanisad, (41) Yoga-
tattvopanisad, (42) Atma-bodhopanisad, (43) Narada-parivrajakopanisad, (
44) Trisikhy-upanisad, (45) Sitopanisad, (46) Yoga-cudamany-upanisad, (
47) Nirvanopanisad, (48) Mandala-brahmanopanisad, (49) Daksina-murty-
upanisad, (50) Sarabhopanisad, (51) Skandopanisad, (52)
Mahanarayanopanisad, (53) Advaya-tarakopanisad, (54) Rama-rahasyopanisad,
(55) Rama-tapany-upanisad, (56) Vasudevopanisad, (57) Mudgalopanisad, (
58) Sandilyopanisad, (59) Paingalopanisad, (60) Bhiksupanisad, (61)
Mahadupanisad, (62) Sarirakopanisad, (63) Yoga-sikhopanisad, (
64) Turiyatitopanisad, (65) Sannyasopanisad, (66) Paramahamsa-
parivrajakopanisad, (67) Malikopanisad, (68) Avyaktopanisad, (69)
Ekaksaropanisad, (70) Purnopanisad, (71) Suryopanisad, (72) Aksy-
upanisad, (73) Adhyatmopanisad, (74) Kundikopanisad, (75) Savitry-
upanisad, (76) Atmopanisad, (77) Pasupatopanisad, (78) Param
Brahmopanisad, (79) Avadhutopanisad, (80) Tripuratapanopanisad, (81)
Devy-upanisad, (82) Tripuropanisad, (83) Katha-rudropanisad, (84)
Bhavanopanisad, (85) Hrdayopanisad, (86) Yoga-kundaliny-upanisad, (87)
Bhasmopanisad, (88) Rudraksopanisad, (89) Ganopanisad, (90)
Darsanopanisad, (91) Tarasaropanisad, (92)
Mahavakyopanisad, (93) Panca-brahmopanisad, (94) Pranagni-
hotropanisad, (95) Gopala-tapano-panisad, (96) Krsnopanisad, (97)
Yajna-valkyopanisad, (98) Varahopanisad, (99) Satyayany-
upanisad, (100) Hayagrivopanisad, (101) Dattatreyopanisad, (102)
Garudopanisad, (103) Kaly-upanisad, (104) Jabaly-upanisad, (105)
Saubhagyopanisad, (106) Sarasvati-rahasyopanisad, (107) Bahvrcopanisad
and (108) Muktikopanisad. Thus there are 108 generally accepted
Upanisads, of which eleven are the most important, as previously stated.
Adi 7.109
TEXT 109
TEXT
gauna-vrttye yeba bhasya karila acarya
tahara sravane nasa haya sarva karya
SYNONYMS
gauna-vrttya -- by indirect meanings; yeba -- which; bhasya --
commentary; karila -- prepared; acarya -- Sankaracarya; tahara -- its;
sravane -- hearing; nasa -- destruction; haya -- becomes; sarva -- all;
karya -- business.
TRANSLATION
"Sripada Sankaracarya has described all the Vedic literatures in terms
of indirect meanings. One who hears such explanations is ruined.
Adi 7.110
TEXT 110
TEXT
tanhara nahika dosa, isvara-ajna pana
gaunartha karila mukhya artha acchadiya
SYNONYMS
tanhara -- of Sri Sankaracarya; nahika -- there is none; dosa -- fault;
isvara -- the Supreme Lord; ajna -- order; pana -- receiving; gauna-
artha -- indirect meaning; karila -- make; mukhya -- direct; artha --
meaning; acchadiya -- covering.
TRANSLATION
"Sankaracarya is not at fault, for he has thus covered the real purpose
of the Vedas under the order of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.
PURPORT
The Vedic literature is to be considered a source of real knowledge, but
if one does not take it as it is, one will be misled. For example,
Bhagavad-gita is an important Vedic literature which has been taught for
many years, but because it was commented upon by unscrupulous rascals,
people derived no benefit from it, and no one came to the conclusion of
Krsna consciousness. Since the purpose of Bhagavad-gita is now being
presented as it is, however, within four or five short years thousands
of people all over the world have become Krsna conscious. That is the
difference between direct and indirect explanations of Vedic
literature. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, mukhya-vrttye sei
artha parama mahattva: to instruct Vedic literature according to
its direct meaning, without false commentary, is glorious.
Unfortunately, Sri Sankaracarya, by the order of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead, compromised between atheism and theism in order to cheat the
atheists and bring them to theism, and to do so he gave up the direct
method of Vedic knowledge and tried to present a meaning which is
indirect. It is with this purpose that he wrote his Sariraka-bhasya
commentary on the Vedanta-sutra. One should not, therefore, attribute
very much importance to the Sariraka-bhasya. In order to understand
Vedanta philosophy, one must study the Srimad-Bhagavatam, which begins
with the words, om namo bhagavate vasudevaya, janmady asya yato 'nvayad
itaratas carthesv abhijnah sva-rat: "I offer my obeisances unto Lord Sri
Krsna, son of Vasudeva, who is the Supreme All-pervading Personality of
Godhead. I meditate upon Him, the transcendent reality, who is the
primeval cause of all causes, from whom all manifested universes arise,
in whom they dwell and by whom they are destroyed. I meditate upon that
eternally effulgent Lord who is directly and indirectly conscious of all
manifestations and yet is fully independent." (Bhag. 1.1.1) Srimad-
Bhagavatam is the real commentary on the Vedanta-sutra. Unfortunately,
if one is attracted to Sri Sankaracarya's commentary, Sariraka-bhasya,
his spiritual life is doomed.
One may argue that since Sankaracarya is an incarnation of Lord Siva,
how is it that he cheated people in this way? The answer is that he did
so on the order of his master, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This
is confirmed in the Padma Purana in the words of Lord Siva himself:
mayavadam asac-chastram
pracchannam bauddham ucyate
mayaiva kalpitam devi
kalau brahmana-rupina
brahmanas caparam rupam
nirgunam vaksyate maya
sarvasvam jagato'py asya
mohanartham kalau yuge
vedante tu maha-sastre
mayavadam avaidikam
mayaiva vaksyate devi
jagatam nasa-karanat
"The Mayavada philosophy," Lord Siva informed his wife Parvati, "is
impious [asac-chastra]. It is covered Buddhism. My dear Parvati, in
the form of a brahmana in Kali-yuga I teach this
imagined Mayavada philosophy. In order to cheat the atheists, I describe
the Supreme Personality of Godhead to be without form and without
qualities. Similarly, in explaining Vedanta I describe the same Mayavada
philosophy in order to mislead the entire population toward atheism by
denying the personal form of the Lord." In the Siva Purana the Supreme
Personality of Godhead told Lord Siva:
dvaparadau yuge bhutva
kalaya manusadisu
svagamaih kalpitais tvam ca
janan mad-vimukhan kuru
"In Kali-yuga, mislead the people in general by propounding imaginary
meanings for the Vedas to bewilder them." These are the descriptions of
the Puranas.
Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that mukhya-vrtti ("the
direct meaning") is abhidha-vrtti, or the meaning which one can
understand immediately from the statements of dictionaries, whereas
gauna-vrtti ("the indirect meaning") is a meaning that one imagines
without consulting the dictionary. For example, one politician has said
that Kuruksetra refers to the body, but in the dictionary there is no
such definition. Therefore this imaginary meaning is gauna-vrtti,
whereas the direct meaning found in the dictionary is mukhya-vrtti or
abhidha-vrtti. This is the distinction between the two. Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu recommends that one understand the Vedic literature in terms
of abhidha-vrtti, and the gauna-vrtti He rejects. Sometimes, however, as
a matter of necessity, Vedic literature is described in terms of the
laksana-vrtti or gauna-vrtti, but one should not accept such
explanations as permanent truths.
The purpose of the discussions in the Upanisads and Vedanta-sutra is to
philosophically establish the personal feature of the Absolute Truth.
The impersonalists, however, in order to establish their philosophy,
accept these discussions in terms of laksana-vrtti, or indirect meanings.
Thus instead of being tattva-vada, or in search of the Absolute Truth,
they become Mayavada, or illusioned by the material energy. When Sri
Visnusvami, one of the four acaryas of the Vaisnava cult,
presented his thesis on the subject matter of suddhadvaita-vada,
immediately the Mayavadis took advantage of this philosophy and tried to
establish their advaita-vada or kevaladvaita-vada. To defeat this
kevaladvaita-vada, Sri Ramanujacarya presented his philosophy as
visistadvaita-vada, and Sri Madhvacarya presented his philosophy of
tattva-vada, both of which are stumbling blocks to the Mayavadis because
they defeat their philosophy in scrupulous detail. Students of Vedic
philosophy know very well how strongly Sri Ramanujacarya's visistadvaita-
vada and Sri Madhvacarya's tattva-vada contest the impersonal Mayavada
philosophy. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, however, accepted the direct
meaning of the Vedanta philosophy and thus defeated the Mayavada
philosophy immediately. He opined in this connection that anyone who
follows the principles of the Sariraka-bhasya is doomed. This is
confirmed in the Padma Purana where Lord Siva tells Parvati:
srnu devi pravaksyami
tamasani yathakramam
yesam sravana-matrena
patityam jnaninam api
apartham sruti-vakyanam
darsayal loka-garhitam
karma-svarupa-tyajyatvam
atra ca pratipadyate
sarva-karma-paribhramsan
naiskarmyam tatra cocyate
paratma-jivayor aikyam
mayatra pratipadyate
"My dear wife, hear my explanations of how I have spread ignorance
through Mayavada philosophy. Simply by hearing it, even an advanced
scholar will fall down. In this philosophy, which is certainly very
inauspicious for people in general, I have misrepresented the real
meaning of the Vedas and recommended that one give up all activities in
order to achieve freedom from karma. In this Mayavada philosophy I have
described the jivatma and Paramatma to be one and the same." How the
Mayavada philosophy was condemned by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His
followers is described in Sri-Caitanya-caritamrta, Antya-lila, Second
Chapter, verses 94 through 99, where Svarupa-damodara Gosvami says that
anyone who is eager to understand the Mayavada philosophy must be
considered insane. This especially applies to a Vaisnava who reads the
Sariraka-bhasya and considers himself to be one with God. The Mayavadi
philosophers have presented their arguments in such attractive flowery
language that hearing Mayavada philosophy may sometimes change the mind
of even a maha-bhagavata, or very advanced devotee. An actual Vaisnava
cannot tolerate any philosophy that claims God and the living being to
be one and the same.
Adi 7.111
TEXT 111
TEXT
'brahma' sabde mukhya arthe kahe -- 'bhagavan'
cid-aisvarya-paripurna, anurdhva-samana
SYNONYMS
brahma -- the Absolute Truth; sabde -- by this word; mukhya -- direct;
arthe -- meaning; kahe -- says; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; cit-aisvarya -- spiritual opulence; paripurna -- full of;
anurdhva -- unsurpassed by anyone; samana -- not equalled by anyone.
TRANSLATION
"According to direct understanding, the Absolute Truth is the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, who has all spiritual opulences. No one can be
equal to or greater than Him.
PURPORT
This statement by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is confirmed in the Srimad-
Bhagavatam:
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvam yaj jnanam advayam
brahmeti paramatmeti
bhagavan iti sabdyate
"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this
nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan." (Bhag. 1.2.11) The
Absolute Truth is ultimately understood as Bhagavan, partially
understood as Paramatma and vaguely understood as the impersonal Brahman.
Bhagavan, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is opulent in all
excellence; no one can be equal to or greater than Him. This is also
confirmed in Bhagavad-gita, where the Lord says, mattah
parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: "O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna],
there is no truth superior to Me." (Bg. 7.7) There are many other
verses which prove that the Absolute Truth in the ultimate sense is
understood to be the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna.
Adi 7.112
TEXT 112
TEXT
tanhara vibhuti, deha, -- saba cid-akara
cid-vibhuti acchadi' tanre kahe 'nirakara'
SYNONYMS
tanhara -- His (the Supreme Personality of Godhead's); vibhuti --
spiritual power; deha -- body; saba -- everything; cit-akara --
spiritual form; cit-vibhuti -- spiritual opulence; acchadi' -- covering;
tanre -- Him; kahe -- said; nirakara -- without form.
TRANSLATION
"Everything about the Supreme Personality of Godhead is spiritual,
including His body, opulence and paraphernalia. Mayavada philosophy,
however, covering His spiritual opulence, advocates the theory of
impersonalism.
PURPORT
It is stated in the Brahma-samhita, isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-
ananda-vigrahah: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna,
has a spiritual body which is full of knowledge, eternity and bliss." In
this material world everyone's body is just the opposite -- temporary,
full of ignorance and full of misery. Therefore when the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is sometimes described as nirakara, this is to
indicate that He does not have a material body like us.
Mayavadi philosophers do not know how it is that the Supreme Personality
of Godhead is formless. The Supreme Lord does not have a form like ours
but has a spiritual form. Not knowing this, Mayavadi philosophers simply
advocate the onesided view that the Supreme Godhead, or Brahman, is
formless (nirakara). In this connection Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura
offers many quotes from the Vedic literature. If one accepts the real or
direct meaning of these Vedic statements, one can understand that the
Supreme Personality of Godhead has a spiritual body (sac-cid-ananda-
vigrahah).
In the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad it is said, purnam adah purnam
idam purnat purnam udacyate. This indicates that the body of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is spiritual, for even though He expands in many
ways, He remains the same. In Bhagavad-gita the Lord says,
aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate: "I am the origin of all.
Everything emanates from Me." (Bg. 10.8) Mayavadi philosophers
materialistically think that if the Supreme Truth expands Himself in
everything, He must lose His original form. Thus they think that there
cannot be any form other than the expansive gigantic body of the Lord.
But the mantra of the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad confirms, purnam idam
purnat purnam udacyate: "Although He expands in many ways, He keeps His
original personality. His original spiritual body remains as it is."
Similarly, in the Svetasvatara Upanisad it is stated, vicitra-
saktih purusah puranah: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
original person [purusa], has multifarious energies." Sa
vrksa-kalakrtibhih paro 'nyo yasmat
prapancah parivartate 'yam dharmavaham papanudam bhagesam: "He is the
origin of material creation, and it is due to Him only that everything
changes. He is the protector of religion and annihilator of all sinful
activities. He is the master of all opulences." (6.6) Vedaham
etam purusam mahantam aditya-varnam tamasah parastat: "Now I understand
the Supreme Personality of Godhead to be the greatest of the great. He
is effulgent like the sun and is beyond this material world." (
3.8) Patim patinam paramam parastat: "He is the master of all masters,
the superior of all superiors." (6.7) Mahan prabhur vai
purusah: "He is the supreme master and supreme person." (3.12)
Parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate: "We can understand His opulences in
different ways." (6.8) These are statements of the Svetasvatara
Upanisad. Similarly, in the Rg-veda it is stated, tad
visnoh paramam padam sada pasyanti surayah: "Visnu is the Supreme, and
those who are actually learned think only of His lotus feet." In the
Prasna Upanisad it is said, sa iksancakre: "He glanced over
the material creation." (6.3) In the Aitareya Upanisad it is
said, sa aiksata -- "He glanced over the material creation" -- and sa
imal lokan asrjata -- "He created this entire material world." (1.1.1-2)
Thus many verses can be quoted from the Upanisads and Vedas which prove
that the Supreme Godhead is not impersonal. In the Katha Upanisad (2.2.
13) it is also said, nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo
vidadhati kaman: "He is the supreme eternally conscious person who
maintains all other living entities." From all these Vedic references
one can understand that the Absolute Truth is a person, although no
one can equal or excel Him. Although there are many foolish Mayavadi
philosophers who think that they are even greater than Krsna, Krsna is
asamaurdhva; no one is equal to or above Him.
As stated in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (3.19), apani-pado javano grahita.
This verse describes the Absolute Truth as having no legs or hands.
Although this is an impersonal description, however, it does not mean
that the Absolute Personality of Godhead has no form. He has a spiritual
form which is distinct from the forms of matter. In this verse Caitanya
Mahaprabhu clarifies this distinction.
Adi 7.113
TEXT 113
TEXT
cid-ananda -- tenho, tanra sthana, parivara
tanre kahe -- prakrta-sattvera vikara
SYNONYMS
cit-ananda -- spiritual bliss; tenho -- He is personally; tanra -- His;
sthana -- abode; parivara -- entourage; tanre -- unto Him; kahe --
someone says; prakrta -- material; sattvera -- goodness; vikara --
transformation.
TRANSLATION
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is full of spiritual potencies.
Therefore His body, name, fame and entourage are all spiritual. The
Mayavadi philosopher, due to ignorance, says that these are all merely
transformations of the material mode of goodness.
PURPORT
In the Seventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gita the Supreme Personality of
Godhead has classified His energies in two distinct divisions -- namely,
prakrta and aprakrta, or para-prakrti and apara-prakrti. In the Visnu
Purana the same distinction is made. The Mayavadi philosophers cannot
understand these two prakrtis or natures -- material and spiritual --
but one who is actually intelligent can understand them. Considering the
many varieties and activities in material nature, why should the
Mayavadi philosophers deny the spiritual varieties of the spiritual
world? The Bhagavatam says:
ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas
tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah
(Bhag. 10.2.32)
The intelligence of those who think themselves liberated but have no
information of the spiritual world is not yet clear. In this verse the
term avisuddha-buddhayah refers to unclean intelligence. Due to unclean
intelligence or a poor fund of knowledge, the Mayavadi philosophers
cannot understand the distinction between material and spiritual
varieties; therefore they cannot even think of spiritual varieties
because they take it for granted that all variety is material.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, therefore, explains in this verse that Krsna,
the Supreme Personality of Godhead or the Absolute Truth, has a
spiritual body which is distinct from material bodies, and thus His name,
abode, entourage and qualities are all spiritual. The material mode of
goodness has nothing to do with spiritual varieties. Mayavadi
philosophers, however, cannot clearly understand spiritual varieties;
therefore they imagine a negation of the material world to be the
spiritual world. The material qualities of goodness, passion and
ignorance cannot act in the spiritual world, which is therefore called
nirguna, as clearly indicated in Bhagavad-gita (traigunya-
visaya veda nistraigunyo bhavarjuna). The material world is
a manifestation of the three modes of material nature, but one has to
become free from these modes to come to the spiritual world where their
influence is completely absent. Now Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu will
disassociate Lord Siva from Mayavada philosophy in the following verse.
Adi 7.114
TEXT 114
TEXT
tanra dosa nahi, tenho ajna-kari dasa
ara yei sune tara haya sarva-nasa
SYNONYMS
tanra -- his (Lord Siva's); dosa -- fault; nahi -- there is none; tenho -
- he; ajna-kari -- obedient order carrier; dasa -- servant; ara --
others; yei -- anyone; sune -- hears (the Mayavada philosophy); tara --
of him; haya -- becomes; sarva-nasa -- everything lost.
TRANSLATION
"Sankaracarya, who is an incarnation of Lord Siva, is faultless because
he is a servant carrying out the orders of the Lord. But those who
follow his Mayavadi philosophy are doomed. They will lose all their
advancement in spiritual knowledge.
PURPORT
Mayavadi philosophers are very proud of exhibiting their Vedanta
knowledge through grammatical jugglery, but Lord Sri Krsna in
Bhagavad-gita certifies that they are mayayapahrta-jnanah,
bereft of real knowledge due to maya. Maya has two potencies with which
to execute her two functions -- praksepatmika-sakti, the power to
throw the living entity in the ocean of material existence, and
avaranatmika-sakti, the power to cover the knowledge of the living
entity. The function of the avaranatmika-sakti is explained in
Bhagavad-gita by the word mayayapahrta-jnana.
Why the daivi-maya or illusory energy of Krsna takes away the
knowledge of the Mayavadi philosophers is also explained in Bhagavad-
gita by the use of the words asuram bhavam asritah, which refer to a
person who does not agree to the existence of the Lord. The Mayavadis
who are not in agreement with the existence of the Lord can be
classified in two groups, exemplified by the impersonalist Sankarites of
Varanasi and the Buddhists of Saranatha. Both of them are Mayavadis,
and Krsna takes away their knowledge due to their atheistic philosophies.
Neither of them agree to accept the existence of a personal God.
The Buddhist philosophers clearly deny both the soul and God, and
although the Sankarites do not openly deny God, they say that the
Absolute is nirakara, or formless. Thus both of
them are avisuddha-buddhayah, or imperfect and
unclean in their knowledge and intelligence.
The most prominent Mayavadi scholar, Sadananda Yogindra, has written a
book called Vedanta-sara in which he expounds the philosophy of
Sankaracarya, and all the followers of Sankara's philosophy attribute
great importance to his statements. In this Vedanta-sara Sadananda
Yogindra defines Brahman as sac-cid-ananda combined with knowledge and
without duality, and he defines ignorance (jada) as knowledge distinct
from that of sat and asat. This is almost inconceivable, but it is a
product of the three material qualities. Thus he considers anything
other than pure knowledge to be material. The center of ignorance is
considered to be sometimes all-pervading and sometimes individual. Thus
according to his opinion both the all-pervading Visnu and the individual
living entities are products of ignorance.
In simple language, it is the opinion of Sadananda Yogindra that since
everything is nirakara (formless), the conception of Visnu and the
conception of the individual soul are both products of ignorance. He
also explains that the visuddha-sattva conception of the Vaisnavas is
nothing but pradhana, or the chief principle of creation. He maintains
that when all-pervading knowledge is contaminated by the visuddha-sattva,
which consists of a transformation of the quality of goodness, there
arises the conception of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is the
omnipotent, omniscient supreme ruler, the Supersoul, the cause of all
causes, the supreme isvara, etc. According to Sadananda Yogindra,
because isvara, the Supreme Lord, is the reservoir of all ignorance, He
may be called sarva-jna or omniscient, but one who denies the existence
of the omnipotent Supreme Personality of Godhead is more than isvara, or
the Lord. His conclusion, therefore, is that the Supreme Personality of
Godhead (isvara) is a transformation of material ignorance and that the
living entity (jiva) is covered by ignorance. Thus he describes both
collective and individual existence in darkness. According to Mayavadi
philosophers, the Vaisnava conception of the Lord as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead and of the jiva or individual soul as His
eternal servant is a manifestation of ignorance. If we accept the
judgment of Lord Krsna in Bhagavad-gita, however, the Mayavadis are
to be considered mayayapahrta-jnana, or bereft of all knowledge, because
they do not recognize the existence of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead or they claim that His existence is a product of the material
conception (maya). These are characteristics of asuras or demons.
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in His discourses with Sarvabhauma
Bhattacarya, said:
jivera nistara lagi' sutra kaila vyasa
mayavadi-bhasya sunile haya sarva-nasa
(Cc. Madhya 6.169)
Vyasadeva composed the Vedanta-sutra to deliver the conditioned souls
from this material world, but Sankaracarya, by presenting the Vedanta-
sutra in his own way, has clearly done a great disservice to human
society, for one who follows his Mayavada philosophy is doomed. In the
Vedanta-sutra, devotional service is clearly indicated, but the Mayavadi
philosophers refuse to accept the spiritual body of the Supreme Absolute
Person and refuse to accept that the living entity has an individual
existence separate from that of the Supreme Lord. Thus they have created
atheistic havoc all over the world, for such a conclusion is against the
very nature of the transcendental process of pure devotional service.
The Mayavadi philosophers' unrealizable ambition to become one with the
Supreme through denying the existence of the Personality of Godhead
results in a most calamitous misrepresentation of spiritual knowledge,
and one who follows this philosophy is doomed to remain perpetually in
this material world. Therefore they are called avisuddha-
buddhayah, or unclean in knowledge. Because they are unclean in
knowledge, all their austerities and penances end in frustration. Thus
although they may be honored at first as very learned scholars,
ultimately they descend to physical activities of politics, social work,
etc. Instead of becoming one with the Supreme Lord, they again become
one with these material activities. This is explained by Srimad-
Bhagavatam:
aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah
patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah'
(Bhag. 10.2.32)
In actuality the Mayavadi philosophers very strictly follow the
austerities and penances of spiritual life and in this way are elevated
to the impersonal Brahman platform, but due to their negligence of the
lotus feet of the Lord they again fall down to material existence.
Adi 7.115
TEXT 115
TEXT
prakrta kariya mane visnu-kalevara
visnu-ninda ara nahi ihara upara
SYNONYMS
prakrta -- material; kariya -- taking it to be so; mane -- accepts;
visnu -- Lord Visnu's; kalevara -- body; visnu-ninda -- defaming or
blaspheming Lord Visnu; ara -- beyond this; nahi -- none; ihara -- of
this; upara -- above.
TRANSLATION
"One who considers the transcendental body of Lord Visnu to be made of
material nature is the greatest offender at the lotus feet of the Lord.
There is no greater blasphemy against the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
PURPORT
Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami explains that the variegated
personal feature of the Absolute Truth is the Visnu-tattva, and the
material energy which creates this cosmic manifestation is the energy
of Lord Visnu. The creative force is merely the energy of the Lord, but
the foolish conclude that the Lord has no separate existence
because He has distributed Himself in an impersonal form
. The impersonal Brahman, however, cannot possess
energies, nor do the Vedic literatures state that maya (the illusory
energy) is covered by another maya. There are hundreds and thousands of
references, however, to Visnu-maya (parasya saktih), or the energy of
Lord Visnu. In Bhagavad-gita (7.14) Krsna refers to mama maya ("My
energy"). Maya is controlled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; it
is not that He is covered by maya. Therefore Lord Visnu cannot be a
product of the material energy. In the beginning of the Vedanta-sutra it
is said, janmady asya yatah, indicating that the material
energy is also an emanation of the Supreme Brahman. How then could He be
covered by the material energy? If that were possible, material energy
would be greater than the Supreme Brahman. Even these simple arguments,
however, cannot be understood by the Mayavadi philosophers, and
therefore the term mayayapahrta-jnana which is applied to them in
Bhagavad-gita is extremely appropriate. Anyone who thinks that Lord
Visnu is a product of the material energy, as explained by Sadananda
Yogindra, should immediately be understood to be insane, for his
knowledge has been stolen by the illusory energy.
Lord Visnu cannot be placed within the category of the demigods. Those
who are actually bewildered by the Mayavada philosophy and are still in
the darkness of ignorance consider Lord Visnu to be a demigod, in
defiance of the Rg-vedic mantra, om tad visnoh paramam padam ("Visnu is
always in a superior position"). This mantra is also confirmed in
Bhagavad-gita. Mattah parataram nanyat: there is no truth
superior to Lord Krsna or Visnu. Thus only those whose knowledge has
been bewildered consider Lord Visnu to be a demigod and therefore
suggest that one may either worship Lord Visnu, the goddess Kali
or Durga or whomever he likes and achieve the same result. This is an
ignorant conclusion that is not accepted in Bhagavad-gita,
which distinctly says, yanti deva-vrata devan . . . yanti mad-yajino'pi
mam: "The worshipers of the demigods will be promoted to the respective
planets of the demigods, but devotees of the Supreme Lord will go back
home, back to Godhead." (Bg. 9.25) Lord Krsna explains very clearly in
Bhagavad-gita that His material energy is very difficult to
overcome (daivi hy esa gunamayi mama maya duratyaya). Maya's
influence is so strong that even learned scholars and spiritualists are
also covered by maya and think themselves to be as good as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Actually, however, to free oneself from the
influence of maya one must surrender to the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, as Krsna also states in Bhagavad-gita (mam eva ye
prapadyante mayam etam taranti te). It is to be concluded, therefore,
that Lord Visnu does not belong to this material creation but to the
spiritual world. To misconceive Lord Visnu to have a material body or to
equate Him with the demigods is the most offensive blasphemy against
Lord Visnu, and offenders against the lotus feet of Lord Visnu cannot
advance in spiritual knowledge. They are called mayayapahrta-jnana, or
those whose knowledge has been stolen by the influence of illusion.
One who thinks that there is a difference between Lord Visnu's body and
His soul dwells in the darkest region of ignorance. There is no
difference between Lord Visnu's body and Visnu's soul, for they are
advaya-jnana, one knowledge. In this world there is a difference between
the material body and spiritual soul, but in the spiritual world
everything is spiritual, and there are no such differences. The greatest
offense of the Mayavadi philosophers is to consider Lord Visnu and the
living entities to be one and the same. In this connection the Padma
Purana states
:
arcye visnau siladhir gurusu
nara-matir vaisnave jati-buddhih
"One who considers the arca-murti or worshipable Deity of Lord Visnu to
be stone, the spiritual master to be an ordinary human being, and a
Vaisnava to belong to a particular caste or creed, is possessed of
hellish intelligence." One who follows such conclusions is doomed.
Adi 7.116
TEXT 116
TEXT
isvarera tattva -- yena jvalita jvalana
jivera svarupa -- yaiche sphulingera kana
SYNONYMS
isvarera tattva -- the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yena
-- is like; jvalita -- blazing; jvalana -- fire; jivera -- of the living
entities; svarupa -- identity; yaiche -- is like; sphulingera -- of the
spark; kana -- particle.
TRANSLATION
"The Lord is like a great blazing fire, and the living entities are like
small sparks of that fire.
PURPORT
Although sparks and a big fire are both fire and both have the power to
burn, the burning power of the fire and that of the spark are not the
same. Why should one artificially try to become like a big fire although
by constitution he is like a small spark? It is due to ignorance. One
should therefore understand that neither the Supreme Personality of
Godhead nor the small sparklike living entities have anything to do with
matter, but when the spiritual spark comes in contact with the material
world his fiery quality is extinguished. That is the position of the
conditioned souls. Because they are in touch with the material world,
their spiritual quality is almost dead, but because these spiritual
sparks are all Krsna's parts and parcels, as the Lord states in
Bhagavad-gita (mamaivamsah), they can revive their original position by
getting free from material contact. This is pure philosophical
understanding. In Bhagavad-gita the spiritual sparks are declared to
be sanatana (eternal); therefore the material energy, maya, cannot
affect their constitutional position.
Someone may argue, "Why is there a need to create the spiritual sparks?"
The answer can be given in this way. Since the Absolute Personality of
Godhead is omnipotent, He has both unlimited and limited potencies. This
is the meaning of omnipotent. To be omnipotent, He must have not only
unlimited potencies but limited potencies also. Thus to exhibit His
omnipotency He displays both. The living entities are endowed with
limited potency although they are part of the Lord. The Lord displays
the spiritual world by His unlimited potencies, whereas by His limited
potencies the material world is displayed. In Bhagavad-gita
the Lord says:
apareyam itas tv anyam
prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho
yayedam dharyate jagat
"Besides the inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is
a superior energy of Mine, which is all living entities
who are struggling with material nature and are sustaining the
universe." (Bg. 7.5) The jiva-bhuta, living entities, control this
material world with their limited potencies. Generally, people are
bewildered by the activities of scientists and technologists. Due to
maya they think that there is no need of God and that they can do
everything and anything, but actually they cannot. Since this cosmic
manifestation is limited, their existence is also limited. Everything in
this material world is limited, and for this reason there is creation,
sustenance and dissolution. However, in the world of unlimited energy,
the spiritual world, there is neither creation nor destruction.
If the Personality of Godhead did not possess both limited and unlimited
energies, He could not be called omnipotent. Mahato mahiyan anuto '
niyan: He is greater than the greatest and smaller than
the smallest. He is smaller than the smallest in the form of the living
entities and greater than the greatest in His form of Krsna. If there
were no one to control, there would be no meaning to the conception of
the supreme controller (isvara), just as there is no meaning to a king
without his subjects. If all the subjects became king, there would be no
distinction between the king and an ordinary citizen. Thus for the Lord
to be the supreme controller there must be a creation to control. The
basic principle for the existence of the living entities is called cid-
vilasa, or spiritual pleasure. The omnipotent Lord displays His pleasure
potency as the living entities. The Lord is described in Vedanta-
sutra as anandamayo 'bhyasat. He is by nature the
reservoir of all pleasures, and because He wants to enjoy pleasure,
there must be energies to give Him pleasure or supply Him the impetus
for pleasure. This is the perfect philosophical understanding of the
Absolute Truth.
Adi 7.117
TEXT 117
TEXT
jiva-tattva -- sakti, krsna-tattva -- saktiman
gita-visnupuranadi tahate pramana
SYNONYMS
jiva-tattva -- the truth of the living entities; sakti -- energy; krsna-
tattva -- the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; saktiman -
- the possessor of the energies; gita -- Bhagavad-gita; visnu-purana-
adi -- Visnu Purana and other Puranas; tahate -- in them; pramana --
there are evidences.
TRANSLATION
"The living entities are energies, not the energetic. The energetic is
Krsna. This is very vividly described in Bhagavad-gita, the Visnu
Purana and other Vedic literatures.
PURPORT
As already explained, there are three prasthanas on the path of
advancement in spiritual knowledge -- namely, nyaya-prasthana (Vedanta
philosophy), sruti-prasthana (the Upanisads and Vedic mantras) and smrti-
prasthana (the Bhagavad-gita, Mahabharata, Puranas, etc.). Unfortunately,
Mayavadi philosophers do not accept the smrti-prasthana. Smrti refers
to the conclusions drawn from the Vedic evidence. Sometimes Mayavadi
philosophers do not accept the authority of Bhagavad-gita and the
Puranas, and this is called ardha-kukkuti-nyaya.
If one believes in the Vedic literatures, one
must accept all the Vedic literatures recognized by the great acaryas,
but these Mayavadi philosophers accept only the nyaya-prasthana and
sruti-prasthana, rejecting the smrti-prasthana. Here, however, Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu cites evidence from the Gita, Visnu Purana, etc.,
which are smrti-prasthana. No one can avoid the Personality of Godhead
in the statements of Bhagavad-gita and other Vedic literatures such
as the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Lord Caitanya therefore quotes a
passage from Bhagavad-gita (Bg. 7.5).
Adi 7.118
TEXT 118
TEXT
apareyam itas tv anyam
prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho
yayedam dharyate jagat
SYNONYMS
apara -- inferior energy; iyam -- this material world; itah -- beyond
this; tu -- but; anyam -- another; prakrtim -- energy; viddhi -- you
must know; me -- of Me; param -- which is superior energy; jiva-bhutam --
they are the living entities; maha-baho -- O mighty-armed; yaya -- by
which; idam -- this material world; dharyate -- is being conducted;
jagat -- the cosmic manifestation.
TRANSLATION
"'Besides the inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is
a superior energy of Mine, which is all living entities
who are struggling with material nature and are sustaining the
universe.'
PURPORT
In Bhagavad-gita it is explained that the five elements earth, water,
fire, air and ether constitute the gross energy of the Absolute Truth
and that there are also three subtle energies, namely, the mind,
intelligence and false ego, or identification with the phenomenal world.
Thus the entire cosmic manifestation is divided into eight energies, all
of which are inferior. As explained in Bhagavad-gita (mama maya
duratyaya), the inferior energy known as maya is so strong
that although the living entity does not belong to this energy, due to
the superior strength of the inferior energy the living entity (jiva-
bhuta) forgets his real position and identifies with it. Krsna says
distinctly that beyond the material energy there is a superior energy
which is known as the jiva-bhuta or living entities. When in contact
with the material energy, this superior energy conducts all the
activities of the entire material phenomenal world.
The supreme cause is Krsna (janmady asya yatah), who is the
origin of all energies, which work variously. The Supreme Personality of
Godhead has both inferior and superior energies, and the difference
between them is that the superior energy is factual whereas the inferior
energy is a reflection of the superior. A reflection of the sun in a
mirror or on water appears to be the sun but is not. Similarly, the
material world is but a reflection of the spiritual world. Although it
appears to be factual, it is not; it is only a temporary reflection,
whereas the spiritual world is a factual reality. The material world,
with its gross and subtle forms, is merely a reflection of the spiritual
world.
The living entity is not a product of the material energy; he is
spiritual energy, but in contact with matter he forgets his identity.
Thus the living entity identifies himself with matter and
enthusiastically engages in material activities in the guises of a
technologist, scientist, philosopher, etc. He does not know that he is
not at all a material product but is spiritual. His real identity thus
being lost, he struggles very hard in the material world, and the Hare
Krsna movement or Krsna consciousness movement tries to revive
his original consciousness. His activities in manufacturing big
skyscrapers are evidence of intelligence, but this kind of intelligence
is not at all advanced. One should know that his only real concern is
how to get free from material contact, for by absorbing his mind in
material activities he takes material bodies again and again, and
although he falsely claims to be very intelligent, in material
consciousness he is not at all intelligent. When we speak about the
Krsna consciousness movement, which is meant to make people intelligent,
the conditioned living entity therefore misunderstands it. He is so
engrossed in the material concept of life that he does not think that
there can be any activities which are actually based on intelligence
beyond the construction of skyscrapers and big roads and the
manufacturing of cars. This is proof of mayayapahrta-jnana, or loss of
all intelligence due to the influence of maya. When a living entity is
freed from such misconceptions, he is called liberated. When one is
actually liberated he no longer identifies with the material world. The
symptom of mukti (liberation) is that one engages in spiritual
activities instead of falsely engaging in material activities.
Transcendental loving devotional service is the spiritual activity of
the spirit soul. Mayavadi philosophers confuse such spiritual activity
with material activity, but Bhagavad-gita confirms:
mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena bhakti-yogena sevate
sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate
(Bg. 14.26)
One who engages in the spiritual activities of unalloyed devotional
service (avyabhicarini-bhakti) is immediately elevated to the
transcendental platform, and he is to be considered brahma-bhuta
, which indicates that he is no longer in the material world but
in the spiritual world. Devotional service is enlightenment or
awakening. When the living entity perfectly performs spiritual
activities under the direction of the spiritual master, he becomes
perfect in knowledge and understands that he is not God but a servant of
God. As explained by Caitanya Mahaprabhu, jivera 'svarupa' haya --
krsnera 'nitya-dasa': the real identity of the living entity is that he
is an eternal servant of the Supreme (Cc. Madhya 20.108). As long as one
does not come to this conclusion, he must be in ignorance. This is also
confirmed by the Lord in Bhagavad-gita (Bg. 7.19). Bahunam janmanam
ante jnanavan mam prapadyate: "After many
births of struggling for existence and cultivating knowledge, when one
comes to the point of real knowledge he surrenders unto Me." Such an
advanced mahatma or great soul is very rarely to be seen. Thus
although the Mayavadi philosophers appear to be very advanced in
knowledge, they are not yet perfect. To come to the point of perfection
they must voluntarily surrender to Krsna.
Adi 7.119
TEXT 119
TEXT
visnu-saktih para prokta
ksetrajnakhya tatha para
avidya-karma-samjnanya
trtiya saktir isyate
SYNONYMS
visnu-saktih -- the potency of Lord Visnu; para -- spiritual; prokta --
it is said; ksetrajna-akhya -- the potency known as ksetrajna;
tatha -- as well as; para -- spiritual; avidya -- ignorance; karma --
fruitive activities; samjna -- known as; anya -- other; trtiya -- third;
saktih -- potency; isyate -- known thus.
TRANSLATION
"'The potency of Lord Visnu is summarized in three categories -- namely,
the spiritual potency, the living entities and ignorance. The spiritual
potency is full of knowledge; the living entities, although belonging to
the spiritual potency, are subject to bewilderment; and the third energy,
which is full of ignorance, is always visible in fruitive activities.'
PURPORT
In the previous verse, quoted from Bhagavad-gita, it has been
established that the living entities are to be categorized among the
Lord's potencies. The Lord is potent, and there are varieties of
potencies (parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate)
. Now, in this quotation from the Visnu Purana, this is further
confirmed. There are varieties of potencies, and they have been divided
into three categories -- namely, spiritual, marginal and external.
The spiritual potency is manifested in the spiritual world. Krsna's form,
qualities, activities and entourage are all spiritual. This is also
confirmed in Bhagavad-gita:
ajo 'pi sann avyayatma
bhutanam isvaro 'pi san
prakrtim svam adhisthaya
sambhavamy atma-mayaya
"Although I am unborn and My transcendental body never deteriorates, and
although I am the Lord of all sentient beings,
I still appear in every millennium in My original transcendental form." (
Bg. 4.6) Atma-maya refers to the spiritual potency. When Krsna comes to
this or any other universe, He does so with His spiritual potency. We
take birth by the force of the material potency, but as stated here with
reference to the Visnu Purana, the ksetrajna, or living entity,
belongs to the spiritual potency; thus when we free ourselves from the
clutches of the material potency we can also enter the spiritual world.
The material potency is the energy of darkness, or complete ignorance of
spiritual activities. In the material potency, the living entity engages
himself in fruitive activities, thinking that he can be happy through
expansion in terms of material energy. This fact is prominently manifest
in this age of Kali because human society, not understanding the
spiritual nature, is busily expanding in material activities. The men of
the present day are almost unaware of their spiritual identity. They
think that they are products of the elements of the material world and
that everything will end with the annihilation of the body. Therefore
they conclude that as long as one has a material body consisting of
material senses, one should enjoy the senses as much as possible. Since
they are atheists, they do not care whether there is a next life. Such
activities are described in this verse as avidya-karma-samjnanya.
The material energy is separated from the spiritual energy of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus although it is originally created
by the Supreme Lord, He is not actually present within it. The Lord also
confirms in Bhagavad-gita, mat-sthani sarva-bhutani: "
Everything is resting on Me." (Bg. 9.4) This indicates that everything
is resting on His own energy. For example, the planets are resting
within outer space, which is the separated energy of Krsna. The Lord
explains in Bhagavad-gita:
bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh
kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me
bhinna prakrtir astadha
"Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego -- all
together these eight comprise My separated energies." (Bg. 7.
4) The separated energy acts as if it were independent, but here it is
said that although such energies are certainly factual, they are not
independent but merely separated.
The separated energy can be understood from a practical example. I
compose books by speaking into a dictaphone, and when the dictaphone is
replayed, it appears that I am speaking personally, but actually I am
not. I spoke personally, but then the dictaphone tape, which is separate
from me, acts exactly like me. Similarly, the material energy originally
emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but it acts separately,
although the energy is supplied by the Lord. This is also explained in
Bhagavad-gita. Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram: "
This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and
it is producing all moving and unmoving beings." (Bg. 9.10) Under the
guidance or superintendence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
material energy works as if independent, although it is not actually
independent.
In this verse from the Visnu Purana the total energy of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is classified in three divisions -- namely, the
spiritual or internal potency of the Lord, the marginal potency or
ksetrajna (the living entity), and the material potency, which is
separated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and appears to act
independently. When Srila Vyasadeva, by meditation and self-realization,
saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he also saw the separated energy
of the Lord standing behind Him (apasyat purusam purnam mayam ca tad-
apasrayam). Vyasadeva also realized that it is this separated energy of
the Lord, the material energy, that covers the knowledge of the living
entities (yaya sammohito jiva atmanam tri-gunatmakam). The
separated, material energy bewilders the living entities (jivas), and
thus they work very hard under its influence, not knowing that they are
not fulfilling their mission in life. Unfortunately, most of them think
that they are the body and should therefore enjoy the material senses
irresponsibly, since when death comes everything will be finished. This
atheistic philosophy also flourished in India, where it was sometimes
propagated by Carvaka Muni, who said:
rnam krtva ghrtam pibet
yavaj jivet sukham jivet
bhasmi-bhutasya dehasya kutah
punar agamano bhavet
His theory was that as long as one lives one should eat as much ghee as
possible. In India, ghee (clarified butter) is a basic ingredient in
preparing many varieties of foodstuffs. Since everyone wants to enjoy
nice food, Carvaka Muni advised that one eat as much ghee as possible.
One may say, "I have no money. How shall I purchase ghee?" Carvaka Muni,
however, says, "If you have no money, then beg, borrow or steal, but in
some way secure ghee and enjoy life." For one who further objects that
he will be held accountable for such unauthorized activities as begging,
borrowing and stealing, Carvaka Muni replies, "You will not be held
responsible. As soon as your body is burned to ashes after death,
everything is finished." This is called ignorance. From Bhagavad-gita it
is understood that one does not die with the annihilation of his body (
na hanyate hanyamane sarire). The annihilation of one body involves
changing to another (tatha dehantara-praptih). Therefore, to perform
irresponsible activities in the material world is very dangerous.
Without knowledge of the spirit soul and its transmigration, people are
allured by the material energy to engage in many such activities, as if
one could become happy simply by dint of material knowledge, without
reference to spiritual existence. Therefore the entire material world
and its activities are referred to as avidya-karma-samjnanya.
In order to dissipate the ignorance of the human beings who work under
the material energy, which is separated from the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, the Lord comes down to revive their original nature of
spiritual activities (yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata
). As soon as they deviate from their original nature, the Lord
comes to teach them, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "
My dear living entities, give up all material activities and simply
surrender unto Me for protection." (Bg. 18.66)
It is the statement of Carvaka Muni that one should beg, borrow or steal
money to purchase ghee and enjoy life (rnam krtva ghrtam pibet). Thus
even the greatest atheist of India recommends that one eat ghee, not
meat. No one could conceive of human beings' eating meat like tigers and
dogs, but men have become so degraded that they are just like animals
and can no longer claim to have a human civilization.
Adi 7.120
TEXT 120
TEXT
hena jiva-tattva lana likhi' para-tattva
acchanna karila srestha isvara-mahattva
SYNONYMS
hena -- such degraded; jiva-tattva -- the living entities; lana --
taking them; likhi' -- having written; para-tattva -- as the Supreme;
acchanna -- covering; karila -- did; srestha -- the Supreme Personality
of Godhead; isvara -- the Lord's; mahattva -- glories.
TRANSLATION
"The Mayavada philosophy is so degraded that it has taken the
insignificant living entities to be the Lord, the Supreme Truth, thus
covering the glory and supremacy of the Absolute Truth with monism.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura comments in this connection that in all Vedic
scriptures the jiva-tattva, the truth of the living entities, is
mentioned to be one of the energies of the Lord. If one does not accept
the living entity to be a minute, infinitesimal spark of the Supreme but
equates the jiva-tattva with the Supreme Brahman or Supreme Personality
of Godhead, it must be understood that his entire philosophy is based on
a misunderstanding. Unfortunately, Sripada Sankaracarya purposely
claimed the jiva-tattva, or living entities, to be equal to the Supreme
God. Therefore his entire philosophy is based on a misunderstanding, and
it misguides people to become atheists whose mission in life is
unfulfilled. The mission of human life, as described in Bhagavad-
gita, is to surrender unto the Supreme Lord and become His devotee, but
the Mayavada philosophy misleads one to defy the existence of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead and pose oneself as the Supreme Lord.
Thus it has misguided hundreds and thousands of innocent men.
In the Vedanta-sutra, Vyasadeva has described that the Supreme
Personality of Godhead is potent and that everything, material or
spiritual, is but an emanation of His energy. The Lord, the Supreme
Brahman, is the origin or source of everything (janmady asya yatah
), and all other manifestations are emanations of different
energies of the Lord. This is also confirmed in the Visnu-Purana:
ekadesa-sthitasyagner
jyotsna vistarini yatha
parasya brahmanah saktis
tathedam akhilam jagat
"Whatever we see in this world is simply an expansion of different
energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is exactly like a
fire which spreads illumination for a long distance although it is
situated in one place." This is a very vivid example. Similarly, it is
stated that just as everything in the material world exists in the
sunshine, which is the energy of the sun, so everything exists on the
basis of the spiritual and material energies of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. Thus although Krsna is situated in His own abode (goloka eva
nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto) where He enjoys His
transcendental pastimes with the cowherd boys and gopis, He is
nevertheless present everywhere, even within the atoms of this universe (
andantarastha-paramanu-cayantarastham). This is
the verdict of the Vedic literature.
Unfortunately, the Mayavada philosophy, misguiding people by claiming
the living entity to be the Lord, has created havoc throughout the
entire world and led almost everyone to godlessness. By thus covering
the glories of the Supreme Lord, the Mayavadi philosophers have done the
greatest disservice to human society. It is to counteract these most
abominable activities of the Mayavadi philosophers that Lord Caitanya
has introduced the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.
harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha
"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is
chanting the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no
other way. There is no other way." People should simply engage in the
chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, for thus they will gradually
come to understand that they are not the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
as they have been taught by the Mayavadi philosophers, but are eternal
servants of the Lord. As soon as one engages himself in the
transcendental service of the Lord, he becomes free.
mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena
bhakti-yogena sevate
sa gunan samatityaitan
brahma-bhuyaya kalpate
"One who engages in full devotional service, who does not fall
down in any circumstances, at once transcends the modes of material
nature and thus comes to the level of Brahman." (Bg. 14.26) Therefore
the Hare Krsna movement or Krsna consciousness movement is the only
light for the foolish living entities who think either that there is no
God or that if God exists He is formless and they themselves are also
God. These misconceptions are very dangerous, and the only way to
counteract them is to spread the Hare Krsna movement.
Adi 7.121
TEXT 121
TEXT
vyasera sutrete kahe 'parinama'-vada
'vyasa bhranta' -- bali' tara uthaila vivada
SYNONYMS
vyasera -- of Srila Vyasadeva; sutrete -- in the codes; kahe --
describes; parinama -- transformation; vada -- philosophy; vyasa --
Srila Vyasadeva; bhranta -- mistaken; bali' -- accusing him; tara -- his;
uthaila -- raised; vivada -- opposition.
TRANSLATION
"In his Vedanta-sutra Srila Vyasadeva has described that everything is
but a transformation of the energy of the Lord. Sankaracarya, however,
has misled the world by commenting that Vyasadeva was mistaken. Thus he
has raised great opposition to theism throughout the entire world.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains, "In the Vedanta-sutra of Srila
Vyasadeva it is definitely stated that all cosmic manifestations result
from transformations of various energies of the Lord. Sankaracarya,
however, not accepting the energy of the Lord, thinks that it is the
Lord who is transformed. He has taken many clear statements from the
Vedic literature and twisted them to try to prove that if the Lord, or
the Absolute Truth, were transformed, His oneness would be disturbed.
Thus he has accused Srila Vyasadeva of being mistaken. In developing his
philosophy of monism, therefore, he has established vivarta-vada, or the
Mayavada theory of illusion."
In the Brahma-sutra, Second Chapter, the first quote is as follows:
tad ananyatvam arambhana-sabdadibhyah. Commenting on this sutra in his
Sariraka-bhasya, Sankaracarya has introduced the statement vacarambhanam
vikaro namadheyam from the Chandogya Upanisad to try to prove
that acceptance of the transformation of the energy of the Supreme Lord
is faulty. He has tried to defy this transformation of energy in a
misguided way, which will be explained later. Since his conception of
God is impersonal, he does not believe that the entire cosmic
manifestation is a transformation of the energies of the Lord, for as
soon as one accepts the various energies of the Absolute Truth, one must
immediately accept the Absolute Truth to be personal, not impersonal. A
person can create many things by the transformation of his energy. For
example, a businessman transforms his energy by establishing many big
factories or business organizations, yet he remains a person although
his energy has been transformed into these many factories or business
concerns. The Mayavadi philosophers do not understand this simple fact.
Their tiny brains and poor fund of knowledge cannot afford them
sufficient enlightenment to realize that when a man's energy is
transformed, the man himself is not transformed but remains the same
person.
Not believing in the fact that the energy of the Absolute Truth is
transformed, Sankaracarya has propounded his theory of illusion. This
theory states that although the Absolute Truth is never transformed, we
think that it is transformed, which is an illusion. Sankaracarya does
not believe in the transformation of the energy of the Absolute Truth,
for he claims that everything is one and that the living entity is
therefore also one with the Supreme. This is the Mayavada theory.
Srila Vyasadeva has explained that the Absolute Truth is a person who
has different potencies. Merely by His desire that there be creation and
by His glance (sa aiksata), He created this material world (sa asrjata).
After creation, He remains the same person; He is not transformed into
everything. One should accept that the Lord has inconceivable energies
and that it is by His order and will that varieties of manifestation
have come into existence. In the Vedanta-sutra it is said, sa-
tattvato 'nyatha-buddhir vikara ity udahrtah. This mantra indicates that
from one fact another fact is generated. For example, a father is one
fact, and a son generated from the father is a second fact. Thus both of
them are truths, although one is generated from the other. This
generation of a second, independent truth from a first truth is called
vikara, or transformation resulting in a by-product. The Supreme Brahman
is the Absolute Truth, and the other energies that have emanated from
Him and are existing separately, such as the living entities and the
cosmic manifestation, are also truths. This is an example of
transformation, which is called vikara or parinama. To give another
example of vikara, milk is a truth, but the same milk may be transformed
into yogurt. Thus yogurt is a transformation of milk, although the
ingredients of yogurt and milk are the same.
In the Chandogya Upanisad there is the following mantra: aitad atmyam
idam sarvam. This mantra indicates without a doubt that the entire world
is Brahman. The Absolute Truth has inconceivable energies, as confirmed
in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate
), and the entire cosmic manifestation is evidence
of these different energies of the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lord is a
fact, and therefore whatever is created by the Supreme Lord is also
factual. Everything is true and complete (purnam), but the original
purnam, the complete Absolute Truth, always remains the same. Purnat
purnam udacyate purnasya purnam adaya. The Absolute
Truth is so perfect that although innumerable energies emanate from Him
and manifest creations which appear to be different from Him, He
nevertheless maintains His personality. He never deteriorates under any
circumstances.
It is to be concluded that the entire cosmic manifestation is a
transformation of the energy of the Supreme Lord, not of the Supreme
Lord or Absolute Truth Himself, who always remains the same. The
material world and the living entities are transformations of the energy
of the Lord, the Absolute Truth or Brahman, who is the original source.
In other words, the Absolute Truth, Brahman, is the original ingredient,
and the other manifestations are transformations of this ingredient.
This is also confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanisad. Yato va imani
bhutani jayante: "This entire cosmic manifestation is made possible by
the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead." In this verse
it is indicated that Brahman, the Absolute Truth, is the original cause,
and the living entities (jivas) and cosmic manifestation are
effects of this cause. The cause being a fact, the effects are also
factual. They are not illusion. Sankaracarya has inconsistently tried to
prove that acceptance of the material world and
the jivas to be by-products of the Supreme Lord is an illusion because
in this conception the existence of the material world and the jivas
is different and separate from that of the Absolute Truth. With this
jugglery of understanding, Mayavadi philosophers have propagated the
slogan brahma satyam jagan-mithya, which declares that the Absolute
Truth is fact but the cosmic manifestation and the living entities are
simply illusions, or that all of them are in fact the Absolute Truth and
that the material world and living entities do not separately exist.
It is therefore to be concluded that Sankaracarya, in order to present
the Supreme Lord, the living entities and the material nature as
indivisible and ignorant, tries to cover the glories of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. He maintains that the material cosmic
manifestation is mithya, or false, but this is a great blunder. If the
Supreme Personality of Godhead is a fact, how can His creation be false?
Even in ordinary dealings, one cannot think the material cosmic
manifestation to be false. Therefore Vaisnava philosophers say that the
cosmic creation is not false but temporary. It is separated from the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, but since it is wonderfully created by
the energy of the Lord, to say that it is false is blasphemous.
Nondevotees factually appreciate the wonderful creation of material
nature, but they cannot appreciate the intelligence and energy of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead who is behind this material creation.
Sripada Ramanujacarya, however, refers to a Vedic sutra
, atma va idam agra asit, which points out that
the supreme atma, the Absolute Truth, existed before the creation. One
may argue, "If the Supreme Personality of Godhead is completely
spiritual, how is it possible for Him to be the origin of creation and
have within Himself both material and spiritual energies?" To answer
this challenge, Sripada Ramanujacarya quotes a mantra from the
Taittiriya Upanisad which states:
yato va imani bhutani jayante
yena jatani jivanti
yat prayanty abhisamvisanti.
This mantra confirms that the entire cosmic manifestation emanates from
the Absolute Truth, rests upon the Absolute Truth and after annihilation
again reenters the body of the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. The living entity is originally spiritual, and when he
enters the spiritual world or the body of the Supreme Lord, he still
retains his identity as an individual soul. In this connection Sripada
Ramanujacarya gives the example that when a green bird enters a green
tree it does not become one with the tree; it retains its identity as a
bird, although it appears to merge in the greenness of the tree. To
give another example, an animal that enters a forest keeps its
individuality, although apparently the beast merges in the forest.
Similarly, in material existence, both the material energy and the
living entities of the marginal potency maintain their individuality.
Thus although the energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead
interact within the cosmic manifestation, each keeps its separate
individual existence. Merging in the material or spiritual energies,
therefore, does not involve loss of individuality. According to Sri
Ramanujapada's theory of visistadvaita, although all the energies of the
Lord are one, each keeps its individuality (vaisistya).
Sripada Sankaracarya has tried to mislead the readers of Vedanta-
sutra by misinterpreting the words anandamayo 'bhyasat, and he has
even tried to find fault with Vyasadeva. All the codes of the
Vedanta-sutra need not be examined here, however, since we intend to
present the Vedanta-sutra in a separate volume.
Adi 7.122
TEXT 122
TEXT
parinama-vade isvara hayena vikari
eta kahi' 'vivarta'-vada sthapana ye kari
SYNONYMS
parinama-vade -- by accepting the theory of transformation of energy;
isvara -- the Supreme Lord; hayena -- becomes; vikari -- transformed;
eta kahi' -- saying this; vivarta -- illusion; vada -- theory; sthapana -
- establishing; ye -- what; kari -- do.
TRANSLATION
"According to Sankaracarya, by accepting the theory of the
transformation of the energy of the Lord, one creates an illusion by
indirectly accepting that the Absolute Truth is transformed.
PURPORT
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura comments that if one does not clearly
understand the meaning of parinama-vada, or transformation of energy,
one is sure to misunderstand the truth regarding this material cosmic
manifestation and the living entities. In the Chandogya Upanisad
it is said, san-mulah saumyemah prajah sadayatanah sat-
pratisthah (Cha. U. 6.8.4). The material world and the living entities
are separate beings, and they are eternally true, not false.
Sankaracarya, however, unnecessarily fearing that by parinama-vada (
transformation of energy) Brahman would be transformed (vikari), has
imagined both the material world and the living entities to be false and
to have no individuality. By word jugglery he has tried to prove that
the individual identities of the living entities and the material world
are illusory, and he has cited the examples of mistaking a rope for a
snake or an oyster shell for gold. Thus he has most abominably cheated
people in general.
The example of misunderstanding a rope to be a snake is mentioned in the
Mandukya Upanisad, but it is meant to explain the error of identifying
the body with the soul. Since the soul is actually a spiritual particle,
as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (mamaivamso jiva-loke), it is due to
illusion (vivarta-vada) that a human being, like an animal, identifies
the body with the self. This is a proper example of vivarta, or illusion.
The verse atattvato 'nyatha-buddhir vivarta ity udahrtah describes such
an illusion. To not know actual facts and thus to mistake one thing for
another (as, for example, to accept the body as oneself) is called
vivarta-vada. Every conditioned living entity who considers the body to
be the soul is deluded by this vivarta-vada. One can be attacked by this
vivarta-vada philosophy when he forgets the inconceivable power of the
omnipotent Personality of Godhead.
How the Supreme Personality of Godhead remains as He is, never changing,
is explained in the Isopanisad: purnasya purnam adaya purnam
evavasisyate. God is complete. Even if a complete
manifestation is taken away from Him, He continues to be complete. The
material creation is manifested by the energy of the Lord, but He is
still the same person. His form, entourage, qualities and so on never
deteriorate. Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Paramatma-sandarbha, comments
regarding the vivarta-vada as follows: "Under the spell of vivarta-vada
one imagines the separate entities, namely, the cosmic manifestation and
the living entities, to be one with Brahman. This is due to complete
ignorance regarding the actual fact. The Absolute Truth, or Parabrahman,
is always one and always the same. He is completely free from all other
conceptions of existence. He is completely free from false ego, for He
is the full spiritual identity. It is absolutely impossible for Him to
be subjected to ignorance and fall under the spell of a misconception (
vivarta-vada). The Absolute Truth is beyond our conception. One must
admit that He has unblemished qualities that He does not share with
every living entity. He is never tainted in the slightest degree by the
flaws of ordinary living beings. Everyone must therefore understand the
Absolute Truth to possess inconceivable potencies."
Adi 7.123
TEXT 123
TEXT
vastutah parinama-vada -- sei se pramana
dehe atma-buddhi -- ei vivartera sthana
SYNONYMS
vastutah -- factually; parinama-vada -- transformation of the energy;
sei -- that; se -- only; pramana -- proof; dehe -- in the body; atma-
buddhi -- concept of self; ei -- this; vivartera -- of illusion; sthana -
- place.
TRANSLATION
"Transformation of energy is a proven fact. It is the false bodily
conception of the self that is an illusion.
PURPORT
The jiva, or living entity, is a spiritual spark who is part of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. Unfortunately, he thinks the body to be
the self, and that misunderstanding is called vivarta, or acceptance of
untruth to be truth. The body is not the self, but animals and foolish
people think that it is. Vivarta (illusion) does not, however, denote a
change in the identity of the spirit soul; it is the misconception that
the body is the self that is an illusion. Similarly, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead does not change when His external energy,
consisting of the eight gross and subtle material elements listed in
Bhagavad-gita (bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh, etc.), acts and reacts
in different phases.
Adi 7.124
TEXT 124
TEXT
avicintya-sakti-yukta sri-bhagavan
icchaya jagad-rupe paya parinama
SYNONYMS
avicintya -- inconceivable; sakti -- potency; yukta -- possessed of; sri
-- the affluent; bhagavan -- Personality of Godhead; icchaya -- by His
wish; jagat-rupe -- in the form of the cosmic manifestation; paya --
becomes; parinama -- transformed by His energy.
TRANSLATION
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is opulent in all respects.
Therefore by His inconceivable energies He has transformed the material
cosmic manifestation.
Adi 7.125
TEXT 125
TEXT
tathapi acintya-saktye haya avikari
prakrta cintamani tahe drstanta ye dhari
SYNONYMS
tathapi -- yet; acintya-saktye -- by inconceivable potency; haya --
remains; avikari -- without change; prakrta -- material; cintamani --
touchstone; tahe -- in that respect; drstanta -- example; ye -- which;
dhari -- we accept.
TRANSLATION
"Using the example of a touchstone, which by its energy turns iron to
gold and yet remains the same, we can understand that although the
Supreme Personality of Godhead transforms His innumerable energies, He
remains unchanged.
Adi 7.126
TEXT 126
TEXT
nana ratna-rasi haya cintamani haite
tathapiha mani rahe svarupe avikrte
SYNONYMS
nana -- varieties; ratna-rasi -- valuable jewels; haya -- become
possible; cintamani -- the touchstone; haite -- from; tathapiha -- still,
certainly; mani -- the touchstone; rahe -- remains; svarupe -- in its
original form; avikrte -- without change.
TRANSLATION
"Although touchstone produces many varieties of valuable jewels, it
nevertheless remains the same. It does not change its original form.
Adi 7.127
TEXT 127
TEXT
prakrta-vastute yadi acintya-sakti haya
isvarera acintya-sakti, -- ithe ki vismaya
SYNONYMS
prakrta-vastute -- in material things; yadi -- if; acintya --
inconceivable; sakti -- potency; haya -- becomes possible; isvarera --
of the Supreme Lord; acintya -- inconceivable; sakti -- potency; ithe --
in this; ki -- what; vismaya -- wonderful.
TRANSLATION
"If there is such inconceivable potency in material objects, why should
we not believe in the inconceivable potency of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead?
PURPORT
The argument of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu described in this verse can be
very easily understood even by a common man if he simply thinks of the
activities of the sun, which has been giving off unlimited amounts of
heat and light since time immemorial and yet has not even slightly
decreased in power. Modern science believes that it is by sunshine that
the entire cosmic manifestation is maintained, and actually one can see