\\psf\Home\Desktop\Cc-2003\adi 5--2003.TXT
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Adi 5: The Glories Of Lord Nityananda Balarama
Chapter 5:
The Glories Of Lord Nityananda Balarama
This chapter is chiefly devoted to describing the essential nature and
glories of Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Lord Sri Krsna is the absolute
Personality of Godhead, and His first expansion in a form for pastimes
is Sri Balarama.
Beyond the limitation of this material world is the spiritual sky,
paravyoma, which has many spiritual planets, the supreme of which is
called Krsnaloka. Krsnaloka, the abode of Krsna, has three divisions,
which are known as Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula. In that abode the
Personality of Godhead expands Himself into four plenary portions-Krsna,
Balarama, Pradyumna (the transcendental Cupid) and Aniruddha. They are
known as the original quadruple forms.
In Krsnaloka is a transcendental place known as Svetadvipa or Vrndavana.
Below Krsnaloka in the spiritual sky are the Vaikuntha planets. On each
Vaikuntha planet a four-handed Narayana, expanded from the first
quadruple manifestation, is present. The Personality of Godhead known as
Sri Balarama in Krsnaloka is the original Sankarsana (attracting Deity),
and from this Sankarsana expands another Sankarsana, called Maha-
sankarsana, who resides in one of the Vaikuntha planets. By His internal
potency, Maha-sankarsana maintains the transcendental existence of all
the planets in the spiritual sky, where all the living beings are
eternally liberated souls. The influence of the material energy is
conspicuous there by its absence. On those planets the second quadruple
manifestation is present.
Outside of the Vaikuntha planets is the impersonal manifestation of Sri
Krsna, which is known as Brahmaloka. On the other side of Brahmaloka is
the spiritual karana-samudra, or Causal Ocean. The material energy
exists on the other side of the Causal Ocean, without touching it. In
the Causal Ocean is Maha-Visnu, the original purusa expansion from
Sankarsana. Maha-Visnu places His glance over the material energy, and
by a reflection of His transcendental body He amalgamates Himself within
the material elements.
As the source of the material elements, the material energy is known as
pradhana, and as the source of the manifestations of the material energy
it is known as maya. But material nature is inert in that she has no
independent power to do anything. She is empowered to make the cosmic
manifestation by the glance of Maha-Visnu. Therefore the material energy
is not the original cause of the material manifestation. Rather, the
transcendental glance of Maha-Visnu over material nature produces that
cosmic manifestation.
Maha-Visnu again enters every universe as the reservoir of all living
entities, Garbhodakasayi Visnu. From Garbhodakasayi Visnu expands
Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the Supersoul of every living entity.
Garbhodakasayi Visnu also has His own Vaikuntha planet in every universe,
where He lives as the Supersoul or supreme controller of the universe.
Garbhodakasayi Visnu reclines in the midst of the watery portion of the
universe and generates the first living creature of the universe, Brahma.
The imaginary universal form is a partial manifestation of
Garbhodakasayi Visnu.
On the Vaikuntha planet in every universe is an ocean of milk, and
within that ocean is an island called Svetadvipa, where Lord Visnu lives.
Therefore this chapter describes two Svetadvipas-one in the abode of
Krsna and the other in the ocean of milk in every universe. The
Svetadvipa in the abode of Krsna is identical with Vrndavana-dhama,
which is the place where Krsna appears Himself to display His loving
pastimes. In the Svetadvipa within every universe is a Sesa form of
Godhead who serves Visnu by assuming the form of His umbrella, slippers,
couch, pillows, garments, residence, sacred thread, throne and so on.
Lord Baladeva in Krsnaloka is Nityananda Prabhu. Therefore Nityananda
Prabhu is the original Sankarsana, and Maha-sankarsana and His
expansions as the purusas in the universes are plenary expansions of
Nityananda Prabhu.
In this chapter the author has described the history of his leaving home
for a personal pilgrimage to Vrndavana and his achieving all success
there. In this description it is revealed that the author's original
paternal home and birthplace were in the district of Katwa, in the
village of Jhamatapura, which is near Naihati. Krsnadasa Kaviraja's
brother invited Sri Minaketana Ramadasa, a great devotee of Lord
Nityananda, to his home, but a priest named Gunarnava Misra did not
receive him well, and Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami's brother, not
recognizing the glories of Lord Nityananda, also took sides with the
priest. Therefore Ramadasa became sorry, broke his flute and went away.
This was a great disaster for the brother of Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
But on that very night Lord Nityananda Prabhu Himself graced Krsnadasa
Kaviraja Gosvami in a dream and ordered him to leave on the next day for
Vrndavana.
Adi 5.1
TEXT 1
TEXT
vande 'nantadbhutaisvaryam
sri-nityanandam isvaram
yasyecchaya tat-svarupam
ajnenapi nirupyate
SYNONYMS
vande -- let me offer my obeisances; ananta -- unlimited; adbhuta -- and
wonderful; aisvaryam -- whose opulence; sri-nityanandam -- unto Lord
Nityananda; isvaram -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yasya --
whose; icchaya -- by the will; tat-svarupam -- His identity; ajnena --
by the ignorant; api -- even; nirupyate -- can be ascertained.
TRANSLATION
Let me offer my obeisances to Lord Sri Nityananda, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, whose opulence is wonderful and unlimited. By
His will, even a fool can understand His identity.
Adi 5.2
TEXT 2
TEXT
jaya jaya sri-caitanya jaya nityananda
jayadvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories; sri-caitanya -- to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
jaya nityananda -- all glories to Lord Nityananda; jaya advaita-candra --
all glories to Advaita Acarya; jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda -- all glories
to the devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TRANSLATION
All glories to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityananda!
All glories to Advaita Acarya! And all glories to all the devotees of
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu!
Adi 5.3
TEXT 3
TEXT
ei sat-sloke kahila krsna-caitanya-mahima
panca-sloke kahi nityananda-tattva-sima
SYNONYMS
ei -- this; sat-sloke -- in six verses; kahila -- described; krsna-
caitanya-mahima -- the glories of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; panca-
sloke -- in five verses; kahi -- let me explain; nityananda -- of Lord
Nityananda; tattva -- of the truth; sima -- the limitation.
TRANSLATION
I have described the glory of Sri Krsna Caitanya in six verses. Now, in
five verses I shall describe the glory of Lord Nityananda.
Adi 5.4
TEXT 4
TEXT
sarva-avatari krsna svayam bhagavan
tanhara dvitiya deha sri-balarama
SYNONYMS
sarva-avatari -- the source of all incarnations; krsna -- Lord Krsna;
svayam -- personally; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
tanhara -- His; dvitiya -- second; deha -- expansion of the body; sri-
balarama -- Lord Balarama.
TRANSLATION
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is the fountainhead of all
incarnations. Lord Balarama is His second body.
PURPORT
Lord Sri Krsna, the absolute Personality of Godhead, is the primeval
Lord, the original form of Godhead, and His first expansion is Sri
Balarama. The Personality of Godhead can expand Himself in innumerable
forms. The forms that have unlimited potency are called svamsa, and
forms that have limited potencies (the living entities) are called
vibhinnamsa.
Adi 5.5
TEXT 5
TEXT
eka-i svarupa donhe, bhinna-matra kaya
adya kaya-vyuha, krsna-lilara sahaya
SYNONYMS
eka-i -- one; svarupa -- identity; donhe -- both of Them; bhinna-matra
kaya -- only two different bodies; adya -- original; kaya-vyuha --
quadruple expansions; krsna-lilara -- in the pastimes of Lord Krsna;
sahaya -- assistance.
TRANSLATION
These two are one and the same identity. They differ only in form. Lord
Balarama is the first bodily expansion of Krsna, and He assists in Lord
Krsna's transcendental pastimes.
PURPORT
Balarama is a svamsa expansion of the Lord, and therefore there is no
difference in potency between Krsna and Balarama. The only difference is
in Their bodily structure. As the first expansion of Godhead, Balarama
is the chief Deity among the first quadruple forms, and He is the
foremost assistant of Sri Krsna in His transcendental activities.
Adi 5.6
TEXT 6
TEXT
sei krsna -- navadvipe sri-caitanya-candra
sei balarama -- sange sri-nityananda
SYNONYMS
sei krsna -- that original Krsna; navadvipe -- at Navadvipa; sri-
caitanya-candra -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sei balarama -- that
Lord Balarama; sange -- with Him; sri-nityananda -- Lord Nityananda.
TRANSLATION
That original Lord Krsna appeared in Navadvipa as Lord Caitanya, and
Balarama appeared with Him as Lord Nityananda.
Adi 5.7
TEXT 7
TEXT
sankarsanah karana-toya-sayi
garbhoda-sayi ca payobdhi-sayi
sesas ca yasyamsa-kalah sa nitya-
nandakhya-ramah saranam mamastu
SYNONYMS
sankarsanah -- Maha-sankarsana in the spiritual sky; karana-toya-sayi --
Karanodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the Causal Ocean; garbha-uda-sayi --
Garbhodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the Garbhodaka Ocean of the universe;
ca -- and; payah-abdhi-sayi -- Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the
ocean of milk; sesah -- Sesa Naga, the couch of Visnu; ca -- and; yasya -
- whose; amsa -- plenary portions; kalah -- and parts of the plenary
portions; sah -- He; nityananda-akhya -- known as Lord Nityananda; ramah
-- Lord Balarama; saranam -- shelter; mama -- my; astu -- let there be.
TRANSLATION
May Sri Nityananda Rama be the object of my constant remembrance.
Sankarsana, Sesa Naga and the Visnus who lie on the Karana Ocean, Garbha
Ocean and ocean of milk are His plenary portions and the portions of His
plenary portions.
PURPORT
Sri Svarupa Damodara Gosvami has recorded this verse in his diary to
offer his respectful obeisances to Lord Nityananda Prabhu. This verse
also appears as the seventh of the first fourteen verses of Sri Caitanya-
caritamrta.
Adi 5.8
TEXT 8
TEXT
sri-balarama gosani mula-sankarsana
panca-rupa dhari' karena krsnera sevana
SYNONYMS
sri-balarama -- Balarama; gosani -- the Lord; mula-sankarsana -- the
original Sankarsana; panca-rupa dhari' -- accepting five bodies; karena -
- does; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; sevana -- service.
TRANSLATION
Lord Balarama is the original Sankarsana. He assumes five other forms to
serve Lord Krsna.
Adi 5.9
TEXT 9
TEXT
apane karena krsna-lilara sahaya
srsti-lila-karya kare dhari' cari kaya
SYNONYMS
apane -- personally; karena -- performs; krsna-lilara sahaya --
assistance in the pastimes of Lord Krsna; srsti-lila -- of the pastimes
of creation; karya -- the work; kare -- does; dhari' -- accepting; cari
kaya -- four bodies.
TRANSLATION
He Himself helps in the pastimes of Lord Krsna, and He does the work of
creation in four other forms.
Adi 5.10
TEXT 10
TEXT
srsty-adika seva, -- tanra ajnara palana
‘sesa'-rupe kare krsnera vividha sevana
SYNONYMS
srsti-adika seva -- service in the matter of creation; tanra -- His;
ajnara -- of the order; palana -- execution; sesa-rupe -- the form of
Lord Sesa; kare -- does; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; vividha sevana --
varieties of service.
TRANSLATION
He executes the orders of Lord Krsna in the work of creation, and in the
form of Lord Sesa He serves Krsna in various ways.
PURPORT
According to expert opinion, Balarama, as the chief of the original
quadruple forms, is also the original Sankarsana. Balarama, the first
expansion of Krsna, expands Himself in five forms: (1) Maha-sankarsana, (
2) Karanabdhisayi, (3) Garbhodakasayi, (4) Ksirodakasayi, and (5) Sesa.
These five plenary portions are responsible for both the spiritual and
material cosmic manifestations. In these five forms Lord Balarama
assists Lord Krsna in His activities. The first four of these forms are
responsible for the cosmic manifestations, whereas Sesa is responsible
for personal service to the Lord. Sesa is called Ananta, or unlimited,
because He assists the Personality of Godhead in His unlimited
expansions by performing an unlimited variety of services. Sri Balarama
is the servitor Godhead who serves Lord Krsna in all affairs of
existence and knowledge. Lord Nityananda Prabhu, who is the same
servitor Godhead, Balarama, performs the same service to Lord Gauranga
by constant association.
Adi 5.11
TEXT 11
TEXT
sarva-rupe asvadaye krsna-sevananda
sei balarama -- gaura-sange nityananda
SYNONYMS
sarva-rupe -- in all these forms; asvadaye -- tastes; krsna-seva-ananda -
- the transcendental bliss of serving Krsna; sei balarama -- that Lord
Balarama; gaura-sange -- with Gaurasundara; nityananda -- Lord
Nityananda.
TRANSLATION
In all the forms He tastes the transcendental bliss of serving Krsna.
That same Balarama is Lord Nityananda, the companion of Lord
Gaurasundara.
Adi 5.12
TEXT 12
TEXT
saptama slokera artha kari cari-sloke
yate nityananda-tattva jane sarva-loke
SYNONYMS
saptama slokera -- of the seventh verse; artha -- the meaning; kari -- I
do; cari-sloke -- in four verses; yate -- in which; nityananda-tattva --
the truth of Lord Nityananda; jane -- one knows; sarva-loke -- all over
the world.
TRANSLATION
I have explained the seventh verse in four subsequent verses. By these
verses all the world can know the truth about Lord Nityananda.
Adi 5.13
TEXT 13
TEXT
mayatite vyapi-vaikuntha-loke
purnaisvarye sri-catur-vyuha-madhye
rupam yasyodbhati sankarsanakhyam
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
SYNONYMS
maya-atite -- beyond the material creation; vyapi -- all-expanding;
vaikuntha-loke -- in Vaikunthaloka, the spiritual world; purna-aisvarye -
- endowed with full opulence; sri-catuh-vyuha -- madhye -- in the
quadruple expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha);
rupam -- form; yasya -- whose; udbhati -- appears; sankarsana-akhyam --
known as Sankarsana; tam -- to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam -- to Lord
Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye -- I surrender.
TRANSLATION
I surrender unto the lotus feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, who is known as
Sankarsana in the midst of the catur-vyuha [consisting of Vasudeva,
Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha]. He possesses full opulences and
resides in Vaikunthaloka, far beyond the material creation.
PURPORT
This is a verse from Sri Svarupa Damodara Gosvami's diary. It appears as
the eighth of the first fourteen verses of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.
Adi 5.14
TEXT 14
TEXT
prakrtira para ‘paravyoma'-name dhama
krsna-vigraha yaiche vibhuty-adi-gunavan
SYNONYMS
prakrtira -- the material nature; para -- beyond; para-vyoma -- the
spiritual sky; name -- in name; dhama -- the place; krsna-vigraha -- the
form of Lord Krsna; yaiche -- just as; vibhuti-adi -- like the six
opulences; guna-van -- full with transcendental attributes.
TRANSLATION
Beyond the material nature lies the realm known as paravyoma, the
spiritual sky. Like Lord Krsna Himself, it possesses all transcendental
attributes, such as the six opulences.
PURPORT
According to Sankhya philosophy, the material cosmos is composed of
twenty-four elements: the five gross material elements, the three subtle
material elements, the five knowledge-acquiring senses, the five active
senses, the five objects of sense pleasure, and the mahat-tattva (the
total material energy). Empiric philosophers, unable to go beyond these
elements, speculate that anything beyond them must be avyakta, or
inexplicable. But the world beyond the twenty-four elements is not
inexplicable, for it is explained in the Bhagavad-gita as the eternal (
sanatana) nature. Beyond the manifested and unmanifested existence of
material nature (vyaktavyakta) is the sanatana nature, which is called
the paravyoma, or the spiritual sky. Since that nature is spiritual in
quality, there are no qualitative differences there: everything there is
spiritual, everything is good, and everything possesses the spiritual
form of Sri Krsna Himself. That spiritual sky is the manifested internal
potency of Sri Krsna; it is distinct from the material sky, manifested
by His external potency.
The all-pervading Brahman, composed of the impersonal glowing rays of
Sri Krsna, exists in the spiritual world with the Vaikuntha planets. We
can get some idea of that spiritual sky by a comparison to the material
sky, for the rays of the sun in the material sky can be compared to the
brahmajyoti, the glowing rays of the Personality of Godhead. In
the brahmajyoti there are unlimited Vaikuntha planets, which are
spiritual and therefore self-luminous, with a glow many times greater
than that of the sun. The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, His
innumerable plenary portions and the portions of His plenary portions
dominate each Vaikuntha planet. In the highest region of the spiritual
sky is the planet called Krsnaloka, which has three divisions, namely
Dvaraka, Mathura and Goloka, or Gokula.
To a gross materialist this kingdom of God, Vaikuntha, is certainly a
mystery. But to an ignorant man everything is a mystery for want of
sufficient knowledge. The kingdom of God is not a myth. Even the
material planets, which float over our heads in the millions and
billions, are still a mystery to the ignorant. Material scientists are
now attempting to penetrate this mystery, and a day may come when the
people of this earth will be able to travel in outer space and see the
variegatedness of these millions of planets with their own eyes. In
every planet there is as much material variegatedness as we find in our
own planet.
This planet earth is but an insignificant spot in the cosmic structure.
Yet foolish men, puffed up by a false sense of scientific advancement,
have concentrated their energy in the pursuit of so-called economic
development on this planet, not knowing of the variegated economic
facilities available on other planets. According to modern astronomy,
the gravity of the moon is different from that of earth. Therefore one
who goes to the moon will be able to pick up large weights and jump vast
distances. In the Ramayana, Hanuman is described as being able to lift
huge weights as heavy as hills and jump over the ocean. Modern astronomy
has confirmed that this is indeed possible.
The disease of the modern civilized man is his disbelief of everything
in the revealed scriptures. Faithless nonbelievers cannot make progress
in spiritual realization, for they cannot understand the spiritual
potency. The small fruit of a banyan contains hundreds of seeds, and in
each seed is the potency to produce another banyan tree with the potency
to produce millions more of such fruits. This law of nature is visible
before us, although how it works is beyond our understanding. This is
but an insignificant example of the potency of Godhead; there are many
similar phenomena that no scientist can explain.
Everything, in fact, is inconceivable, for the truth is revealed only to
the proper persons. Although there are varieties of personalities, from
Brahma down to the insignificant ant, all of whom are living beings,
their development of knowledge is different. Therefore we have to gather
knowledge from the right source. Indeed, in reality we can get knowledge
only from the Vedic sources. The four Vedas, with their supplementary
Puranas, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and their corollaries, which are
known as smrtis, are all authorized sources of knowledge. If we are at
all to gather knowledge, we must gather it from these sources without
hesitation.
Revealed knowledge may in the beginning be unbelievable because of our
paradoxical desire to verify everything with our tiny brains, but the
speculative means of attaining knowledge is always imperfect. The
perfect knowledge propounded in the revealed scriptures is confirmed by
the great acaryas, who have left ample commentations upon them; none of
these acaryas has disbelieved in the sastras. One who disbelieves in the
sastras is an atheist, and we should not consult an atheist, however
great he may be. A staunch believer in the sastras, with all their
diversities, is the right person from whom to gather real knowledge.
Such knowledge may seem inconceivable in the beginning, but when put
forward by the proper authority its meaning is revealed, and then one no
longer has any doubts about it.
Adi 5.15
TEXT 15
TEXT
sarvaga, ananta, vibhu -- vaikunthadi dhama
krsna, krsna-avatarera tahani visrama
SYNONYMS
sarva-ga -- all-pervading; ananta -- unlimited; vibhu -- greatest;
vaikuntha-adi dhama -- all the places known as Vaikunthaloka; krsna --
of Lord Krsna; krsna-avatarera -- of the incarnations of Lord Krsna;
tahani -- there; visrama -- the residence.
TRANSLATION
That Vaikuntha region is all-pervading, infinite and supreme. It is the
residence of Lord Krsna and His incarnations.
Adi 5.16
TEXT 16
TEXT
tahara upari-bhage ‘krsna-loka'-khyati
dvaraka-mathura-gokula -- tri-vidhatve sthiti
SYNONYMS
tahara -- of all of them; upari-bhage -- on the top; krsna-loka-khyati --
the planet known as Krsnaloka; dvaraka-mathura-gokula -- the three
places known as Dvaraka, Mathura and Vrndavana; tri-vidhatve -- in three
departments; sthiti -- situated.
TRANSLATION
In the highest region of that spiritual sky is the spiritual planet
called Krsnaloka. It has three divisions -- Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula.
Adi 5.17
TEXT 17
TEXT
sarvopari sri-gokula -- vrajaloka-dhama
sri-goloka, svetadvipa, vrndavana nama
SYNONYMS
sarva-upari -- above all of them; sri-gokula -- the place known as
Gokula; vraja-loka-dhama -- the place of Vraja; sri-goloka -- the place
named Goloka; sveta-dvipa -- the white island; vrndavana nama -- also
named Vrndavana.
TRANSLATION
Sri Gokula, the highest of all, is also called Vraja, Goloka, Svetadvipa
and Vrndavana.
Adi 5.18
TEXT 18
TEXT
sarvaga, ananta, vibhu, krsna-tanu-sama
upary-adho vyapiyache, nahika niyama
SYNONYMS
sarva-ga -- all-pervading; ananta -- unlimited; vibhu -- the greatest;
krsna-tanu-sama -- exactly like the transcendental body of Krsna; upari-
adhah -- up and down; vyapiyache -- expanded; nahika -- there is no;
niyama -- regulation.
TRANSLATION
Like the transcendental body of Lord Krsna, Gokula is all-pervading,
infinite and supreme. It expands both above and below, without any
restriction.
PURPORT
Srila Jiva Gosvami, the great authority and philosopher in the line of
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, has discussed the abode of Krsna in his Krsna-
sandarbha. In the Bhagavad-gita the Lord refers to "My abode." Srila
Jiva Gosvami, examining the nature of Krsna's abode, refers to the
Skanda Purana, which states:
ya yatha bhuvi vartante puryo bhagavatah priyah
tas tatha santi vaikunthe tat-tal-lilartham adrtah
"The abodes of Godhead in the material world, such as Dvaraka, Mathura
and Gokula, are facsimiles representing the abodes of Godhead in the
kingdom of God, Vaikuntha-dhama." The unlimited spiritual atmosphere of
that Vaikuntha-dhama is far above and beyond the material cosmos. This
is confirmed in the Svayambhuva-tantra, in a discussion between Lord
Siva and Parvati regarding the effect of chanting the mantra of fourteen
syllables. There it is stated:
nana-kalpa-latakirnam vaikuntham vyapakam smaret
adhah samyam gunanam ca prakrtih sarva-karanam
"While chanting the mantra, one should always remember the spiritual
world, which is very extensive and full of desire trees that can yield
anything one desires. Below that Vaikuntha region is the potential
material energy, which causes the material manifestation." The places of
the pastimes of Lord Krsna, such as Dvaraka, Mathura and Vrndavana,
eternally and independently exist in Krsnaloka. They are the actual
abodes of Lord Krsna, and there is no doubt that they are situated above
the material cosmic manifestation.
The abode known as Vrndavana or Gokula is also known as Goloka. The
Brahma-samhita states that Gokula, the highest region of the kingdom of
God, resembles a lotus flower with thousands of petals. The outer
portion of that lotuslike planet is a square place known as Svetadvipa.
In the inner portion of Gokula there is an elaborate arrangement for Sri
Krsna's residence with His eternal associates such as Nanda and Yasoda.
That transcendental abode exists by the energy of Sri Baladeva, who is
the original whole of Sesa, or Ananta. The tantras also confirm this
description by stating that the abode of Sri Anantadeva, a plenary
portion of Baladeva, is called the kingdom of God. Vrndavana-dhama is
the innermost abode within the quadrangular realm of Svetadvipa, which
lies outside of the boundary of Gokula Vrndavana.
According to Jiva Gosvami, Vaikuntha is also called Brahmaloka. The
Narada-pancaratra, in a statement concerning the mystery of Vijaya,
describes:
tat sarvopari goloke tatra lokopari svayam
viharet paramanandi govindo 'tula-nayakah
"The predominator of the gopis, Govinda, the principal Deity of Gokula,
always enjoys Himself in a place called Goloka, in the topmost part of
the spiritual sky."
From the authoritative evidence cited by Jiva Gosvami we may conclude
that Krsnaloka is the supreme planet in the spiritual sky, which is far
beyond the material cosmos. For the enjoyment of transcendental variety,
the pastimes of Krsna there have three divisions, and these pastimes are
performed in the three abodes Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula. When Krsna
descends to this universe, He enjoys the pastimes in places of the same
name. These places on earth are nondifferent from those original abodes,
for they are facsimiles of those original holy places in the
transcendental world. They are as good as Sri Krsna Himself and are
equally worshipable. Lord Caitanya declared that Lord Krsna, who
presents Himself as the son of the King of Vraja, is worshipable, and
that Vrndavana-dhama is equally worshipable.
Adi 5.19
TEXT 19
TEXT
brahmande prakasa tara krsnera icchaya
eka-i svarupa tara, nahi dui kaya
SYNONYMS
brahmande -- within the material world; prakasa -- manifestation; tara --
of it; krsnera icchaya -- by the supreme will of Lord Krsna; eka-i --
it is the same; svarupa -- identity; tara -- of it; nahi -- not; dui --
two; kaya -- bodies.
TRANSLATION
That abode is manifested within the material world by the will of Lord
Krsna. It is identical to that original Gokula; they are not two
different bodies.
PURPORT
The above-mentioned dhamas are movable, by the omnipotent will of Lord
Krsna. When Sri Krsna appears on the face of the earth, He can also make
His dhamas appear, without changing their original structure. One should
not discriminate between the dhamas on the earth and those in the
spiritual sky, thinking those on earth to be material and the original
abodes to be spiritual. All of them are spiritual. Only for us, who
cannot experience anything beyond matter in our present conditioned
state, do the dhamas and the Lord Himself, in His arca form, appear
before us resembling matter to give us the facility to see spirit with
material eyes. In the beginning this may be difficult for a neophyte to
understand, but in due course, when one is advanced in devotional
service, it will be easier, and he will appreciate the Lord's presence
in these tangible forms.
Adi 5.20
TEXT 20
TEXT
cintamani-bhumi, kalpa-vrksa-maya vana
carma-cakse dekhe tare prapancera sama
SYNONYMS
cintamani-bhumi -- the land of touchstone; kalpa-vrksa-maya -- full of
desire trees; vana -- forests; carma-cakse -- the material eyes; dekhe --
see; tare -- it; prapancera sama -- equal to the material creation.
TRANSLATION
The land there is touchstone [cintamani], and the forests abound with
desire trees. Material eyes see it as an ordinary place.
PURPORT
By the grace of the Lord His dhamas and He Himself can all be present
simultaneously, without losing their original importance. Only when one
fully develops in affection and love of Godhead can one see those dhamas
in their original appearance.
Srila Narottama dasa Thakura, a great acarya in the preceptorial line of
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, has said for our benefit that one can
perfectly see the dhamas only when one completely gives up the mentality
of lording it over material nature. One's spiritual vision develops
proportionately to one's giving up the debased mentality of
unnecessarily enjoying matter. A diseased person who has become diseased
because of a certain bad habit must be ready to follow the advice of the
physician, and as a natural sequence he must attempt to give up the
cause of the disease. The patient cannot indulge in the bad habit and at
the same time expect to be cured by the physician. Modern materialistic
civilization, however, is maintaining a diseased atmosphere. The living
being is a spiritual spark, as spiritual as the Lord Himself. The only
difference is that the Lord is great and the living being is small.
Qualitatively they are one, but quantitatively they are different.
Therefore, since the living being is spiritual in constitution, he can
be happy only in the spiritual sky, where there are unlimited spiritual
spheres called Vaikunthas. A spiritual being conditioned by a material
body must therefore try to get rid of his disease instead of developing
the cause of the disease.
Foolish persons engrossed in their material assets are unnecessarily
proud of being leaders of the people, but they ignore the spiritual
value of man. Such illusioned leaders make plans covering any number of
years, but they can hardly make humanity happy in a state conditioned by
the threefold miseries inflicted by material nature. One cannot control
the laws of nature by any amount of struggling. One must at last be
subject to death, nature's ultimate law. Death, birth, old age and
illness are symptoms of the diseased condition of the living being. The
highest aim of human life should therefore be to get free from these
miseries and go back home, back to Godhead.
Adi 5.21
TEXT 21
TEXT
prema-netre dekhe tara svarupa-prakasa
gopa-gopi-sange yanha krsnera vilasa
SYNONYMS
prema-netre -- with the eyes of love of Godhead; dekhe -- one sees; tara
-- its; svarupa-prakasa -- manifestation of identity; gopa -- cowherd
boys; gopi-sange -- with the cowherd damsels; yanha -- where; krsnera
vilasa -- the pastimes of Lord Krsna.
TRANSLATION
But with the eyes of love of Godhead one can see its real identity as
the place where Lord Krsna performs His pastimes with the cowherd boys
and cowherd girls.
Adi 5.22
TEXT 22
TEXT
cintamani-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vrksa-
laksavrtesu surabhir abhipalayantam
laksmi-sahasra-sata-sambhrama-sevyamanam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
SYNONYMS
cintamani -- touchstone; prakara -- groups made of; sadmasu -- in abodes;
kalpa-vrksa -- of desire trees; laksa -- by millions; avrtesu --
surrounded; surabhih -- surabhi cows; abhipalayantam -- tending; laksmi -
- of goddesses of fortune; sahasra -- of thousands; sata -- by hundreds;
sambhrama -- with great respect; sevyamanam -- being served; govindam --
Govinda; adi-purusam -- the original person; tam -- Him; aham -- I;
bhajami -- worship.
TRANSLATION
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor, who is
tending cows yielding all desires in abodes built with spiritual gems
and surrounded by millions of purpose trees. He is always served with
great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of
fortune."
PURPORT
This is a verse from the Brahma-samhita (5.29). This description of the
abode of Krsna gives us definite information of the transcendental place
where not only is life eternal, blissful and full of knowledge, but
there are ample vegetables, milk, jewels, and beautiful homes and
gardens tended by lovely damsels who are all goddesses of fortune.
Krsnaloka is the topmost planet in the spiritual sky, and below it are
innumerable spheres, a description of which can be found in Srimad-
Bhagavatam. In the beginning of Lord Brahma's self-realization he was
shown a transcendental vision of the Vaikuntha spheres by the grace of
Narayana. Later, by the grace of Krsna, he was shown a transcendental
vision of Krsnaloka. This transcendental vision is like the reception of
television from the moon via a mechanical system for receiving modulated
waves, but it is achieved by penance and meditation within oneself.
Srimad-Bhagavatam (Second Canto) states that in Vaikunthaloka the
material modes of nature, represented by the qualities of goodness,
passion and ignorance, have no influence. In the material world the
highest qualitative manifestation is goodness, which is characterized by
truthfulness, mental equilibrium, cleanliness, control of the senses,
simplicity, essential knowledge, faith in God, scientific knowledge and
so on. Nevertheless, all these qualities are mixed with passion and
imperfection. But the qualities in Vaikuntha are a manifestation of God'
s internal potency, and therefore they are purely spiritual and
transcendental, with no trace of material infection. No material planet,
even Satyaloka, is comparable in quality to the spiritual planets, where
the five inherent qualities of the material world -- namely ignorance,
misery, egoism, anger and envy -- are completely absent.
In the material world, everything is a creation. Anything we can think
of within our experience, including even our own bodies and minds, was
created. This process of creation began with the life of Brahma, and the
creative principle is prevalent all over the material universe because
of the quality of passion. But since the quality of passion is
conspicuous by its absence in the Vaikuntha planets, nothing there is
created; everything there is eternally existent. And because there is no
mode of ignorance, there is also no question of annihilation or
destruction. In the material world one may try to make everything
permanent by developing the above-mentioned qualities of goodness, but
because the goodness in the material world is mixed with passion and
ignorance, nothing here can exist permanently, despite all the good
plans of the best scientific brains. Therefore in the material world we
have no experience of eternity, bliss and fullness of knowledge. But in
the spiritual world, because of the complete absence of the qualitative
modes, everything is eternal, blissful and cognizant. Everything can
speak, everything can move, everything can hear, and everything can see
in fully blessed existence for eternity. The situation being so,
naturally space and time, in the forms of past, present and future, have
no influence there. In the spiritual sky there is no change because time
has no influence. Consequently, the influence of maya, the total
external energy, which induces us to become more and more materialistic
and forget our relationship with God, is also absent there.
As spiritual sparks of the beams emanating from the transcendental body
of the Lord, we are all permanently related with Him and equal to Him in
quality. The material energy is a covering of the spiritual spark, but
in the absence of that material covering, the living beings in
Vaikunthaloka are never forgetful of their identities: they are
eternally cognizant of their relationship with God in their
constitutional position of rendering transcendental loving service to
the Lord. Because they constantly engage in the transcendental service
of the Lord, it is natural to conclude that their senses are also
transcendental, for one cannot serve the Lord with material senses. The
inhabitants of Vaikunthaloka do not possess material senses with which
to lord it over material nature.
Persons with a poor fund of knowledge conclude that a place void of
material qualities must be some sort of formless nothingness. In reality,
however, there are qualities in the spiritual world, but they are
different from the material qualities because everything there is
eternal, unlimited and pure. The atmosphere there is self-illuminating,
and thus there is no need of a sun, a moon, fire, electricity and so on.
One who can reach that abode does not come back to the material world
with a material body. There is no difference between atheists and the
faithful in the Vaikuntha planets because all who settle there are freed
from the material qualities, and thus suras and asuras become equally
obedient loving servitors of the Lord.
The residents of Vaikuntha have brilliantly black complexions much more
fascinating and attractive than the dull white and black complexions
found in the material world. Their bodies, being spiritual, have no
equals in the material world. The beauty of a bright cloud when
lightning flashes on it merely hints at their beauty. Generally the
inhabitants of Vaikuntha dress in yellow clothing. Their bodies are
delicate and attractively built, and their eyes are like the petals of
lotus flowers. Like Lord Visnu, the residents of Vaikuntha have four
hands decorated with a conchshell, wheel, club and lotus flower. Their
chests are beautifully broad and fully decorated with necklaces of a
brilliant diamondlike metal surrounded by costly jewels never to be
found in the material world. The residents of Vaikuntha are always
powerful and effulgent. Some of them have complexions like red coral cat'
s eyes and lotus flowers, and each of them has earrings of costly jewels.
On their heads they wear flowery crowns resembling garlands.
In the Vaikunthas there are airplanes, but they make no tumultuous
sounds. Material airplanes are not at all safe: they can fall down and
crash at any time, for matter is imperfect in every respect. In the
spiritual sky, however, the airplanes are also spiritual, and they are
spiritually brilliant and bright. These airplanes do not fly business
executives, politicians or planning commissions as passengers, nor do
they carry cargo or postal bags, for these are all unknown there. These
planes are for pleasure trips only, and the residents of Vaikuntha fly
in them with their heavenly, beautiful, fairylike consorts. Therefore
these airplanes, full of residents of Vaikuntha, both male and female,
increase the beauty of the spiritual sky. We cannot imagine how
beautiful they are, but their beauty may be compared to the clouds in
the sky accompanied by silver branches of electric lightning. The
spiritual sky of Vaikunthaloka is always decorated in this way.
The full opulence of the internal potency of Godhead is always
resplendent in Vaikunthaloka, where goddesses of fortune are ever-
increasingly attached to serving the lotus feet of the Personality of
Godhead. These goddesses of fortune, accompanied by their friends,
always create a festive atmosphere of transcendental mirth. Always
singing the glories of the Lord, they are not silent even for a moment.
There are unlimited Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky, and the
ratio of these planets to the material planets in the material sky is
three to one. Thus the poor materialist is busy making political
adjustments on a planet that is most insignificant in God's creation. To
say nothing of this planet earth, the whole universe, with innumerable
planets throughout the galaxies, is comparable to a single mustard seed
in a bag full of mustard seeds. But the poor materialist makes plans to
live comfortably here and thus wastes his valuable human energy in
something that is doomed to frustration. Instead of wasting his time
with business speculations, he should seek the life of plain living and
high spiritual thinking and thus save himself from perpetual
materialistic unrest.
Even if a materialist wants to enjoy developed material facilities, he
can transfer himself to planets where he can experience material
pleasures much more advanced than those available on earth. The best
plan is to prepare oneself to return to the spiritual sky after leaving
the body. However, if one is intent on enjoying material facilities, one
can transfer himself to other planets in the material sky by utilizing
yogic powers. The playful spaceships of the astronauts are but childish
entertainments and are of no use for this purpose. The astanga-yoga
system is a materialistic art of controlling air by transferring it from
the stomach to the navel, from the navel to the heart, from the heart to
the collarbone, from there to the eyeballs, from there to the cerebellum
and from there to any desired planet. The velocities of air and light
are taken into consideration by the material scientist, but he has no
information of the velocity of the mind and intelligence. We have some
limited experience of the velocity of the mind because in a moment we
can transfer our minds to places hundreds of thousands of miles away.
Intelligence is even finer. Finer than intelligence is the soul, which
is not matter like mind and intelligence but is spirit, or antimatter.
The soul is hundreds of thousands of times finer and more powerful than
intelligence. We can thus only imagine the velocity of the soul in its
traveling from one planet to another. Needless to say, the soul travels
by its own strength and not with the help of any kind of material
vehicle.
The bestial civilization of eating, sleeping, fearing and sense-
gratifying has misled modern man into forgetting how powerful a soul he
has. As we have already described, the soul is a spiritual spark many,
many times more illuminating, dazzling and powerful than the sun, moon
or electricity. Human life is spoiled when man does not realize his real
identity with his soul. Lord Caitanya appeared with Lord Nityananda to
save man from this type of misleading civilization.
Srimad-Bhagavatam also describes how yogis can travel to all the planets
in the universe. When the vital force is lifted to the cerebellum, there
is every chance that this force will burst out from the eyes, nose, ears,
etc., as these are places that are known as the seventh orbit of the
vital force. But the yogis can block these holes by complete suspension
of air. The yogi then concentrates the vital force in the middle
position, that is, between the eyebrows. At this position, the yogi can
think of the planet to which he wants to go after leaving the body. He
can then decide whether he wants to go to the abode of Krsna in the
transcendental Vaikunthas, from which he will not be required to descend
into the material world, or to travel to higher planets in the material
universe. The perfect yogi is at liberty to do either.
For the perfect yogi who has attained success in the method of leaving
his body in perfect consciousness, transferring from one planet to
another is as easy as an ordinary man's walking to the grocery store. As
already discussed, the material body is just a covering of the spiritual
soul. Mind and intelligence are the undercoverings, and the gross body
of earth, water, air and so on is the overcoating of the soul. As such,
any advanced soul who has realized himself by the yogic process, who
knows the relationship between matter and spirit, can leave the gross
dress of the soul in perfect order and as he desires. By the grace of
God, we have complete freedom. Because the Lord is kind to us, we can
live anywhere -- either in the spiritual sky or in the material sky,
upon whichever planet we desire. However, misuse of this freedom causes
one to fall down into the material world and suffer the threefold
miseries of conditioned life. The living of a miserable life in the
material world by dint of the soul's choice is nicely illustrated by
Milton in Paradise Lost. Similarly, by choice the soul can regain
paradise and return home, back to Godhead.
At the critical time of death, one can place the vital force between the
two eyebrows and decide where he wants to go. If he is reluctant to
maintain any connection with the material world, he can, in less than a
second, reach the transcendental abode of Vaikuntha and appear there
completely in his spiritual body, which will be suitable for him in the
spiritual atmosphere. He has simply to desire to leave the material
world both in finer and in grosser forms and then move the vital force
to the topmost part of the skull and leave the body from the hole in the
skull called the brahma-randhra. This is easy for one perfect in the
practice of yoga.
Of course, man is endowed with free will, and as such if he does not
want to free himself from the material world he may enjoy the life of
brahma-pada (occupation of the post of Brahma) and visit Siddhaloka, the
planets of materially perfect beings, who have full capacities to
control gravity, space and time. To visit these higher planets in the
material universe, one need not give up his mind and intelligence (finer
matter), but need only give up grosser matter (the material body).
Each and every planet has its particular atmosphere, and if one wants to
travel to any particular planet within the material universe, one has to
adapt his material body to the climatic condition of that planet. For
instance, if one wants to go from India to Europe, where the climatic
condition is different, one has to change his dress accordingly.
Similarly, a complete change of body is necessary if one wants to go to
the transcendental planets of Vaikuntha. However, if one wants to go to
the higher material planets, he can keep his finer dress of mind,
intelligence and ego, but has to leave his gross dress (body) made of
earth, water, fire, etc.
When one goes to a transcendental planet, it is necessary to change both
the finer and gross bodies, for one has to reach the spiritual sky
completely in a spiritual form. This change of dress will take place
automatically at the time of death if one so desires.
The Bhagavad-gita confirms that one will attain his next material body
according to his desires at the time he leaves his body. The desire of
the mind carries the soul to a suitable atmosphere as the wind carries
aromas from one place to another. Unfortunately, those who are not yogis
but gross materialists, who throughout their lives indulge in sense
gratification, are puzzled by the disarrangement of the bodily and
mental condition at the time of death. Such gross sensualists,
encumbered by the main ideas, desires and associations of the lives they
have led, desire something against their interest and thus foolishly
take on new bodies that perpetuate their material miseries.
Systematic training of the mind and intelligence is therefore needed so
that at the time of death one may consciously desire a suitable body,
either on this planet or another material planet or even a
transcendental planet. A civilization that does not consider the
progressive advancement of the immortal soul merely fosters a bestial
life of ignorance.
It is foolish to think that every soul that passes away goes to the same
place. Either the soul goes to a place he desires at the time of death,
or upon leaving his body he is forced to accept a position according to
his acts in his previous life. The difference between the materialist
and the yogi is that a materialist cannot determine his next body,
whereas a yogi can consciously attain a suitable body for enjoyment in
the higher planets. Throughout his life, the gross materialist who is
constantly after sense gratification spends all day earning his
livelihood to maintain his family, and at night he wastes his energy in
sex enjoyment or else goes to sleep thinking about all he has done in
the daytime. That is the monotonous life of the materialist. Although
differently graded as businessmen, lawyers, politicians, professors,
judges, coolies, pickpockets, laborers and so on, materialists all
simply engage in eating, sleeping, fearing and sense gratification and
thus spoil their valuable lives pursuing luxury and neglecting to
perfect their lives through spiritual realization.
Yogis, however, try to perfect their lives, and therefore the Bhagavad-
gita enjoins that everyone should become a yogi. Yoga is the system for
linking the soul in the service of the Lord. Only under superior
guidance can one practice such yoga in his life without changing his
social position. As already described, a yogi can go anywhere he desires
without mechanical help, for a yogi can place his mind and intelligence
within the air circulating inside his body, and by practicing the art of
breath control he can mix that air with the air that blows all over the
universe outside his body. With the help of this universal air, a yogi
can travel to any planet and get a body suitable for its atmosphere. We
can understand this process by comparing it to the electronic
transmission of radio messages. With radio transmitters, sound waves
produced at a certain station can travel all over the earth in seconds.
But sound is produced from the ethereal sky, and as already explained,
subtler than the ethereal sky is the mind, and finer than the mind is
the intelligence. Spirit is still finer than the intelligence, and by
nature it is completely different from matter. Thus we can just imagine
how quickly the spirit soul can travel through the universal atmosphere.
To come to the stage of manipulating finer elements like mind,
intelligence and spirit, one needs appropriate training, an appropriate
mode of life and appropriate association. Such training depends upon
sincere prayers, devotional service, achievement of success in mystic
perfection, and the successful merging of oneself in the activities of
the soul and Supersoul. A gross materialist, whether he be an empiric
philosopher, a scientist, a psychologist or whatever, cannot attain such
success through blunt efforts and word jugglery.
Materialists who perform yajnas, or great sacrifices, are comparatively
better than grosser materialists who do not know anything beyond
laboratories and test tubes. The advanced materialists who perform such
sacrifices can reach the planet called Vaisvanara, a fiery planet
similar to the sun. On this planet, which is situated on the way to
Brahmaloka, the topmost planet in the universe, such an advanced
materialist can free himself from all traces of vice and its effects.
When such a materialist is purified, he can rise to the orbit of the
pole star (Dhruvaloka). Within this orbit, which is called the Sisumara-
cakra, are situated the Aditya-lokas and the Vaikuntha planet within
this universe.
A purified materialist who has performed many sacrifices, undergone
severe penances and given the major portion of his wealth in charity can
reach such planets as Dhruvaloka, and if he becomes still more qualified
there, he can penetrate still higher orbits and pass through the navel
of the universe to reach the planet Maharloka, where sages like Bhrgu
Muni live. In Maharloka one can live even to the time of the partial
annihilation of the universe. This annihilation begins when Anantadeva,
from the lowest position in the universe, produces a great blazing fire.
The heat of this fire reaches even Maharloka, and then the residents of
Maharloka travel to Brahmaloka, which exists for twice the duration of
parardha time.
In Brahmaloka there is an unlimited number of airplanes that are
controlled not by yantra (machine) but by mantra (psychic action).
Because of the existence of the mind and intelligence on Brahmaloka, its
residents have feelings of happiness and distress, but there is no cause
of lamentation from old age, death, fear or distress. They feel sympathy,
however, for the suffering living beings who are consumed in the fire
of annihilation. The residents of Brahmaloka do not have gross material
bodies to change at death, but they transform their subtle bodies into
spiritual bodies and thus enter the spiritual sky. The residents of
Brahmaloka can attain perfection in three different ways. Virtuous
persons who reach Brahmaloka by dint of their pious work become masters
of various planets after the resurrection of Brahma, those who have
worshiped Garbhodakasayi Visnu are liberated with Brahma, and those who
are pure devotees of the Personality of Godhead at once push through the
covering of the universe and enter the spiritual sky.
The numberless universes exist together in foamlike clusters, and so
only some of them are surrounded by the water of the Causal Ocean. When
agitated by the glance of Karanodakasayi Visnu, material nature produces
the total elements, which are eight in number and which gradually evolve
from finer to gross. A part of ego is the sky, a part of which is air, a
part of which is fire, a part of which is water, a part of which is
earth. Thus one universe inflates to an area of four billion miles in
diameter. A yogi who desires gradual liberation must penetrate all the
different coverings of the universe, including the subtle coverings of
the three qualitative modes of material nature. One who does this never
has to return to this mortal world.
According to Sukadeva Gosvami, the above description of the material and
spiritual skies is neither imaginary nor utopian. The actual facts are
recorded in the Vedic hymns, and Lord Vasudeva disclosed them to Lord
Brahma when Brahma satisfied Him. One can achieve the perfection of life
only when he has a definite idea of Vaikuntha and the Supreme Godhead.
One should always think about and describe the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, for this is recommended in both the Bhagavad-gita and the
Bhagavata Purana, which are two authorized commentaries upon the Vedas.
Lord Caitanya has made all these subject matters easier for the fallen
people of this age to accept, and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta has therefore
presented them for the easy understanding of all concerned.
Adi 5.23
TEXT 23
TEXT
mathura-dvarakaya nija-rupa prakasiya
nana-rupe vilasaye catur-vyuha haina
SYNONYMS
mathura -- in Mathura; dvarakaya -- in Dvaraka; nija-rupa -- personal
body; prakasiya -- manifesting; nana-rupe -- in various ways; vilasaye --
enjoys pastimes; catuh-vyuha haina -- expanding into four wonderful
forms.
TRANSLATION
Lord Krsna manifests His own form in Mathura and Dvaraka. He enjoys
pastimes in various ways by expanding into the quadruple forms.
Adi 5.24
TEXT 24
TEXT
vasudeva-sankarsana-pradyumnaniruddha
sarva-catur-vyuha-amsi, turiya, visuddha
SYNONYMS
vasudeva -- Lord Vasudeva; sankarsana -- Lord Sankarsana; pradyumna --
Lord Pradyumna; aniruddha -- and Lord Aniruddha; sarva-catuh-vyuha -- of
all other quadruple expansions; amsi -- source; turiya -- transcendental;
visuddha -- pure.
TRANSLATION
Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are the primary quadruple
forms, from whom all other quadruple forms are manifested. They are all
purely transcendental.
Adi 5.25
TEXT 25
TEXT
ei tina loke krsna kevala-lila-maya
nija-gana lana khele ananta samaya
SYNONYMS
ei -- these; tina -- three; loke -- in the locations; krsna -- Lord
Krsna; kevala -- only; lila-maya -- consisting of pastimes; nija-gana
lana -- with His personal associates; khele -- He plays; ananta samaya --
unlimited time.
TRANSLATION
Only in these three places [Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula] does the all-
sporting Lord Krsna perform His endless pastimes with His personal
associates.
Adi 5.26
TEXT 26
TEXT
para-vyoma-madhye kari' svarupa prakasa
narayana-rupe karena vividha vilasa
SYNONYMS
para-vyoma-madhye -- within the spiritual sky; kari' -- making; svarupa
prakasa -- manifesting His identity; narayana-rupe -- the form of Lord
Narayana; karena -- performs; vividha vilasa -- varieties of pastimes.
TRANSLATION
In the Vaikuntha planets of the spiritual sky the Lord manifests His
identity as Narayana and performs pastimes in various ways.
Adi 5.27–28
TEXTS 27–28
TEXT
svarupa-vigraha krsnera kevala dvi-bhuja
narayana-rupe sei tanu catur-bhuja
sankha-cakra-gada-padma, mahaisvarya-maya
sri-bhu-nila-sakti yanra carana sevaya
SYNONYMS
svarupa-vigraha -- personal form; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; kevala --
only; dvi-bhuja -- two hands; narayana-rupe -- in the form of Lord
Narayana; sei -- that; tanu -- body; catuh-bhuja -- four-handed; sankha-
cakra -- conchshell and disc; gada -- club; padma -- lotus flower; maha -
- very great; aisvarya-maya -- full of opulence; sri -- named sri; bhu --
named bhu; nila -- named nila; sakti -- energies; yanra -- whose;
carana sevaya -- serve the lotus feet.
TRANSLATION
Krsna's own form has only two hands, but in the form of Lord Narayana He
has four hands. Lord Narayana holds a conchshell, disc, club and lotus
flower, and He is full of great opulence. The sri, bhu and nila energies
serve at His lotus feet.
PURPORT
In the Ramanuja and Madhva sects of Vaisnavism there are extensive
descriptions of the sri, bhu and nila energies. In Bengal the nila
energy is sometimes called the lila energy. These three energies are
employed in the service of four-handed Narayana in Vaikuntha. Relating
how three of the Alvars, namely Bhuta-yogi, Sara-yogi and Bhranta-yogi,
saw Narayana in person when they took shelter at the house of a brahmana
in the village of Gehali, the Prapannamrta of the Sri-sampradaya
describes Narayana as follows:
tarksyadhirudham tadid-ambudabham
laksmi-dharam vaksasi pankajaksam
hasta-dvaye sobhita-sankha-cakram
visnum dadrsur bhagavantam adyam
a-janu-bahum kamaniya-gatram
parsva-dvaye sobhita-bhumi-nilam
pitambaram bhusana-bhusitangam
catur-bhujam candana-rusitangam
"They saw the lotus-eyed Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
mounted on Garuda and holding Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, to His
chest. He resembled a bluish rain cloud with flashing lightning, and in
two of His four hands He held a conchshell and disc. His arms stretched
down to His knees, and all His beautiful limbs were smeared with
sandalwood and decorated with glittering ornaments. He wore yellow
clothes, and by either side stood His energies Bhumi and Nila."
There is the following reference to the sri, bhu and nila energies in
the Sitopanisad: maha-laksmir devesasya bhinnabhinna-rupa
cetanacetanatmika. sa devi tri-vidha bhavati, sakty-atmana iccha-saktih
kriya-saktih saksac-chaktir iti. iccha-saktis tri-vidha bhavati, sri-
bhumi-nilatmika. "Maha-Laksmi, the supreme energy of the Lord, is
experienced in different ways. She is divided into material and
spiritual potencies, and in both features she acts as the willing energy,
creative energy and the internal energy. The willing energy is again
divided into three, namely sri, bhu and nila."
Quoting from the revealed scriptures in his commentary on the Bhagavad-
gita (4.6), Madhvacarya has stated that mother material nature, which is
conceived of as the illusory energy, Durga, has three divisions, namely
sri, bhu and nila. She is the illusory energy for those who are weak in
spiritual strength because such energies are created energies of Lord
Visnu. Although each energy has no direct relationship with the
unlimited, they are subordinate to the Lord because the Lord is the
master of all energies.
In his Bhagavat-sandarbha (Text 23), Srila Jiva Gosvami Prabhu states, "
The Padma Purana refers to the eternally auspicious abode of Godhead,
which is full in all opulences, including the energies sri, bhu and nila.
The Maha-samhita, which discusses the transcendental name and form of
Godhead, also mentions Durga as the potency of the Supersoul in
relationship with the living entities. The internal potency acts in
relation with His personal affairs, and the material potency manifests
the three modes." Quoting elsewhere from the revealed scriptures, he
states that sri is the energy of Godhead that maintains the cosmic
manifestation, bhu is the energy that creates the cosmic manifestation,
and nila, Durga, is the energy that destroys the creation. All these
energies act in relation with the living beings, and thus they are
together called jiva-maya.
Adi 5.29
TEXT 29
TEXT
yadyapi kevala tanra krida-matra dharma
tathapi jivere krpaya kare eka karma
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; kevala -- only; tanra -- His; krida-matra --
pastime only; dharma -- characteristic function; tathapi -- still;
jivere -- to the fallen souls; krpaya -- by the causeless mercy; kare --
does; eka -- one; karma -- activity.
TRANSLATION
Although His pastimes are His only characteristic functions, by His
causeless mercy He performs one activity for the fallen souls.
Adi 5.30
TEXT 30
TEXT
salokya-samipya-sarsti-sarupya-prakara
cari mukti diya kare jivera nistara
SYNONYMS
salokya -- the liberation called salokya; samipya -- the liberation
called samipya; sarsti -- the liberation called sarsti; sarupya -- the
liberation called sarupya; prakara -- varieties; cari -- four; mukti --
liberation; diya -- giving; kare -- does; jivera -- of the fallen souls;
nistara -- deliverance.
TRANSLATION
He delivers the fallen living entities by offering them the four kinds
of liberation -- salokya, samipya, sarsti and sarupya.
PURPORT
There are two kinds of liberated souls -- those who are liberated by the
favor of the Lord and those who are liberated by their own effort. One
who gets liberation by his own effort is called an impersonalist, and he
merges into the glaring effulgence of the Lord, the brahmajyoti.
But devotees of the Lord who qualify themselves for liberation by
devotional service are offered four kinds of liberation, namely salokya (
status equal to that of the Lord), samipya (constant association with
the Lord), sarsti (opulence equal to that of the Lord) and sarupya (
features like those of the Lord).
Adi 5.31
TEXT 31
TEXT
brahma-sayujya-muktera taha nahi gati
vaikuntha-bahire haya ta'-sabara sthiti
SYNONYMS
brahma-sayujya -- of merging into the Supreme Brahman; muktera -- of the
liberation; taha -- there (in Vaikuntha); nahi -- not; gati -- entrance;
vaikuntha-bahire -- outside the Vaikuntha planets; haya -- there is; ta'-
sabara sthiti -- the residence of all of them.
TRANSLATION
Those who attain brahma-sayujya liberation cannot gain entrance into
Vaikuntha; their residence is outside the Vaikuntha planets.
Adi 5.32
TEXT 32
TEXT
vaikuntha-bahire eka jyotir-maya mandala
krsnera angera prabha, parama ujjvala
SYNONYMS
vaikuntha-bahire -- outside the Vaikunthalokas; eka -- one; jyotih-maya
mandala -- the atmosphere of the glowing effulgence; krsnera -- of Lord
Krsna; angera -- of the body; prabha -- rays; parama -- supremely;
ujjvala -- bright.
TRANSLATION
Outside the Vaikuntha planets is the atmosphere of the glowing
effulgence, which consists of the supremely bright rays of the body of
Lord Krsna.
Adi 5.33
TEXT 33
TEXT
‘siddha-loka' nama tara prakrtira para
cit-svarupa, tanha nahi cic-chakti vikara
SYNONYMS
siddha-loka' -- the region of the Siddhas; nama -- named; tara -- of
the effulgent atmosphere; prakrtira para -- beyond this material nature;
cit-svarupa -- full of knowledge; tanha -- there; nahi -- there is not;
cit-sakti-vikara -- change of the spiritual energy.
TRANSLATION
That region is called Siddhaloka, and it is beyond the material nature.
Its essence is spiritual, but it does not have spiritual varieties.
Adi 5.34
TEXT 34
TEXT
surya-mandala yena bahire nirvisesa
bhitare suryera ratha-adi savisesa
SYNONYMS
surya-mandala -- the sun globe; yena -- like; bahire -- externally;
nirvisesa -- with out varieties; bhitare -- within; suryera -- of the
sun-god; ratha-adi -- opulences like chariots and other things; sa-
visesa -- full of varieties.
TRANSLATION
It is like the homogeneous effulgence around the sun. But inside the sun
are the chariots, horses and other opulences of the sun-god.
PURPORT
Outside of Vaikuntha, the abode of Krsna, which is called paravyoma, is
the glaring effulgence of Krsna's bodily rays. This is called the
brahmajyoti. The transcendental region of that effulgence is
called Siddhaloka or Brahmaloka. When impersonalists achieve liberation,
they merge into that Brahmaloka effulgence. This transcendental region
is undoubtedly spiritual, but it contains no manifestations of spiritual
activities or variegatedness. It is compared to the glow of the sun.
Within the sun's glow is the sphere of the sun, where one can experience
all sorts of varieties.
Adi 5.35
TEXT 35
TEXT
kamad dvesad bhayat snehad
yatha bhaktyesvare manah
avesya tad agham hitva
bahavas tad gatim gatah
SYNONYMS
kamat -- influenced by lusty desire; dvesat -- by envy; bhayat -- by
fear; snehat -- or by affection; yatha -- as; bhaktya -- by devotion;
isvare -- in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manah -- the mind;
avesya -- fully absorbing; tat -- that; agham -- sinful activity; hitva -
- giving up; bahavah -- many; tat -- that; gatim -- destination; gatah --
achieved.
TRANSLATION
"As through devotion to the Lord one can attain His abode, many have
attained that goal by abandoning their sinful activities and absorbing
their minds in the Lord through lust, envy, fear or affection."
PURPORT
As the powerful sun, by its glowing rays, can purify all kinds of
impurities, so the all-spiritual Personality of Godhead can purify all
material qualities in a person He attracts. Even if one is attracted by
Godhead in the mode of material lust, such attraction is converted into
spiritual love of Godhead by His grace. Similarly, if one is related to
the Lord in fear and animosity, he also becomes purified by the
spiritual attraction of the Lord. Although God is great and the living
entity small, they are spiritual individuals, and therefore as soon as
there is a reciprocal exchange by the living entity's free will, at once
the great spiritual being attracts the small living entity, thus freeing
him from all material bondage. This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.
1.30).
Adi 5.36
TEXT 36
TEXT
yad arinam priyanam ca
prapyam ekam ivoditam
tad brahma-krsnayor aikyat
kiranarkopama-jusoh
SYNONYMS
yat -- that; arinam -- of the enemies of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; priyanam -- of the devotees, who are very dear to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead; ca -- and; prapyam -- destination; ekam -- one
only; iva -- thus; uditam -- said; tat -- that; brahma -- of impersonal
Brahman; krsnayoh -- and of Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead;
aikyat -- due to the oneness; kirana -- the sunshine; arka -- and the
sun; upama -- the comparison; jusoh -- which is understood by.
TRANSLATION
"Where it has been stated that the Lord's enemies and devotees attain
the same destination, this refers to the ultimate oneness of Brahman and
Lord Krsna. This may be understood by the example of the sun and the
sunshine, in which Brahman is like the sunshine and Krsna Himself is
like the sun."
PURPORT
This verse is from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.278) of Srila Rupa
Gosvami, who further discusses this same topic in his Laghu-
bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.41). There he refers to the Visnu Purana (4.15.1),
where Maitreya Muni asked Parasara, in regard to Jaya and Vijaya, how
it was that Hiranyakasipu next became Ravana and enjoyed more material
happiness than the demigods but did not attain salvation, although when
he became Sisupala, quarreled with Krsna and was killed, he attained
salvation and merged into the body of Lord Krsna. Parasara replied that
Hiranyakasipu failed to recognize Lord Nrsimhadeva as Lord Visnu.
He thought that Nrsimhadeva was some living entity who had acquired
such opulence by various pious activities. Being overcome by the mode of
passion, he considered Lord Nrsimhadeva an ordinary living entity,
not understanding His form. Nevertheless, because Hiranyakasipu was
killed by the hands of Lord Nrsimhadeva, in his next life he became
Ravana and had proprietorship of unlimited opulence. As Ravana, with
unlimited material enjoyment, he could not accept Lord Rama as the
Personality of Godhead. Therefore even though he was killed by Rama, he
did not attain sayujya, or oneness with the body of the Lord. In his
Ravana body he was too much attracted to Rama's wife, Janaki, and
because of that attraction he was able to see Lord Rama. But instead of
accepting Lord Rama as an incarnation of Visnu, Ravana thought Him an
ordinary living being. When killed by the hands of Rama, therefore, he
got the privilege of taking birth as Sisupala, who had such immense
opulence that he could think himself a competitor to Krsna. Although
Sisupala was always envious of Krsna, he frequently uttered the name of
Krsna and always thought of the beautiful features of Krsna. Thus by
constantly thinking and chanting of Krsna, even unfavorably, he was
cleansed of the contamination of his sinful activities. When Sisupala
was killed by the Sudarsana cakra of Krsna as an enemy, his constant
remembrance of Krsna dissolved the reactions of his vices, and he
attained salvation by becoming one with the body of the Lord.
From this incident one can understand that even a person who thinks of
Krsna as an enemy and is killed by Him may be liberated by becoming one
with the body of Krsna. What then must be the destination of devotees
who always think favorably of Krsna as their master or friend? These
devotees must attain a situation better than Brahmaloka, the impersonal
bodily effulgence of Krsna. Devotees cannot be situated in the
impersonal Brahman effulgence, into which impersonalists desire to merge.
The devotees are placed in Vaikunthaloka or Krsnaloka.
This discussion between Maitreya Muni and Parasara Muni centered on
whether devotees come down into the material world in every millennium
like Jaya and Vijaya, who were cursed by the Kumaras to that effect. In
the course of these instructions to Maitreya about Hiranyakasipu, Ravana
and Sisupala, Parasara did not say that these demons were formerly Jaya
and Vijaya. He simply described the transmigration through three lives.
It is not necessary for the Vaikuntha associates of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead to come to take the roles of His enemies in all
the millenniums in which He appears. The "falldown" of Jaya and Vijaya
occurred in a particular millennium; Jaya and Vijaya do not come down in
every millennium to act as demons. To think that some associates of the
Lord fall down from Vaikuntha in every millennium to become demons is
totally incorrect.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has all the tendencies that may be
found in the living entity, for He is the chief living entity. Therefore
it is natural that sometimes Lord Visnu wants to fight. Just as He has
the tendencies to create, to enjoy, to be a friend, to accept a mother
and father, and so on, He also has the tendency to fight. Sometimes
important landlords and kings keep wrestlers with whom they practice
mock fighting, and Visnu makes similar arrangements. The demons who
fight with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the material world are
sometimes His associates. When there is a scarcity of demons and the
Lord wants to fight, He instigates some of His associates of Vaikuntha
to come and play as demons. When it is said that Sisupala merged into
the body of Krsna, it should be noted that in this case he was not Jaya
or Vijaya: he was actually a demon.
In his Brhad-bhagavatamrta, Srila Sanatana Gosvami has explained that
the attainment of salvation by merging into the Brahman effulgence of
the Lord cannot be accepted as the highest success in life, because
demons like Kamsa, who were famous for killing brahmanas and cows,
attained that salvation. For devotees such salvation is abominable.
Devotees are actually in a transcendental position, whereas nondevotees
are candidates for hellish conditions of life. There is always a
difference between the life of a devotee and the life of a demon, and
their realizations are as different as heaven and hell.
Demons are always accustomed to being malicious toward devotees and to
killing brahmanas and cows. For demons, merging into the Brahman
effulgence may be very glorious, but for devotees it is hellish. A
devotee's aim in life is to attain perfection in loving the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Those who aspire to merge into the Brahman
effulgence are as abominable as demons. Devotees who aspire to associate
with the Supreme Lord to render Him transcendental loving service are
far superior.
Adi 5.37
TEXT 37
TEXT
taiche para-vyome nana cic-chakti-vilasa
nirvisesa jyotir-bimba bahire prakasa
SYNONYMS
taiche -- in that way; para-vyome -- in the spiritual sky; nana --
varieties; cit-sakti-vilasa -- pastimes of spiritual energy; nirvisesa --
impersonal; jyotih -- of the effulgence; bimba -- reflection; bahire --
externally; prakasa -- manifested.
TRANSLATION
Thus in the spiritual sky there are varieties of pastimes within the
spiritual energy. Outside the Vaikuntha planets appears the impersonal
reflection of light.
Adi 5.38
TEXT 38
TEXT
nirvisesa-brahma sei kevala jyotir-maya
sayujyera adhikari tanha paya laya
SYNONYMS
nirvisesa-brahma -- the impersonal Brahman effulgence; sei -- that;
kevala -- only; jyotih-maya -- effulgent rays; sayujyera -- the
liberation called sayujya (oneness with the Supreme); adhikari -- one
who is fit for; tanha -- there (in the impersonal Brahman effulgence);
paya -- gets; laya -- merging.
TRANSLATION
That impersonal Brahman effulgence consists only of the effulgent rays
of the Lord. Those fit for sayujya liberation merge into that effulgence.
Adi 5.39
TEXT 39
TEXT
siddha-lokas tu tamasah
pare yatra vasanti hi
siddha brahma-sukhe magna
daityas ca harina hatah
SYNONYMS
siddha-lokah -- Siddhaloka, or impersonal Brahman; tu -- but; tamasah --
of darkness; pare -- beyond the jurisdiction; yatra -- where; vasanti --
reside; hi -- certainly; siddhah -- the spiritually perfect; brahma-
sukhe -- in the transcendental bliss of becoming one with the Supreme;
magnah -- absorbed; daityah ca -- as well as the demons; harina -- by
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hatah -- killed.
TRANSLATION
"Beyond the region of ignorance [the material cosmic manifestation] lies
the realm of Siddhaloka. The Siddhas reside there, absorbed in the bliss
of Brahman. Demons killed by the Lord also attain that realm."
PURPORT
Tamas means darkness. The material world is dark, and beyond the
material world is light. In other words, after passing through the
entire material atmosphere, one can come to the luminous spiritual sky,
whose impersonal effulgence is known as Siddhaloka. Mayavadi
philosophers who aspire to merge with the body of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, as well as demoniac persons who are killed by
Krsna, such as Kamsa and Sisupala, enter that Brahman effulgence. Yogis
who attain oneness through meditation according to the Patanjali yoga
system also reach Siddhaloka. This is a verse from the Brahmanda Purana.
Adi 5.40
TEXT 40
TEXT
sei para-vyome narayanera cari pase
dvaraka-catur-vyuhera dvitiya prakase
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; para-vyome -- in the spiritual sky; narayanera -- of Lord
Narayana; cari pase -- on four sides; dvaraka -- Dvaraka; catur-vyuhera -
- of the quadruple expansions; dvitiya -- the second; prakase --
manifestation.
TRANSLATION
In that spiritual sky, on the four sides of Narayana, are the second
expansions of the quadruple expansions of Dvaraka.
PURPORT
Within the spiritual sky is a second manifestation of the quadruple
forms of Dvaraka from the abode of Krsna. Among these forms, which are
all spiritual and immune to the material modes, Sri Baladeva is
represented as Maha-sankarsana.
The activities in the spiritual sky are manifested by the internal
potency in pure spiritual existence. They expand in six transcendental
opulences, which are all manifestations of Maha-sankarsana, who is the
ultimate reservoir and objective of all living entities. Although
belonging to the marginal potency, known as jiva-sakti, the spiritual
sparks known as the living entities are subjected to the conditions of
material energy. It is because these sparks are related with both the
internal and external potencies of the Lord that they are known as
belonging to the marginal potency.
In considering the quadruple forms of the absolute Personality of
Godhead, known as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, the
impersonalists, headed by Sripada Sankaracarya, have interpreted the
aphorisms of the Vedanta-sutra in a way suitable for the impersonalist
school. To provide the intrinsic import of such aphorisms, however,
Srila Rupa Gosvami, the leader of the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana, has
properly replied to the impersonalists in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, which
is a natural commentary on the aphorisms of the Vedanta-sutra.
The Padma Purana, as quoted by Srila Rupa Gosvami in his Laghu-
bhagavatamrta, describes that in the spiritual sky there are four
directions, corresponding to east, west, north and south, in which
Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and Pradyumna are situated. The same
forms are also situated in the material sky. The Padma Purana also
describes a place in the spiritual sky known as Vedavati-pura, where
Vasudeva resides. In Visnuloka, which is above Satyaloka, Sankarsana
resides. Maha-sankarsana is another name of Sankarsana. Pradyumna lives
in Dvaraka-pura, and Aniruddha lies on the eternal bed of Sesa,
generally known as ananta-sayya, on the island called Svetadvipa, in the
ocean of milk.
Adi 5.41
TEXT 41
TEXT
vasudeva-sankarsana-pradyumnaniruddha
‘dvitiya catur-vyuha' ei -- turiya, visuddha
SYNONYMS
vasudeva -- the expansion named Vasudeva; sankarsana -- the expansion
named Sankarsana; pradyumna -- the expansion named Pradyumna; aniruddha -
- the expansion named Aniruddha; dvitiya catuh-vyuha -- the second
quadruple expansion; ei -- this; turiya -- transcendental; visuddha --
free from all material contamination.
TRANSLATION
Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha constitute this second
quadruple. They are purely transcendental.
PURPORT
Sripada Sankaracarya has misleadingly explained the quadruple form (
catur-vyuha) in his interpretation of the forty-second aphorism of
Chapter Two of the second khanda of the Vedanta-sutra (utpatty-
asambhavat). In verses 41 through 47 of this chapter of Sri Caitanya-
caritamrta, Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami answers Sripada
Sankaracarya's misleading objections to the personal feature of the
Absolute Truth.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is not like a
material object that can be known by experimental knowledge or sense
perception. In the Narada-pancaratra this fact has been explained by
Narayana Himself to Lord Siva. But Sankaracarya, the incarnation of Siva,
under the order of Narayana, his master, had to mislead the monists,
who favor ultimate extinction. In the conditioned stage of existence,
all living entities have four basic defects, of which one is the
cheating propensity. Sankaracarya has carried this cheating propensity
to the extreme to mislead the monists.
Actually, the explanation of the quadruple forms in the Vedic literature
cannot be understood by the speculation of a conditioned soul. The
quadruple forms should therefore be accepted just as They are described.
The authority of the Vedas is such that even if one does not understand
something by his limited perception, he should accept the Vedic
injunction and not create interpretations to suit his imperfect
understanding. In his Sariraka-bhasya, however, Sankaracarya has
increased the misunderstanding of the monists.
The quadruple forms have a spiritual existence that can be realized in
vasudeva-sattva (suddha-sattva), or unqualified goodness, which
accompanies complete absorption in the understanding of Vasudeva. The
quadruple forms, who are full in the six opulences of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, are the enjoyers of the internal potency.
Thinking the absolute Personality of Godhead to be poverty-stricken or
to have no potency -- or, in other words, to be impotent -- is simply
rascaldom. This rascaldom is the profession of the conditioned soul, and
it increases his bewilderment. One who cannot understand the
distinctions between the spiritual world and the material world has no
qualification to examine or know the situation of the transcendental
quadruple forms. In his commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.42–45, His
Holiness Sripada Sankaracarya has made a futile attempt to nullify the
existence of these quadruple forms in the spiritual world.
Sankaracarya says (sutra 42) that devotees think the Supreme Personality
of Godhead Vasudeva, Sri Krsna, to be one, to be free from material
qualities and to have a transcendental body full of bliss and eternal
existence. He is the ultimate goal of the devotees, who believe that the
Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself into four other eternal
transcendental forms -- Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.
From Vasudeva, who is the primary expansion, come Sankarsana, Pradyumna
and Aniruddha in that order. Another name of Vasudeva is Paramatma,
another name of Sankarsana is jiva (the living entity), another name of
Pradyumna is mind, and another name of Aniruddha is ahankara (false ego).
Among these expansions, Vasudeva is considered the origin of the
material nature. Therefore Sankaracarya says that Sankarsana, Pradyumna
and Aniruddha must be creations of that original cause.
Great souls assert that Narayana, who is known as the Paramatma, or
Supersoul, is beyond material nature, and this is in accordance with the
statements of the Vedic literature. Mayavadis also agree that Narayana
can expand Himself in various forms. Sankara says that he does not
attempt to argue that portion of the devotees' understanding, but he
must protest the idea that Sankarsana is produced from Vasudeva,
Pradyumna is produced from Sankarsana, and Aniruddha is produced from
Pradyumna, for if Sankarsana is understood to represent the living
entities created from the body of Vasudeva, the living entities would
have to be noneternal. The living entities are supposed to be freed from
material contamination by engaging in prolonged temple worship of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, reading Vedic literature and performing
yoga and pious activities to attain the Supreme Lord. But if the living
entities had been created from material nature at a certain point, they
would be noneternal and would have no chance to be liberated and
associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When a cause is
nullified, its results are nullified. In the second chapter of the
Vedanta-sutra's second khanda, Acarya Vedavyasa has also refuted the
conception that the living beings were ever born (natma sruter nityatvac
ca tabhyah). Because there is no creation for the living entities, they
must be eternal.
Sankaracarya says (sutra 43) that devotees think that Pradyumna, who is
considered to represent the senses, has sprung from Sankarsana, who is
considered to represent the living entities. But we cannot actually
experience that a person can produce senses. Devotees also say that from
Pradyumna has sprung Aniruddha, who is considered to represent the ego.
But Sankaracarya says that unless the devotees can show how ego and the
means of knowledge can generate from a person, such an explanation of
the Vedanta-sutra cannot be accepted, for no other philosophers accept
the sutras in that way.
Sankaracarya also says (sutra 44) that he cannot accept the devotees'
idea that Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are equally as powerful as
the absolute Personality of Godhead, full in the six opulences of
knowledge, wealth, strength, fame, beauty and renunciation, and free
from the flaw of generation at a certain point. Even if They are full
expansions, the flaw of generation remains. Vasudeva, Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha, being distinct individual persons, cannot be
one. Therefore if They are accepted as absolute, full and equal, there
would have to be many Personalities of Godhead. But there is no need to
accept that there are many Personalities of Godhead, because acceptance
of one omnipotent God is sufficient for all purposes. The acceptance of
more than one God is contradictory to the conclusion that Lord Vasudeva,
the absolute Personality of Godhead, is one without a second. Even if we
agree to accept that the quadruple forms of Godhead are all identical,
we cannot avoid the incongruous flaw of noneternity. Unless we accept
that there are some differences among the personalities, there is no
meaning to the idea that Sankarsana is an expansion of Vasudeva,
Pradyumna is an expansion of Sankarsana, and Aniruddha is an expansion
of Pradyumna. There must be a distinction between cause and effect. For
example, a pot is distinct from the earth from which it is made, and
therefore we can ascertain that the earth is the cause and the pot is
the effect. Without such distinctions, there is no meaning to cause and
effect. Furthermore, the followers of the Pancaratric principles do not
accept any differences in knowledge and qualities between Vasudeva,
Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. The devotees accept all these
expansions to be one, but why should they restrict oneness to these
quadruple expansions? Certainly we should not do so, for all living
entities, from Brahma to the insignificant ant, are expansions of
Vasudeva, as accepted in all the srutis and smrtis.
Sankaracarya also says (sutra 45) that the devotees who follow the
Pancaratra state that God's qualities and God Himself, as the owner of
the qualities, are the same. But how can the Bhagavata school state that
the six opulences -- wisdom, wealth, strength, fame, beauty and
renunciation -- are identical with Lord Vasudeva? This is impossible.
In his Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.165–193), Srila Rupa Gosvami has
refuted the charges directed against the devotees by Sripada
Sankaracarya regarding their explanation of the quadruple forms Vasudeva,
Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. Rupa Gosvami says that these four
expansions of Narayana are present in the spiritual sky, where They are
famous as Mahavastha. Among Them, Vasudeva is worshiped within the heart
by meditation because He is the predominating Deity of the heart, as
explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (4.3.23).
Sankarsana, the second expansion, is Vasudeva's personal expansion for
pastimes, and since He is the reservoir of all living entities, He is
sometimes called jiva. The beauty of Sankarsana is greater than that of
innumerable full moons radiating light beams. He is worshipable as the
principle of ego. He has invested Anantadeva with all the potencies of
sustenance. For the dissolution of the creation, He also exhibits
Himself as the Supersoul in Rudra, in Adharma (the personality of
irreligion), in sarpa (snakes), in Antaka (Yamaraja, the lord of death)
and in the demons.
Pradyumna, the third manifestation, appears from Sankarsana. Those who
are especially intelligent worship this Pradyumna expansion of
Sankarsana as the principle of the intelligence. The goddess of fortune
always chants the glories of Pradyumna in the place known as Ilavrta-
varsa, and she always serves Him with great devotion. His complexion
appears sometimes golden and sometimes bluish like new monsoon clouds in
the sky. He is the origin of the creation of the material world, and He
has invested His creative principle in Cupid. It is by His direction
only that all men and demigods and other living entities function with
energy for regeneration.
Aniruddha, the fourth of the quadruple expansions, is worshiped by great
sages and psychologists as the principle of the mind. His complexion is
similar to the bluish hue of a blue cloud. He engages in the maintenance
of the cosmic manifestation and is the Supersoul of Dharma (the deity of
religiosity), the Manus (the progenitors of mankind) and the devatas (
demigods). The Moksa-dharma Vedic scripture indicates that Pradyumna is
the Deity of the total mind, whereas Aniruddha is the Deity of the total
ego, but previous statements regarding the quadruple forms are confirmed
in the Pancaratra tantras in all respects.
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.86–100), there is a lucid
explanation of the inconceivable potencies of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Negating Sankaracarya's statements, the Maha-varaha Purana
declares:
sarve nityah sasvatas ca dehas tasya paratmanah
hanopadana-rahita naiva prakrti-jah kvacit
"All the varied expansions of the Personality of Godhead are
transcendental and eternal, and all of them repeatedly descend to all
the different universes of the material creation. Their bodies, composed
of eternity, bliss and knowledge, are everlasting; there is no chance of
their decaying, for they are not creations of the material world. Their
forms are concentrated spiritual existence, always complete with all
spiritual qualities and devoid of material contamination."
Confirming these statements, the Narada-pancaratra asserts:
manir yatha vibhagena nila-pitadibhir yutah
rupa-bhedam avapnoti dhyana-bhedat tathacyutah
"The infallible Personality of Godhead can manifest His body in
different ways according to different modes of worship, just as the
vaidurya gem can manifest itself in various colors, such as blue and
yellow." Each incarnation is distinct from all the others. This is
possible by the Lord's inconceivable potency, by which He can
simultaneously represent Himself as one, as various partial forms and as
the origin of these partial forms. Nothing is impossible for His
inconceivable potencies.
Krsna is one without a second, but He manifests Himself in different
bodies, as stated by Narada in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam:
citram bataitad ekena vapusa yugapat prthak
grhesu dvy-asta-sahasram striya eka udavahat
"It is wonderful indeed that one Krsna has simultaneously become
different Krsnas in 16,000 palaces to accept 16,000 queens as His wives."
(SB 10.69.2) The Padma Purana also explains:
sa devo bahudha bhutva nirgunah purusottamah
eki-bhuya punah sete nirdoso harir adi-krt
"The same Personality of Godhead, Purusottama, the original person, who
is always devoid of material qualities and contamination, can exhibit
Himself in various forms and at the same time lie down in one form."
In the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, yajanti tvan-mayas
tvam vai bahu-murty-eka-murtikam: "O my Lord, although You manifest
Yourself in varieties of forms, You are one without a second. Therefore
pure devotees concentrate upon You and worship only You." (SB 10.40.7)
In the Kurma Purana it is said:
asthulas cananus caiva sthulo 'nus caiva sarvatah
avarnah sarvatah proktah syamo raktanta-locanah
"The Lord is personal although impersonal, He is atomic although great,
and He is blackish and has red eyes although He is colorless." By
material calculation all this may appear contradictory, but if we
understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has inconceivable
potencies, we can accept these facts as eternally possible in Him. In
our present condition we cannot understand the spiritual activities and
how they occur, but although they are inconceivable in the material
context, we should not disregard such contradictory conceptions.
Although it is apparently inconceivable, it is quite possible for the
Absolute to reconcile all opposing elements. Srimad-Bhagavatam
establishes this in the Sixth Canto (6.9.34–37):
"O my Lord, Your transcendental pastimes and enjoyments all appear
inconceivable because they are not limited by the causal and effective
actions of material thought. You can do everything without performing
bodily work. The Vedas say that the Absolute Truth has multifarious
potencies and does not need to do anything personally. My dear Lord, You
are entirely devoid of material qualities. Without anyone's help, You
can create, maintain and dissolve the entire qualitative material
manifestation, yet in all such activities You do not change. You do not
accept the results of Your activities, unlike ordinary demons and
demigods, who suffer or enjoy the reactions of their activities in the
material world. Unaffected by the reactions of work, You eternally exist
with Your full spiritual potency. This we cannot fully understand.
"Because You are unlimited in Your six opulences, no one can count Your
transcendental qualities. Philosophers and other thoughtful persons are
overwhelmed by the contradictory manifestations of the physical world
and the propositions of logical arguments and judgments. Because they
are bewildered by word jugglery and disturbed by the different
calculations of the scriptures, their theories cannot touch You, who are
the ruler and controller of everyone and whose glories are beyond
conception.
"Your inconceivable potency keeps You unattached to the mundane
qualities. Surpassing all conceptions of material contemplation, Your
pure transcendental knowledge keeps You beyond all speculative processes.
By Your inconceivable potency, there is nothing contradictory in You.
"People may sometimes think of You as impersonal or personal, but You
are one. For persons who are confused or bewildered, a rope may appear
to manifest itself as different kinds of snakes. For similar confused
persons who are uncertain about You, You create various philosophical
methods in pursuance of their uncertain positions."
We should always remember the differences between spiritual and material
actions. The Supreme Lord, being all-spiritual, can perform any act
without extraneous help. In the material world, if we want to
manufacture an earthen pot, we need the ingredients, a machine and also
a laborer. But we should not extend this idea to the actions of the
Supreme Lord, for He can create anything in a moment without that which
appears necessary in our own conception. When the Lord appears as an
incarnation to fulfill a particular purpose, this does not indicate that
He is unable to fulfill it without appearing. He can do anything simply
by His will, but by His causeless mercy He appears to be dependent upon
His devotees. He appears as the son of Yasodamata not because He is
dependent on her care but because He accepts such a role by His
causeless mercy. When He appears for the protection of His devotees, He
naturally accepts trials and tribulations on their behalf.
In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that the Lord, being equally disposed
toward every living being, has no enemies and no friends but that He has
special affection for a devotee who always thinks of Him in love.
Therefore neutrality and partiality are both among the transcendental
qualities of the Lord, and they are properly adjusted by His
inconceivable energy. The Lord is Parabrahman, or the source of
the impersonal Brahma, which is His all-pervading feature of neutrality.
In His personal feature, however, as the owner of all transcendental
opulences, the Lord displays His partiality by taking the side of His
devotees. Partiality, neutrality and all such qualities are present in
God; otherwise they could not be experienced in the creation. Since He
is the total existence, all things are properly adjusted in the Absolute.
In the relative world such qualities are displayed in a perverted
manner, and therefore we experience nonduality as a perverted reflection.
Because there is no logic to explain how things happen in the realm of
spirit, the Lord is sometimes described as being beyond the range of
experience. But if we simply accept the Lord's inconceivability, we can
then adjust all things in Him. Nondevotees cannot understand the Lord's
inconceivable energy, and consequently for them it is said that He is
beyond the range of conceivable expression. The author of the Brahma-
sutras accepts this fact and says, srutes tu sabda-mulatvat: the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, being inconceivable to an ordinary man, can be
understood only through the evidence of the Vedic injunctions. The
Skanda Purana confirms, acintyah khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet:
"Matters inconceivable to a common man should not be a subject for
argument." We find very wonderful qualities even in such material things
as jewels and drugs. Indeed, their qualities often appear inconceivable.
Therefore if we do not attribute inconceivable potencies to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, we cannot establish His supremacy. It is because
of these inconceivable potencies that the glories of the Lord have
always been accepted as difficult to understand.
Ignorance and the jugglery of words are very common in human society,
but they do not help one understand the inconceivable energies of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. If we accept such ignorance and word
jugglery, we cannot accept the Supreme Lord's perfection in six
opulences. For example, one of the opulences of the Supreme Lord is
complete knowledge. Therefore, how could ignorance be conceivable in Him?
Vedic instructions and sensible arguments establish that the Lord's
maintaining the cosmic manifestation and simultaneously being
indifferent to the activities of its maintenance cannot be contradictory,
because of His inconceivable energies. To a person who is always
absorbed in the thought of snakes, a rope always appears to be a snake,
and similarly to a person bewildered by material qualities and devoid of
knowledge of the Absolute, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears
according to diverse bewildered conclusions.
Someone might argue that the Absolute would be affected by duality if He
were both all-cognizance (Brahman) and the Personality of Godhead with
six opulences in full (Bhagavan). To refute such an argument, the
aphorism svarupa-dvayam iksyate declares that in spite of appearances,
there is no chance of duality in the Absolute, for He is but one in
diverse manifestations. Understanding that the Absolute displays varied
pastimes by the influence of His energies at once removes the apparent
incongruity of His inconceivably opposite energies. Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.
4.16) gives the following description of the inconceivable potency of
the Lord:
karmany anihasya bhavo 'bhavasya te
durgasrayo 'thari-bhayat palayanam
kalatmano yat pramada-yutasrayah
svatman-rateh khidyati dhir vidam iha
"Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead has nothing to do, He
nevertheless acts; although He is always unborn, He nevertheless takes
birth; although He is time, fearful to everyone, He flees Mathura in
fear of His enemy to take shelter in a fort; and although He is self-
sufficient, He marries 16,000 women. These pastimes seem like
bewildering contradictions, even to the most intelligent." Had these
activities of the Lord not been a reality, sages would not have been
puzzled by them. Therefore such activities should never be considered
imaginary. Whenever the Lord desires, His inconceivable energy (yogamaya)
serves Him in creating and performing such pastimes.
The scriptures known as the Pancaratra-sastras are recognized Vedic
scriptures that have been accepted by the great acaryas. These
scriptures are not products of the modes of passion and ignorance.
Learned scholars and brahmanas therefore always refer to them as satvata-
samhitas. The original speaker of these scriptures is Narayana, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is especially mentioned in the
Moksa-dharma (349.68), which is part of the Santi-parva of the
Mahabharata. Liberated sages like Narada and Vyasa, who are free from
the four defects of conditioned souls, are the propagators of these
scriptures. Sri Narada Muni is the original speaker of the Pancaratra-
sastra. Srimad-Bhagavatam is also considered a satvata-samhita. Indeed,
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu declared, srimad-bhagavatam puranam amalam: "
Srimad-Bhagavatam is a spotless Purana." Malicious editors and scholars
who attempt to misrepresent the Pancaratra-sastras to refute their
regulations are most abominable. In the modern age, such malicious
scholars have even commented misleadingly upon the Bhagavad-gita, which
was spoken by Krsna, to prove that there is no Krsna. How the Mayavadis
have misrepresented the pancaratrika-vidhi will be shown below.
(1) In commenting on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.42, Sripada Sankaracarya has
claimed that Sankarsana is a jiva, an ordinary living entity, but there
is no evidence in any Vedic scripture that devotees of the Lord have
ever said that Sankarsana is an ordinary living entity. He is an
infallible plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in
the Visnu category, and He is beyond the creation of material nature. He
is the original source of the living entities. The Upanisads declare,
nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam: (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13) "He is the
supreme living entity among all the living entities." Therefore He is
vibhu-caitanya, the greatest. He is directly the cause of the cosmic
manifestation and the infinitesimal living beings. He is the infinite
living entity, and ordinary living entities are infinitesimal. Therefore
He is never to be considered an ordinary living being, for that would be
against the conclusion of the authorized scriptures. The living entities
are also beyond the limitations of birth and death. This is the version
of the Vedas, and it is accepted by those who follow scriptural
injunctions and who have actually descended in the disciplic succession.
(2) In answer to Sankaracarya's commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.43, it
must be said that the original Visnu of all the Visnu categories, which
are distributed in several ways, is Mula-sankarsana. Mula means "the
original." Sankarsana is also Visnu, but from Him all other Visnus
expand. This is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita (5.46), wherein it is
said that just as a flame transferred from another flame acts like the
original, so the Visnus who emanate from Mulasankarsana are as good as
the original Visnu. One should worship that Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Govinda, who thus expands Himself.
(3) In reply to the commentary of Sankaracarya on the forty-fourth
aphorism, it may be said that no pure devotees strictly following the
principles of the Pancaratra will ever accept the statement that all the
expansions of Visnu are different identities, for this idea is
completely false. Even Sripada Sankaracarya, in his commentary on the
forty-second aphorism, has accepted that the Personality of Godhead can
automatically expand Himself variously. Therefore his commentary on the
forty-second aphorism and his commentary on the forty-fourth aphorism
are contradictory. It is a defect of Mayavada commentaries that they
make one statement in one place and a contradictory statement in another
place as a tactic to refute the Bhagavata school. Thus Mayavadi
commentators do not even follow regulative principles. It should be
noted that the Bhagavata school accepts the quadruple forms of Narayana,
but that does not mean that it accepts many Gods. Devotees know
perfectly well that the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, is one without a second. They are never pantheists, worshipers
of many Gods, for this is against the injunction of the Vedas. Devotees
completely believe, with strong faith, that Narayana is transcendental
and has inconceivable proprietorship of various transcendental potencies.
We therefore recommend that scholars consult the Laghu-bhagavatamrta of
Srila Rupa Gosvami, where these ideas are explicitly stated. Sripada
Sankaracarya has tried to prove that Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and
Aniruddha expand through cause and effect. He has compared Them with
earth and earthen pots. That is completely ignorant, however, for there
is no such thing as cause and effect in Their expansions (nanyad yat sad-
asat-param). The Kurma Purana also confirms, deha-dehi-vibhedo 'yam
nesvare vidyate kvacit: "There is no difference between body and soul in
the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Cause and effect are material. For
example, it is seen that a father's body is the cause of a son's body,
but the soul is neither cause nor effect. On the spiritual platform
there are none of the differences we find in cause and effect. Since all
the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are spiritually supreme,
They are equally controllers of material nature. Standing on the fourth
dimension, They are predominating figures on the transcendental platform.
There is no trace of material contamination in Their expansions because
material laws cannot influence Them. There is no such rule as cause and
effect outside of the material world. Therefore the understanding of
cause and effect cannot approach the full, transcendental, complete
expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Vedic literature
proves this:
om purnam adah purnam idam purnat purnam udacyate
purnasya purnam adaya purnam evavasisyate
[Iso Invocation]
"The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is
completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal
world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced
of the complete whole is also complete by itself. Because He is the
complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He
remains the complete balance." (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 5.1) It is most
apparent that nondevotees violate the rules and regulations of
devotional service to equate the whole cosmic manifestation, which is
the external feature of Visnu, with the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
who is the controller of maya, or with His quadruple expansions.
Equating maya with spirit, or maya with the Lord, is a sign of atheism.
The cosmic creation, which manifests life in forms from Brahma to the
ant, is the external feature of the Supreme Lord. It comprises one
fourth of the Lord's energy, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (ekamsena
sthito jagat [Bg. 10.42]). The cosmic manifestation of the illusory
energy is material nature, and everything within material nature is made
of matter. Therefore, one should not try to compare the expansions of
material nature to the catur-vyuha, the quadruple expansions of the
Personality of Godhead, but unfortunately the Mayavadi school
unreasonably attempts to do this.
(4) To answer Sankaracarya's commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.45, the
substance of the transcendental qualities and their spiritual nature is
described in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.208–214) as follows: "Some
say that transcendence must be void of all qualities because qualities
are manifested only in matter. According to them, all qualities are like
temporary, flickering mirages. But this is not acceptable. Since the
Supreme Personality of Godhead is absolute, His qualities are
nondifferent from Him. His form, name, qualities and everything else
pertaining to Him are as spiritual as He is. Every qualitative expansion
of the absolute Personality of Godhead is identical with Him. Since the
Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, is the reservoir of all
pleasure, all the transcendental qualities that expand from Him are also
reservoirs of pleasure. This is confirmed in the scripture known as
Brahma-tarka, which states that the Supreme Lord Hari is qualified by
Himself, and therefore Visnu and His pure devotees and their
transcendental qualities cannot be different from their persons. In the
Visnu Purana Lord Visnu is worshiped in the following words: ‘Let the
Supreme Personality of Godhead be merciful toward us. His existence is
never infected by material qualities.' In the same Visnu Purana it is
also said that all the qualities attributed to the Supreme Lord, such as
knowledge, opulence, beauty, strength and influence, are known to be
nondifferent from Him. This is also confirmed in the Padma Purana, which
explains that whenever the Supreme Lord is described as having no
qualities, this should be understood to indicate that He is devoid of
material qualities. In the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.16.29) it
is said, ‘O Dharma, protector of religious principles, all noble and
sublime qualities are eternally manifested in the person of Krsna, and
devotees and transcendentalists who aspire to become faithful also
desire to possess such transcendental qualities.'" It is therefore to be
understood that Lord Sri Krsna, the transcendental form of absolute
bliss, is the fountainhead of all pleasurable transcendental qualities
and inconceivable potencies. In this connection we may recommend
references to Srimad-Bhagavatam, Third Canto, Chapter Twenty-six, verses
21, 25, 27 and 28.
Sripada Ramanujacarya has also refuted the arguments of Sankara in his
own commentary on the Vedanta-sutra, which is known as the Sri-bhasya: "
Sripada Sankaracarya has tried to equate the Pancaratras with the
philosophy of the atheist Kapila, and thus he has tried to prove that
the Pancaratras contradict the Vedic injunctions. The Pancaratras state
that the personality of jiva called Sankarsana has emerged from Vasudeva,
the supreme cause of all causes, that Pradyumna, the mind, has come
from Sankarsana, and that Aniruddha, the ego, has come from Pradyumna.
But one cannot say that the living entity (jiva) takes birth or is
created, for such a statement is against the injunction of the Vedas. As
stated in the Katha Upanisad (2.18), living entities, as individual
spiritual souls, can have neither birth nor death. All Vedic literature
declares that the living entities are eternal. Therefore when it is said
that Sankarsana is jiva, this indicates that He is the predominating
Deity of the living entities. Similarly, Pradyumna is the predominating
Deity of the mind, and Aniruddha is the predominating Deity of the ego.
"It has been said that Pradyumna, the mind, was produced from Sankarsana.
But if Sankarsana were a living entity, this could not be accepted,
because a living entity cannot be the cause of the mind. The Vedic
injunctions state that everything -- including life, mind and the senses
-- comes from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is impossible for
the mind to be produced by a living entity, for the Vedas state that
everything comes from the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Lord.
"Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha have all the potent features of the
absolute Personality of Godhead, according to the revealed scriptures,
which contain undeniable facts that no one can refute. Therefore these
members of the quadruple manifestation are never to be considered
ordinary living beings. Each of Them is a plenary expansion of the
Absolute Godhead, and thus each is identical with the Supreme Lord in
knowledge, opulence, energy, influence, prowess and potencies. The
evidence of the Pancaratras cannot be neglected. Only untrained persons
who have not genuinely studied the Pancaratras think that the
Pancaratras contradict the srutis regarding the birth or beginning of
the living entity. In this connection, we must accept the verdict of
Srimad-Bhagavatam, which says, ‘The absolute Personality of Godhead, who
is known as Vasudeva and who is very affectionate toward His surrendered
devotees, expands Himself in quadruple forms who are subordinate to Him
and at the same time identical with Him in all respects.' The Pauskara-
samhita states, ‘The scriptures that recommend that brahmanas worship
the quadruple forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are called
agamas [authorized Vedic literatures].' In all Vaisnava literature it is
said that worshiping these quadruple forms is as good as worshiping the
Supreme Personality of Godhead Vasudeva, who in His different expansions,
complete in six opulences, can accept offerings from His devotees of
the results of their prescribed duties. Worshiping the expansions for
pastimes, such as Nrsimha, Rama, Sesa and Kurma, promotes one to the
worship of the Sankarsana quadruple. From that position one is raised to
the platform of worshiping Vasudeva, the Supreme Brahman. In the
Pauskara-samhita it is said, ‘If one fully worships according to the
regulative principles, one can attain the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
Vasudeva.' It is to be accepted that Sankarsana, Pradyumna and
Aniruddha are as good as Lord Vasudeva, for They all have inconceivable
power and can accept transcendental forms like Vasudeva. Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha are never born, but They can manifest Themselves
in various incarnations before the eyes of pure devotees. This is the
conclusion of all Vedic literature. That the Lord can manifest Himself
before His devotees by His inconceivable power is not against the
teaching of the Pancaratras. Since Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha
are, respectively, the predominating Deities of all living entities, the
total mind and the total ego, the designation of Sankarsana, Pradyumna
and Aniruddha as ‘jiva,' ‘mind' and ‘ego' are never contradictory to the
statements of the scriptures. These terms identify these Deities, just
as the terms ‘sky' and ‘light' sometimes identify the Absolute Brahman.
"The scriptures completely deny the birth or production of the living
entity. In the Parama-samhita it is described that material nature,
which is used for others' purposes, is factually inert and always
subject to transformation. The field of material nature is the arena of
the activities of fruitive actors, and since the material field is
externally related with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it is also
eternal. In every samhita, the jiva (living entity) has been accepted as
eternal, and in the Pancaratras the birth of the jiva is completely
denied. Anything that is produced must also be annihilated. Therefore if
we accept the birth of the living entity, we also have to accept his
annihilation. But since the Vedic literatures say that the living entity
is eternal, one should not think the living being to be produced at a
certain time. In the beginning of the Parama-samhita it is definitely
stated that the face of material nature is constantly changeable.
Therefore ‘beginning,' ‘annihilation' and all such terms are applicable
only in the material nature.
"Considering all these points, one should understand that Sankaracarya's
statement that Sankarsana is born as a jiva is completely against the
Vedic statements. His assertions are completely refuted by the above
arguments. In this connection the commentary of Sridhara Svami on Srimad-
Bhagavatam (3.1.34) is very helpful."
For a detailed refutation of Sankaracarya's arguments attempting to
prove Sankarsana an ordinary living being, one may refer to Srimat
Sudarsanacarya's commentary on the Sri-bhasya, which is known as the
Sruta-prakasika.
The original quadruple forms -- Krsna, Baladeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha
-- expand into another quadruple, which is present in the Vaikuntha
planets of the spiritual sky. Therefore the quadruple forms in the
spiritual sky are the second manifestation of the original quadruple in
Dvaraka. As explained above, Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and
Aniruddha are all changeless, transcendental plenary expansions of the
Supreme Lord who have no relation to the material modes. The Sankarsana
form in the second quadruple is not only a representation of Balarama
but also the original cause of the Causal Ocean, where Karanodakasayi
Visnu lies asleep, breathing out the seeds of innumerable universes.
In the spiritual sky there is a spiritual creative energy technically
called suddha-sattva, which is a pure spiritual energy that sustains all
the Vaikuntha planets with the full opulences of knowledge, wealth,
prowess, etc. All these actions of suddha-sattva display the potencies
of Maha-sankarsana, who is the ultimate reservoir of all individual
living entities who are suffering in the material world. When the cosmic
creation is annihilated, the living entities, who are indestructible by
nature, rest in the body of Maha-sankarsana. Sankarsana is therefore
sometimes called the total jiva. As spiritual sparks, the living
entities have the tendency to be inactive in the association of the
material energy, just as sparks of a fire have the tendency to be
extinguished as soon as they leave the fire. The spiritual nature of the
living being can be rekindled, however, in association with the Supreme
Being. Because the living being can appear either in matter or in spirit,
the jiva is called the marginal potency.
Sankarsana is the origin of Karana Visnu, who is the original form who
creates the universes, and that Sankarsana is but a plenary expansion of
Sri Nityananda Rama.
Adi 5.42
TEXT 42
TEXT
tanha ye ramera rupa -- maha-sankarsana
cic-chakti-asraya tinho, karanera karana
SYNONYMS
tanha -- there; ye -- which; ramera rupa -- the personal feature of
Balarama; maha-sankarsana -- Maha-sankarsana; cit-sakti-asraya -- the
shelter of the spiritual potency; tinho -- He; karanera karana -- the
cause of all causes.
TRANSLATION
There [in the spiritual sky] the personal feature of Balarama called
Maha-sankarsana is the shelter of the spiritual energy. He is the
primary cause, the cause of all causes.
Adi 5.43
TEXT 43
TEXT
cic-chakti-vilasa eka -- ‘suddha-sattva' nama
suddha-sattva-maya yata vaikunthadi-dhama
SYNONYMS
cit-sakti-vilasa -- pastimes in the spiritual energy; eka -- one; suddha-
sattva nama -- named suddha-sattva, pure existence, free from material
contamination; suddha-sattva-maya -- of purely spiritual existence; yata
-- all; vaikuntha-adi-dhama -- the spiritual planets, known as
Vaikunthas.
TRANSLATION
One variety of the pastimes of the spiritual energy is described as pure
goodness [visuddha-sattva]. It comprises all the abodes of Vaikuntha.
Adi 5.44
TEXT 44
TEXT
sad-vidhaisvarya tanha sakala cinmaya
sankarsanera vibhuti saba, janiha niscaya
SYNONYMS
sat-vidha-aisvarya -- six kinds of opulences; tanha -- there; sakala cit-
maya -- everything spiritual; sankarsanera -- of Lord Sankarsana;
vibhuti saba -- all different opulences; janiha niscaya -- know
certainly.
TRANSLATION
The six attributes are all spiritual. Know for certain that they are all
manifestations of the opulence of Sankarsana.
Adi 5.45
TEXT 45
TEXT
‘jiva'-nama tatasthakhya eka sakti haya
maha-sankarsana -- saba jivera asraya
SYNONYMS
jiva -- the living entity; nama -- named; tata-stha-akhya -- known as
the marginal potency; eka -- one; sakti -- energy; haya -- is; maha-
sankarsana -- Maha-sankarsana; saba -- all; jivera -- of living entities;
asraya -- the shelter.
TRANSLATION
There is one marginal potency, known as the jiva. Maha-sankarsana is the
shelter of all jivas.
Adi 5.46
TEXT 46
TEXT
yanha haite visvotpatti, yanhate pralaya
sei purusera sankarsana samasraya
SYNONYMS
yanha haite -- from whom; visva-utpatti -- the creation of the material
cosmic manifestation; yanhate -- in whom; pralaya -- merging; sei
purusera -- of that Supreme Personality of Godhead; sankarsana --
Sankarsana; samasraya -- the original shelter.
TRANSLATION
Sankarsana is the original shelter of the purusa, from whom this world
is created and in whom it is dissolved.
Adi 5.47
TEXT 47
TEXT
sarvasraya, sarvadbhuta, aisvarya apara
‘ananta' kahite nare mahima yanhara
SYNONYMS
sarva-asraya -- the shelter of everything; sarva-adbhuta -- wonderful in
every respect; aisvarya -- opulences; apara -- unfathomed; ananta --
Ananta Sesa; kahite nare -- cannot speak; mahima yanhara -- the glories
of whom.
TRANSLATION
He [Sankarsana] is the shelter of everything. He is wonderful in every
respect, and His opulences are infinite. Even Ananta cannot describe His
glory.
Adi 5.48
TEXT 48
TEXT
turiya, visuddha-sattva, ‘sankarsana' nama
tinho yanra amsa, sei nityananda-rama
SYNONYMS
turiya -- transcendental; visuddha-sattva -- pure existence; sankarsana
nama -- named Sankarsana; tinho yanra amsa -- of whom that Sankarsana is
also a partial expansion; sei nityananda-rama -- that person is known as
Balarama or Nityananda.
TRANSLATION
That Sankarsana, who is transcendental pure goodness, is a partial
expansion of Nityananda Balarama.
Adi 5.49
TEXT 49
TEXT
astama slokera kaila sanksepe vivarana
navama slokera artha suna diya mana
SYNONYMS
astama -- eighth; slokera -- of the verse; kaila -- I have done;
sanksepe -- in brief; vivarana -- description; navama -- the ninth;
slokera -- of the verse; artha -- the meaning; suna -- please hear; diya
mana -- with mental attention.
TRANSLATION
I have briefly explained the eighth verse. Now please listen with
attention as I explain the ninth verse.
Adi 5.50
TEXT 50
TEXT
maya-bhartajanda-sanghasrayangah
sete saksat karanambhodhi-madhye
yasyaikamsah sri-puman adi-devas
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
SYNONYMS
maya-bharta -- the master of the illusory energy; aja-anda-sangha -- of
the multitude of universes; asraya -- the shelter; angah -- whose body;
sete -- He lies; saksat -- directly; karana-ambhodhi-madhye -- in the
midst of the Causal Ocean; yasya -- whose; eka-amsah -- one portion; sri-
puman -- the Supreme Person; adi-devah -- the original purusa
incarnation; tam -- to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam -- to Lord Balarama in
the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye -- I surrender.
TRANSLATION
I offer my full obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, whose
partial representation called Karanodakasayi Visnu, lying on the Karana
Ocean, is the original purusa, the master of the illusory energy, and
the shelter of all the universes.
Adi 5.51
TEXT 51
TEXT
vaikuntha-bahire yei jyotir-maya dhama
tahara bahire ‘karanarnava' nama
SYNONYMS
vaikuntha-bahire -- outside the Vaikuntha planets; yei -- that; jyotih-
maya dhama -- impersonal Brahman effulgence; tahara bahire -- outside
that effulgence; karana-arnava nama -- an ocean called Karana.
TRANSLATION
Outside the Vaikuntha planets is the impersonal Brahman effulgence, and
beyond that effulgence is the Karana Ocean, or Causal Ocean.
PURPORT
The impersonal glowing effulgence known as impersonal Brahman is the
outer space of the Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky. Beyond that
impersonal Brahman is the great Causal Ocean, which lies between the
material and spiritual skies. The material nature is a by-product of
this Causal Ocean.
Karanodakasayi Visnu, who lies on the Causal Ocean, creates the
universes merely by glancing upon material nature. Therefore Krsna
personally has nothing to do with the material creation. The Bhagavad-
gita confirms that the Lord glances over material nature and thus she
produces the many material universes. Neither Krsna in Goloka nor
Narayana in Vaikuntha comes directly in contact with the material
creation. They are completely aloof from the material energy.
It is the function of Maha-sankarsana in the form of Karanodakasayi
Visnu to glance over the material creation, which is situated beyond the
limits of the Causal Ocean. Material nature is connected with the
Personality of Godhead by His glance over her and nothing more. It is
said that she is impregnated by the energy of His glance. The material
energy, maya, never even touches the Causal Ocean, for the Lord's glance
focuses upon her from a great distance away.
The glancing power of the Lord agitates the entire cosmic energy, and
thus its actions begin at once. This indicates that matter, however
powerful she may be, has no power by herself. Her activity begins by the
grace of the Lord, and then the entire cosmic creation is manifested in
a systematic way. The example of a woman's conception can help us
understand this subject to a certain extent. The mother is passive, but
the father puts his energy within the mother, and thus she conceives.
She supplies the ingredients for the birth of the child in her womb.
Similarly, the Lord activates material nature, which then supplies the
ingredients for cosmic development.
Material nature has two different phases. The aspect called pradhana
supplies the material ingredients for cosmic development, and the aspect
called maya causes the manifestation of her ingredients, which are
temporary, like foam in the ocean. In reality, the temporary
manifestations of material nature are originally caused by the spiritual
glance of the Lord. The Personality of Godhead is the direct, or remote,
cause of creation, and material nature is the indirect, or immediate,
cause. Materialistic scientists, puffed-up by the magical changes their
so-called inventions have brought about, cannot see the real potency of
Godhead behind matter. Therefore the jugglery of science is gradually
leading people to a godless civilization at the cost of the goal of
human life. Having missed the goal of life, materialists run after self-
sufficiency, not knowing that material nature is already self-sufficient
by the grace of God. Thus creating a colossal hoax in the name of
civilization, they create an imbalance in the natural self-sufficiency
of material nature.
To think of material nature as all in all, not knowing the original
cause, is ignorance. Lord Caitanya appeared in order to dissipate this
darkness of ignorance by igniting the spark of spiritual life that can,
by His causeless mercy, enlighten the entire world.
To explain how maya acts by Krsna's power, the author of Sri Caitanya-
caritamrta gives the example of an iron rod in a fire: although the rod
is not fire, it becomes red-hot and acts like fire itself. Similarly,
all the actions and reactions of material nature are not actually the
work of material nature but are actions and reactions of the energy of
the Supreme Lord manifested through matter. The power of electricity is
transmitted through the medium of copper, but this does not mean that
the copper is electricity. The power is generated at a powerhouse under
the control of an expert living being. Similarly, behind all the
jugglery of the natural laws is a great living being, who is a person
like the mechanical engineer in the powerhouse. It is by His
intelligence that the entire cosmic creation moves in a systematic way.
The modes of nature, which directly cause material actions, are also
originally activated by Narayana. A simple example will explain how this
is so: When a potter manufactures a pot from clay, the potter's wheel,
his tools and the clay are the immediate causes of the pot, but the
potter is the chief cause. Similarly, Narayana is the chief cause of all
material creations, and the material energy supplies the ingredients of
matter. Therefore without Narayana, all other causes are useless, just
as the potter's wheel and tools are useless without the potter himself.
Since materialistic scientists ignore the Personality of Godhead, it is
as if they were concerned with the potter's wheel and its rotation, the
potter's tools and the ingredients for the pots, but had no knowledge of
the potter himself. Therefore modern science has created an imperfect,
godless civilization that is in gross ignorance of the ultimate cause.
Scientific advancement should have a great goal to attain, and that
great goal should be the Personality of Godhead. In the Bhagavad-gita it
is said that after conducting research for many, many births, great men
of knowledge who stress the importance of experimental thought can know
the Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes. When one
knows Him perfectly, one surrenders unto Him and then becomes a mahatma.
Adi 5.52
TEXT 52
TEXT
vaikuntha bediya eka ache jala-nidhi
ananta, apara -- tara nahika avadhi
SYNONYMS
vaikuntha -- the spiritual planets of Vaikuntha; bediya -- surrounding;
eka -- one; ache -- there is; jala-nidhi -- ocean of water; ananta --
unlimited; apara -- unfathomed; tara -- of that; nahika -- no; avadhi --
limitation.
TRANSLATION
Surrounding Vaikuntha is a mass of water that is endless, unfathomed and
unlimited.
Adi 5.53
TEXT 53
TEXT
vaikunthera prthivy-adi sakala cinmaya
mayika bhutera tathi janma nahi haya
SYNONYMS
vaikunthera -- of the spiritual world; prthivi-adi -- earth, water, etc.;
sakala -- all; cit-maya -- spiritual; mayika -- material; bhutera -- of
elements; tathi -- there; janma -- generation; nahi haya -- there is not.
TRANSLATION
The earth, water, fire, air and ether of Vaikuntha are all spiritual.
Material elements are not found there.
Adi 5.54
TEXT 54
TEXT
cinmaya-jala sei parama karana
yara eka kana ganga patita-pavana
SYNONYMS
cit-maya -- spiritual; jala -- water; sei -- that; parama karana --
original cause; yara -- of which; eka -- one; kana -- drop; ganga -- the
sacred Ganges; patita-pavana -- the deliverer of fallen souls.
TRANSLATION
The water of the Karana Ocean, which is the original cause, is therefore
spiritual. The sacred Ganges, which is but a drop of it, purifies the
fallen souls.
Adi 5.55
TEXT 55
TEXT
sei ta' karanarnave sei sankarsana
apanara eka amse karena sayana
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; ta' -- certainly; karana-arnave -- in the ocean of cause,
or Causal Ocean; sei -- that; sankarsana -- Lord Sankarsana; apanara --
of His own; eka -- one; amse -- by the part; karena sayana -- lies down.
TRANSLATION
In that ocean lies a plenary portion of Lord Sankarsana.
Adi 5.56
TEXT 56
TEXT
mahat-srasta purusa, tinho jagat-karana
adya-avatara kare mayaya iksana
SYNONYMS
mahat-srasta -- the creator of the total material energy; purusa -- the
person; tinho -- He; jagat-karana -- the cause of the material cosmic
manifestation; adya -- original; avatara -- incarnation; kare -- does;
mayaya -- over the material energy; iksana -- glance.
TRANSLATION
He is known as the first purusa, the creator of the total material
energy. He, the cause of the universes, the first incarnation, casts His
glance over maya.
Adi 5.57
TEXT 57
TEXT
maya-sakti rahe karanabdhira bahire
karana-samudra maya parasite nare
SYNONYMS
maya-sakti -- material energy; rahe -- remains; karana-abdhira -- to the
Causal Ocean; bahire -- external; karana-samudra -- the Causal Ocean;
maya -- material energy; parasite nare -- cannot touch.
TRANSLATION
Maya-sakti resides outside the Karana Ocean. Maya cannot touch its
waters.
Adi 5.58
TEXT 58
TEXT
sei ta' mayara dui-vidha avasthiti
jagatera upadana ‘pradhana', prakrti
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; ta' -- certainly; mayara -- of the material energy; dui-
vidha -- two varieties; avasthiti -- existence; jagatera -- of the
material world; upadana -- the ingredients; pradhana -- named pradhana;
prakrti -- material nature.
TRANSLATION
Maya has two varieties of existence. One is called pradhana or prakrti.
It supplies the ingredients of the material world.
PURPORT
Maya, the external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is
divided into two parts. Maya is both the cause of the cosmic
manifestation and the agent who supplies its ingredients. As the cause
of the cosmic manifestation she is known as maya, and as the agent
supplying the ingredients of the cosmic manifestation she is known as
pradhana. An explicit description of these divisions of the external
energy is given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.24.1–4). Elsewhere in Srimad-
Bhagavatam (10.63.26) the ingredients and cause of the material cosmic
manifestation are described as follows:
kalo daivam karma jivah svabhavo
dravyam ksetram prana atma vikarah
tat-sanghato bija-roha-pravahas
tvan-mayaisa tan-nisedham prapadye
"O my Lord! Time, activity, providence and nature are four parts of the
causal aspect [maya] of the external energy. The conditioned vital force,
the subtle material ingredients called the dravya, and material nature (
which is the field of activity where the false ego acts as the soul), as
well as the eleven senses and five elements (earth, water, fire, air and
ether), which are the sixteen ingredients of the body -- these are the
ingredient aspect of maya. The body is generated from activity, and
activity is generated from the body, just as a tree is generated from a
seed that is generated from a tree. This reciprocal cause and effect is
called maya. My dear Lord, You can save me from this cycle of cause and
effect. I worship Your lotus feet."
Although the living entity is primarily related to the causal portion of
maya, he is nevertheless conducted by the ingredients of maya. Three
forces work in the causal portion of maya: knowledge, desire and
activity. The material ingredients are a manifestation of maya as
pradhana. In other words, when the three qualities of maya are in a
dormant stage, they exist as prakrti, avyakta or pradhana. The word
avyakta, referring to the nonmanifested, is another name of pradhana. In
the avyakta stage, material nature is without varieties. Varieties are
manifested by the pradhana portion of maya. The word pradhana is
therefore more important than avyakta or prakrti.
Adi 5.59
TEXT 59
TEXT
jagat-karana nahe prakrti jada-rupa
sakti sancariya tare krsna kare krpa
SYNONYMS
jagat -- of the material world; karana -- the cause; nahe -- cannot be;
prakrti -- the material nature; jada-rupa -- dull, without action; sakti
-- energy; sancariya -- infusing; tare -- unto the dull material nature;
krsna -- Lord Krsna; kare -- shows; krpa -- mercy.
TRANSLATION
Because prakrti is dull and inert, it cannot actually be the cause of
the material world. But Lord Krsna shows His mercy by infusing His
energy into the dull, inert material nature.
Adi 5.60
TEXT 60
TEXT
krsna-saktye prakrti haya gauna karana
agni-saktye lauha yaiche karaye jarana
SYNONYMS
krsna-saktye -- by the energy of Krsna; prakrti -- the material nature;
haya -- becomes; gauna -- indirect; karana -- cause; agni-saktye -- by
the energy of fire; lauha -- iron; yaiche -- just as; karaye -- becomes;
jarana -- powerful or red-hot.
TRANSLATION
Thus prakrti, by the energy of Lord Krsna, becomes the secondary cause,
just as iron becomes red-hot by the energy of fire.
Adi 5.61
TEXT 61
TEXT
ataeva krsna mula-jagat-karana
prakrti -- karana yaiche aja-gala-stana
SYNONYMS
ataeva -- therefore; krsna -- Lord Krsna; mula -- original; jagat-karana
-- the cause of the cosmic manifestation; prakrti -- material nature;
karana -- cause; yaiche -- exactly like; aja-gala-stana -- nipples on
the neck of a goat.
TRANSLATION
Therefore Lord Krsna is the original cause of the cosmic manifestation.
Prakrti is like the nipples on the neck of a goat, for they cannot give
any milk.
PURPORT
The external energy, composed of pradhana or prakrti as the ingredient-
supplying portion and maya as the causal portion, is known as maya-sakti.
Inert material nature is not the actual cause of the material
manifestation, for Karanarnavasayi, Maha-Visnu, the plenary expansion of
Krsna, activates all the ingredients. It is in this way that material
nature has the power to supply the ingredients. The example given is
that iron has no power to heat or burn, but after coming in contact with
fire the iron becomes red-hot and can then diffuse heat and burn other
things. Material nature is like iron, for it has no independence to act
without the touch of Visnu, who is compared to fire. Lord Visnu
activates material nature by the power of His glance, and then the
ironlike material nature becomes a material-supplying agent just as iron
made red-hot becomes a burning agent. Material nature cannot
independently become an agent for supplying the material ingredients.
This is more clearly explained by Sri Kapiladeva, an incarnation of
Godhead, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.28.40):
yatholmukad visphulingad dhumad vapi sva-sambhavat
apy atmatvenabhimatad yathagnih prthag ulmukat
"Although smoke, flaming wood, and sparks are all considered together as
ingredients of a fire, the flaming wood is nevertheless different from
the fire, and the smoke is different from the flaming wood." The
material elements (earth, water, fire, etc.) are like smoke, the living
entities are like sparks, and material nature as pradhana is like the
flaming wood. But all of them together are recipients of power from the
Supreme Personality of Godhead and are thus able to manifest their
individual capacities. In other words, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead is the origin of all manifestations. Material nature can supply
only when it is activated by the glance of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead.
Just as a woman can deliver a child after being impregnated by the semen
of a man, so material nature can supply the material elements after
being glanced upon by Maha-Visnu. Therefore pradhana cannot be
independent of the superintendence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10): mayadhyaksena prakrtih
suyate sa-caracaram. Prakrti, the total material energy, works under the
superintendence of the Lord. The original source of the material
elements is Krsna. Therefore the attempt of the atheistic Sankhya
philosophers to consider material nature the source of these elements,
forgetting Krsna, is useless, like trying to get milk from the
nipplelike bumps of skin hanging on the neck of a goat.
Adi 5.62
TEXT 62
TEXT
maya-amse kahi tare nimitta-karana
seha nahe, yate karta-hetu -- narayana
SYNONYMS
maya-amse -- to the other portion of the material nature; kahi -- I say;
tare -- unto her; nimitta-karana -- immediate cause; seha nahe -- that
cannot be; yate -- because; karta-hetu -- the original cause; narayana --
Lord Narayana.
TRANSLATION
The maya aspect of material nature is the immediate cause of the cosmic
manifestation. But it cannot be the real cause, for the original cause
is Lord Narayana.
Adi 5.63
TEXT 63
TEXT
ghatera nimitta-hetu yaiche kumbhakara
taiche jagatera karta -- purusavatara
SYNONYMS
ghatera -- of the earthen pot; nimitta-hetu -- original cause; yaiche --
just as; kumbhakara -- the potter; taiche -- similarly; jagatera karta --
the creator of the material world; purusa-avatara -- the purusa
incarnation, or Karanarnavasayi Visnu.
TRANSLATION
Just as the original cause of an earthen pot is the potter, so the
creator of the material world is the first purusa incarnation [
Karanarnavasayi Visnu].
Adi 5.64
TEXT 64
TEXT
krsna -- karta, maya tanra karena sahaya
ghatera karana -- cakra-dandadi upaya
SYNONYMS
krsna -- Lord Krsna; karta -- the creator; maya -- material energy;
tanra -- His; karena -- does; sahaya -- assistance; ghatera karana --
the cause of the earthen pot; cakra-danda-adi -- the wheel, the rod, and
so on; upaya -- instruments.
TRANSLATION
Lord Krsna is the creator, and maya only helps Him as an instrument,
just like the potter's wheel and other instruments, which are the
instrumental causes of a pot.
Adi 5.65
TEXT 65
TEXT
dura haite purusa kare mayate avadhana
jiva-rupa virya tate karena adhana
SYNONYMS
dura haite -- from a distance; purusa -- the Supreme Personality of
Godhead; kare -- does; mayate -- unto the material energy; avadhana --
glancing over; jiva-rupa -- the living entities; virya -- seed; tate --
in her; karena -- does; adhana -- impregnation.
TRANSLATION
The first purusa casts His glance at maya from a distance, and thus He
impregnates her with the seed of life in the form of the living entities.
Adi 5.66
TEXT 66
TEXT
eka angabhase kare mayate milana
maya haite janme tabe brahmandera gana
SYNONYMS
eka -- one; anga-abhase -- bodily reflection; kare -- does; mayate -- in
the material energy; milana -- mixture; maya -- the material energy;
haite -- from; janme -- grows; tabe -- then; brahma-andera gana -- the
groups of universes.
TRANSLATION
The reflected rays of His body mix with maya, and thus maya gives birth
to myriad universes.
PURPORT
The Vedic conclusion is that the cosmic manifestation visible to the
eyes of the conditioned soul is caused by the Absolute Truth, the
Personality of Godhead, through the exertion of His specific energies,
although in the conclusion of atheistic deliberations this manifested
cosmic exhibition is attributed to material nature. The energy of the
Absolute Truth is exhibited in three ways: spiritual, material and
marginal. The Absolute Truth is identical with His spiritual energy.
Only when contacted by the spiritual energy can the material energy work
and the temporary material manifestations thus appear active. In the
conditioned state the living entities of the marginal energy are a
mixture of spiritual and material energies. The marginal energy is
originally under the control of the spiritual energy, but, under the
control of the material energy, the living entities have been wandering
in forgetfulness within the material world since time immemorial.
The conditioned state is caused by misuse of the individual independence
of the spiritual platform, for this separates the living entity from the
association of the spiritual energy. But when the living entity is
enlightened by the grace of the Supreme Lord or His pure devotee and
becomes inclined to revive his original state of loving service, he is
on the most auspicious platform of eternal bliss and knowledge. The
marginal jiva, or living entity, misuses his independence and becomes
averse to the eternal service attitude when he independently thinks he
is not energy but the energetic. This misconception of his own existence
leads him to the attitude of lording it over material nature.
Material nature appears to be just the opposite of the spiritual energy.
The fact is that the material energy can work only when in contact with
the spiritual energy. Originally the energy of Krsna is spiritual, but
it works in diverse ways, like electrical energy, which can exhibit the
functions of refrigerating or heating through its manifestations in
different ways. The material energy is spiritual energy covered by a
cloud of illusion, or maya. Therefore, the material energy is not self-
sufficient in working. Krsna invests His spiritual energy into material
energy, and then it can act, just as iron can act like fire after being
heated by fire. The material energy can act only when empowered by the
spiritual energy.
When covered by the cloud of material energy, the living entity, who is
also a spiritual energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, forgets
about the activities of the spiritual energy and considers all that
happens in the material manifestation to be wonderful. But a person who
is engaged in devotional service in full Krsna consciousness and who is
therefore already situated in the spiritual energy can understand that
the material energy has no independent powers: whatever actions are
going on are due to the help of the spiritual energy. The material
energy, which is a perverted form of the spiritual energy, presents
everything pervertedly, thus causing misconceptions and duality.
Material scientists and philosophers conditioned by the spell of
material nature suppose that material energy acts automatically, and
therefore they are frustrated, like an illusioned person who tries to
get milk from the nipplelike bunches of skin on the neck of a goat. As
there is no possibility of getting milk from these bunches of skin,
there is similarly no possibility that anyone will be successful in
understanding the original cause of creation by putting forward theories
produced by the material energy. Such an attempt is a manifestation of
ignorance.
The material energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called maya,
or illusion, because in two capacities (by supplying the material
elements and by causing the material manifestation) it makes the
conditioned soul unable to understand the real truth of creation.
However, when a living entity is liberated from the conditioned life of
matter, he can understand the two different activities of material
nature, namely covering and bewildering.
The origin of creation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As
confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10), the cosmic manifestation is
working under the direction of the Supreme Lord, who invests the
material energy with three material qualities. Agitated by these
qualities, the elements supplied by the material energy produce
varieties of things, just as an artist produces varieties of pictures by
mixing the three colors red, yellow and blue. Yellow represents the
quality of goodness, red represents passion, and blue represents
ignorance. Therefore the colorful material creation is but an
interaction of these three qualities, represented in eighty-one
varieties of mixtures (3 x 3 equaling 9, 9 x 9 thus equaling 81).
Deluded by material energy, the conditioned soul, enamored by these
eighty-one varieties of manifestations, wants to lord it over material
energy, just as a moth wants to enjoy a fire. This illusion is the net
result of the conditioned soul's forgetfulness of his eternal
relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When conditioned,
the soul is impelled by the material energy to engage in sense
gratification, whereas one enlightened by the spiritual energy engages
himself in the service of the Supreme Lord in his eternal relationship.
Krsna is the original cause of the spiritual world, and He is the
covered cause of the material manifestation. He is also the original
cause of the marginal potency, the living entities. He is both the
leader and maintainer of the living entities, who are called the
marginal potency because they can act under the protection of the
spiritual energy or under the cover of the material energy. With the
help of the spiritual energy we can understand that independence is
visible only in Krsna, who by His inconceivable energy is able to act in
any way He likes.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Absolute Whole, and the living
entities are parts of the Absolute Whole. This relationship of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead and the living entities is eternal. One
should never mistakenly think that the spiritual whole can be divided
into small parts by the small material energy. The Bhagavad-gita does
not support this Mayavada theory. Rather, it clearly states that the
living entities are eternally small fragments of the supreme spiritual
whole. As a part can never be equal with the whole, so a living entity,
as a minute fragment of the spiritual whole, cannot be equal at any time
to the Supreme Whole, the absolute Personality of Godhead. Although the
Supreme Lord and the living entities are quantitatively related as the
whole and the parts, the parts are nevertheless qualitatively one with
the whole. Thus the living entities, although always qualitatively one
with the Supreme Lord, are in a relative position. The Supreme
Personality of Godhead is the controller of everything, and the living
entities are always controlled, either by the spiritual energy or by the
material energy. Therefore a living entity can never become the
controller of material or spiritual energies. The natural position of
the living being is always as a subordinate of the Supreme Personality
of Godhead. When one agrees to act in such a position, he attains
perfection in life, but if one rebels against this principle, he is in
the conditioned state.
Adi 5.67
TEXT 67
TEXT
aganya, ananta yata anda-sannivesa
tata-rupe purusa kare sabate prakasa
SYNONYMS
aganya -- innumerable; ananta -- unlimited; yata -- all; anda --
universes; sannivesa -- groups; tata-rupe -- in as many forms; purusa --
the Lord; kare -- does; sabate -- in every one of them; prakasa --
manifestation.
TRANSLATION
The purusa enters each and every one of the countless universes. He
manifests Himself in as many separate forms as there are universes.
Adi 5.68
TEXT 68
TEXT
purusa-nasate yabe bahiraya svasa
nisvasa sahite haya brahmanda-prakasa
SYNONYMS
purusa-nasate -- in the nostrils of the Lord; yabe -- when; bahiraya --
expels; svasa -- breath; nisvasa sahite -- with that exhalation; haya --
there is; brahmanda-prakasa -- manifestation of universes.
TRANSLATION
When the purusa exhales, the universes are manifested with each outward
breath.
Adi 5.69
TEXT 69
TEXT
punarapi svasa yabe pravese antare
svasa-saha brahmanda paise purusa-sarire
SYNONYMS
punarapi -- thereafter; svasa -- breath; yabe -- when; pravese -- enters;
antare -- within; svasa-saha -- with that inhaled breath; brahmanda --
universes; paise -- enter; purusa-sarire -- within the body of the Lord.
TRANSLATION
Thereafter, when He inhales, all the universes again enter His body.
PURPORT
In His form as Karanodakasayi Visnu the Lord impregnates material nature
by His glance. The transcendental molecules of that glance are particles
of spirit, or spiritual atoms, which appear in different species of life
according to the seeds of their individual karma from the previous
cosmic manifestation. And the Lord Himself, by His partial
representation, creates a body of innumerable universes and again enters
each of those universes as Garbhodakasayi Visnu. His coming in contact
with maya is explained in the Bhagavad-gita by a comparison between air
and the sky. The sky enters everything material, yet it is far away from
us.
Adi 5.70
TEXT 70
TEXT
gavaksera randhre yena trasarenu cale
purusera loma-kupe brahmandera jale
SYNONYMS
gavaksera -- of windows of a room; randhre -- within the holes; yena --
like; trasarenu -- six atoms together; cale -- moves; purusera -- of the
Lord; loma-kupe -- in the holes of the hair; brahmandera -- of universes;
jale -- a network.
TRANSLATION
Just as atomic particles of dust pass through the openings of a window,
so the networks of universes pass through the pores of the skin of the
purusa.
Adi 5.71
TEXT 71
TEXT
yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya
jivanti loma-vila-ja jagad-anda-nathah
visnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-viseso
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
SYNONYMS
yasya -- whose; eka -- one; nisvasita -- of breath; kalam -- time; atha -
- thus; avalambya -- taking shelter of; jivanti -- live; loma-vila-jah --
grown from the hair holes; jagat-anda-nathah -- the masters of the
universes (the Brahmas); visnuh mahan -- the Supreme Lord, Maha-Visnu;
sah -- that; iha -- here; yasya -- whose; kala-visesah -- particular
plenary portion or expansion; govindam -- Lord Govinda; adi-purusam --
the original person; tam -- Him; aham -- I; bhajami -- worship.
TRANSLATION
"The Brahmas and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores
of Maha-Visnu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I
adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whom Maha-Visnu is a portion of a
plenary portion."
PURPORT
This description of the Lord's creative energy is from the Brahma-
samhita (5.48), which Lord Brahma compiled after his personal
realization. When Maha-Visnu exhales, the spiritual seeds of the
universes emanate from Him in the form of molecular particles like those
that are visible, three times the size of an atom, when sunlight is
diffused through a small hole. In these days of atomic research it will
be a worthwhile engagement for atomic scientists to learn from this
statement how the entire creation develops from the spiritual atoms
emanating from the body of the Lord.
Adi 5.72
TEXT 72
TEXT
kvaham tamo-mahad-aham-kha-caragni-var-bhu-
samvestitanda-ghata-sapta-vitasti-kayah
kvedrg-vidhaviganitanda-paranu-carya-
vatadhva-roma-vivarasya ca te mahitvam
SYNONYMS
kva -- where; aham -- I; tamah -- material nature; mahat -- the total
material energy; aham -- false ego; kha -- ether; cara -- air; agni --
fire; vah -- water; bhu -- earth; samvestita -- surrounded by; anda-
ghata -- a potlike universe; sapta-vitasti -- seven vitastis; kayah --
body; kva -- where; idrk -- such; vidha -- like; aviganita -- unlimited;
anda -- universes; para-anu-carya -- moving like the atomic dust; vata-
adhva -- air holes; roma -- of hair on the body; vivarasya -- of the
holes; ca -- also; te -- Your; mahitvam -- greatness.
TRANSLATION
"Where am I, a small creature of seven spans the measure of my own hand?
I am enclosed in the universe composed of material nature, the total
material energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is
Your glory? Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just
like particles of dust passing through the opening of a window."
PURPORT
When Lord Brahma, after having stolen all Krsna's calves and cowherd
boys, returned and saw that the calves and boys were still roaming with
Krsna, he offered this prayer (SB 10.14.11) in his defeat. A conditioned
soul, even one so great as Brahma, who manages the affairs of the entire
universe, cannot compare to the Personality of Godhead, for He can
produce numberless universes simply by the spiritual rays emanating from
the pores of His body. Material scientists should take lessons from the
utterances of Sri Brahma regarding our insignificance in comparison to
God. In these prayers of Brahma there is much to learn for those who are
falsely puffed up by the accumulation of power.
Adi 5.73
TEXT 73
TEXT
amsera amsa yei, ‘kala' tara nama
govindera pratimurti sri-balarama
SYNONYMS
amsera -- of the part; amsa -- part; yei -- that which; kala -- a kala,
or part of the plenary portion; tara -- its; nama -- name; govindera --
of Lord Govinda; prati-murti -- counterform; sri-balarama -- Lord
Balarama.
TRANSLATION
A part of a part of a whole is called a kala. Sri Balarama is the
counterform of Lord Govinda.
Adi 5.74
TEXT 74
TEXT
tanra eka svarupa -- sri-maha-sankarsana
tanra amsa ‘purusa' haya kalate ganana
SYNONYMS
tanra -- His; eka -- one; svarupa -- manifestation; sri-maha-sankarsana -
- the great Lord Maha-sankarsana; tanra -- His; amsa -- part; purusa --
the Maha-Visnu incarnation; haya -- is; kalate ganana -- counted as a
kala.
TRANSLATION
Balarama's own expansion is called Maha-sankarsana, and His fragment,
the purusa, is counted as a kala, or a part of a plenary portion.
Adi 5.75
TEXT 75
TEXT
yanhake ta' kala kahi, tinho maha-visnu
maha-purusavatari tenho sarva-jisnu
SYNONYMS
yanhake -- unto whom; ta' -- certainly; kala kahi -- I say kala; tinho --
He; maha-visnu -- Lord Maha-Visnu; maha-purusavatari -- Maha-Visnu, the
source of other purusa incarnations; tenho -- He; sarva -- jisnu -- all-
pervading.
TRANSLATION
I say that this kala is Maha-Visnu. He is the Maha-purusa, who is the
source of the other purusas and who is all-pervading.
Adi 5.76
TEXT 76
TEXT
garbhoda-ksiroda-sayi donhe ‘purusa' nama
sei dui, yanra amsa, -- visnu, visva-dhama
SYNONYMS
garbha-uda -- in the ocean known as Garbhodaka within the universe;
ksira-uda-sayi -- one who lies in the ocean of milk; donhe -- both of
Them; purusa nama -- known as purusa, Lord Visnu; sei -- those; dui --
two; yanra amsa -- whose plenary portions; visnu visva-dhama -- Lord
Visnu, the abode of the total universes.
TRANSLATION
Garbhodasayi and Ksirodasayi are both called purusas. They are plenary
portions of Karanodasayi Visnu, the first purusa, who is the abode of
all the universes.
PURPORT
The symptoms of the purusa are described in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta.
While describing the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead,
the author has quoted from the Visnu Purana (6.8.59), where it is said, "
Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Purusottama, Lord Krsna, who
is always free from the contamination of the six material dualities;
whose plenary expansion, Maha-Visnu, glances over matter to create the
cosmic manifestation; who expands Himself in various transcendental
forms, all of which are one and the same; who is the master of all
living entities; who is always free and liberated from the contamination
of material energy; and who, when He appears in this material world,
seems one of us, although He has an eternally spiritual, blissful,
transcendental form." In summarizing this statement, Rupa Gosvami has
concluded that the plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead who acts in cooperation with the material energy is called the
purusa.
Adi 5.77
TEXT 77
TEXT
visnos tu trini rupani
purusakhyany atho viduh
ekam tu mahatah srastr
dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam
trtiyam sarva-bhuta-stham
tani jnatva vimucyate
SYNONYMS
visnoh -- of Lord Visnu; tu -- certainly; trini -- three; rupani --
forms; purusa-akhyani -- celebrated as the purusa; atho -- how; viduh --
they know; ekam -- one of them; tu -- but; mahatah srastr -- the creator
of the total material energy; dvitiyam -- the second; tu -- but; anda-
samsthitam -- situated within the universe; trtiyam -- the third; sarva-
bhuta-stham -- within the hearts of all living entities; tani -- these
three; jnatva -- knowing; vimucyate -- one becomes liberated.
TRANSLATION
"Visnu has three forms called purusas. The first, Maha-Visnu, is the
creator of the total material energy [mahat], the second is Garbhodasayi,
who is situated within each universe, and the third is Ksirodasayi, who
lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three
becomes liberated from the clutches of maya."
PURPORT
This verse appears in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 2.9), where it has
been quoted from the Satvata-tantra.
Adi 5.78
TEXT 78
TEXT
yadyapi kahiye tanre krsnera ‘kala' kari
matsya-kurmady-avatarera tinho avatari
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; kahiye -- I say; tanre -- to Him; krsnera -- of
Lord Krsna; kala -- part of the part; kari -- making; matsya -- the fish
incarnation; kurma-adi -- the tortoise incarnation and others; avatarera
-- of all these incarnations; tinho -- He; avatari -- the original
source.
TRANSLATION
Although Karanodasayi Visnu is called a kala of Lord Krsna, He is the
source of Matsya, Kurma and the other incarnations.
Adi 5.79
TEXT 79
TEXT
ete camsa-kalah pumsah
krsnas tu bhagavan svayam
indrari-vyakulam lokam
mrdayanti yuge yuge
SYNONYMS
ete -- all these; ca -- also; amsa-kalah -- part or part of the part;
pumsah -- of the Supreme Person; krsnah tu -- but Lord Krsna; bhagavan --
the original Personality of Godhead; svayam -- Himself; indra-ari --
the demons; vyakulam -- disturbed; lokam -- all the planets; mrdayanti --
makes them happy; yuge yuge -- in different millenniums.
TRANSLATION
"All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts
of the plenary portions of the purusa-avataras. But Krsna is the Supreme
Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world
through His different features when the world is disturbed by the
enemies of Indra."
PURPORT
This quotation is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28).
Adi 5.80
TEXT 80
TEXT
sei purusa srsti-sthiti-pralayera karta
nana avatara kare, jagatera bharta
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; purusa -- the Personality of Godhead; srsti-sthiti-
pralayera -- of creation, maintenance and annihilation; karta -- creator;
nana -- various; avatara -- incarnations; kare -- makes; jagatera -- of
the material world; bharta -- maintainer.
TRANSLATION
That purusa [Karanodakasayi Visnu] is the performer of creation,
maintenance and destruction. He manifests Himself in many incarnations,
for He is the maintainer of the world.
Adi 5.81
TEXT 81
TEXT
srsty-adi-nimitte yei amsera avadhana
sei ta' amsere kahi ‘avatara' nama
SYNONYMS
srsti-adi-nimitte -- for the cause of creation, maintenance and
annihilation; yei -- which; amsera avadhana -- manifestation of the part;
sei ta' -- that certainly; amsere kahi -- I speak about that plenary
expansion; avatara nama -- by the name "incarnation."
TRANSLATION
That fragment of the Supreme Lord, known as the Maha-purusa, appears for
the purpose of creation, maintenance and annihilation and is called an
incarnation.
Adi 5.82
TEXT 82
TEXT
adyavatara, maha-purusa, bhagavan
sarva-avatara-bija, sarvasraya-dhama
SYNONYMS
adya-avatara -- the original incarnation; maha-purusa -- Lord Maha-Visnu;
bhagavan -- the Personality of Godhead; sarva-avatara-bija -- the seed
of all different kinds of incarnations; sarva-asraya-dhama -- the
shelter of everything.
TRANSLATION
That Maha-purusa is identical with the Personality of Godhead. He is the
original incarnation, the seed of all others, and the shelter of
everything.
Adi 5.83
TEXT 83
TEXT
adyo 'vatarah purusah parasya
kalah svabhavah sad-asan manas ca
dravyam vikaro guna indriyani
virat svarat sthasnu carisnu bhumnah
SYNONYMS
adyah avatarah -- the original incarnation; purusah -- Maha-Visnu;
parasya -- of the Supreme Lord; kalah -- time; svabhavah -- nature; sat-
asat -- cause and effect; manah ca -- as well as the mind; dravyam --
the five elements; vikarah -- transformation or the false ego; gunah --
modes of nature; indriyani -- senses; virat -- the universal form;
svarat -- complete independence; sthasnu -- immovable; carisnu --
movable; bhumnah -- of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
"The purusa [Maha-Visnu] is the primary incarnation of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. Time, nature, prakrti (as cause and effect), the
mind, the material elements, false ego, the modes of nature, the senses,
the universal form, complete independence and the moving and nonmoving
beings appear subsequently as His opulences."
PURPORT
Describing the incarnations and their symptoms, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta
has stated that when Lord Krsna descends to conduct the creative affairs
of the material manifestation, He is an avatara, or incarnation. The two
categories of avataras are empowered devotees and tad-ekatma-rupa (the
Lord Himself). An example of tad-ekatma-rupa is Sesa, and an example of
a devotee is Vasudeva, the father of Lord Krsna. Srila Baladeva
Vidyabhusana has commented that the material cosmic manifestation is a
partial kingdom of God where God must sometimes come to execute a
specific function. The plenary portion of the Lord through whom Lord
Krsna executes such actions is called Maha-Visnu, who is the primal
beginning of all incarnations. Inexperienced observers presume that the
material energy provides both the cause and the elements of the cosmic
manifestation and that the living entities are the enjoyers of material
nature. But the devotees of the Bhagavata school, which has
scrutinizingly examined the entire situation, can understand that
material nature can independently be neither the supplier of the
material elements nor the cause of the material manifestation. Material
nature gets the power to supply the material elements from the glance of
the supreme purusa, Maha-Visnu, and when empowered by Him she is called
the cause of the material manifestation. Both features of material
nature, as the cause of the material creation and as the source of its
elements, exist due to the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The various expansions of the Supreme Lord who act to empower the
material energy are known as plenary expansions or incarnations. As
illustrated by the example of many flames lit from one flame, all these
plenary expansions and incarnations are as good as Visnu Himself;
nevertheless, because of their activities in controlling maya, sometimes
they are known as mayika, or having a relationship with maya. This is a
verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42).
Adi 5.84
TEXT 84
TEXT
jagrhe paurusam rupam
bhagavan mahad-adibhih
sambhutam sodasa-kalam
adau loka-sisrksaya
SYNONYMS
jagrhe -- accepted; paurusam -- the purusa incarnation; rupam -- the
form; bhagavan -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahat-adibhih --
by the total material energy etc.; sambhutam -- created; sodasa --
sixteen; kalam -- energies; adau -- originally; loka -- the material
worlds; sisrksaya -- with the desire to create.
TRANSLATION
"In the beginning of the creation, the Lord expanded Himself in the form
of the purusa incarnation, accompanied by all the ingredients of
material creation. First He created the sixteen principal energies
suitable for creation. This was for the purpose of manifesting the
material universes."
PURPORT
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.1). The commentary of Madhva
on Srimad-Bhagavatam mentions that the following sixteen spiritual
energies are present in the spiritual world: (1) sri, (2) bhu, (3) lila,
(4) kanti, (5) kirti, (6) tusti, (7) gir, (8) pusti, (9) satya (10)
jnanajnana, (11) jaya utkarsini, (12) vimala, (13) yogamaya, (14) prahvi,
(15) isana and (16) anugraha. In his commentary on the Laghu-
bhagavatamrta, Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana has said that the above
energies are also known by nine names: (1) vimala, (2) utkarsini (3)
jnana, (4) kriya, (5) yoga, (6) prahvi, (7) satya, (8) isana and (9)
anugraha. In the Bhagavat-sandarbha of Srila Jiva Gosvami (text 103)
they are described as sri, pusti, gir, kanti, kirti, tusti, ila, jaya;
vidyavidya, maya, samvit, sandhini, hladini, bhakti, murti, vimala, yoga,
prahvi, isana, anugraha, etc. All these energies act in different
spheres of the Lord's supremacy.
Adi 5.85
TEXT 85
TEXT
yadyapi sarvasraya tinho, tanhate samsara
antaratma-rupe tinho jagat-adhara
SYNONYMS
yadyapi -- although; sarva-asraya -- the shelter of everything; tinho --
He (the Lord); tanhate -- in Him; samsara -- the material creation;
antah-atma-rupe -- in the form of the Supersoul; tinho -- He; jagat-
adhara -- the support of the whole creation.
TRANSLATION
Although the Lord is the shelter of everything and although all the
universes rest in Him, He, as the Supersoul, is also the support of
everything.
Adi 5.86
TEXT 86
TEXT
prakrti-sahite tanra ubhaya sambandha
tathapi prakrti-saha nahi sparsa-gandha
SYNONYMS
prakrti-sahite -- with the material energy; tanra -- His; ubhaya
sambandha -- both relationships; tathapi -- still; prakrti-saha -- with
the material nature; nahi -- there is not; sparsa-gandha -- even the
slightest contact.
TRANSLATION
Although He is thus connected with the material energy in two ways, He
does not have the slightest contact with it.
PURPORT
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta, Srila Rupa Gosvami, commenting upon the Lord'
s transcendental position beyond the material qualities, says that Visnu,
as the controller and superintendent of material nature, has a
connection with the material qualities. That connection is called yoga.
However, the person who directs a prison is not also a prisoner.
Similarly, although the Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu directs or
supervises the qualitative nature, He has no connection with the
material modes of nature. The expansions of Lord Visnu always retain
their supremacy; they are never connected with the material qualities.
One may argue that Maha-Visnu cannot have any connection with the
material qualities, because if He were so connected, Srimad-Bhagavatam
would not state that material nature, ashamed of her thankless task of
acting to induce the living entities to become averse to the Supreme
Lord, remains behind the Lord in shyness. In answer to this argument, it
may be said that the word guna means "regulation." Lord Visnu, Lord
Brahma and Lord Siva are situated within this universe as the directors
of the three modes, and their connection with the modes is known as yoga.
This does not indicate, however, that these personalities are bound by
the qualities of nature. Lord Visnu specifically is always the
controller of the three qualities. There is no question of His coming
under their control.
Although the causal and element-supplying features exist in material
nature by dint of the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the
Lord is never affected by glancing over the material qualities. By the
will of the Supreme Lord the different qualitative changes in the
material world take place, but there is no possibility of material
affection, change or contamination for Lord Visnu.
Adi 5.87
TEXT 87
TEXT
etad isanam isasya
prakrti-stho 'pi tad-gunaih
na yujyate sadatma-sthair
yatha buddhis tad-asraya
SYNONYMS
etat -- this is; isanam -- opulence; isasya -- of the Lord; prakrti-
sthah -- within this material world; api -- although; tat-gunaih -- by
the material qualities; na yujyate -- never affected; sada -- always;
atma-sthaih -- situated in His own energy; yatha -- as also; buddhih --
intelligence; tat -- His; asraya -- devotees.
TRANSLATION
"This is the opulence of the Lord. Although situated within the material
nature, He is never affected by the modes of nature. Similarly, those
who have surrendered to Him and have fixed their intelligence upon Him
are not influenced by the modes of nature."
PURPORT
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.38).
Adi 5.88
TEXT 88
TEXT
ei mata gitateha punah punah kaya
sarvada isvara-tattva acintya-sakti haya
SYNONYMS
ei mata -- in this way; gitateha -- in the Bhagavad-gita; punah punah --
again and again; kaya -- it is said; sarvada -- always; isvara-tattva --
the truth of the Absolute Truth; acintya-sakti haya -- is inconceivable.
TRANSLATION
Thus the Bhagavad-gita also states again and again that the Absolute
Truth always possesses inconceivable power.
Adi 5.89
TEXT 89
TEXT
ami ta' jagate vasi, jagat amate
na ami jagate vasi, na ama jagate
SYNONYMS
ami -- I; ta' -- certainly; jagate -- in the material world; vasi --
situated; jagat -- the whole material creation; amate -- in Me; na --
not; ami -- I; jagate -- within the material world; vasi -- situated; na
-- nor; ama -- in Me; jagate -- the material world.
TRANSLATION
[Lord Krsna said:] "I am situated in the material world, and the world
rests in Me. But at the same time I am not situated in the material
world, nor does it rest in Me in truth.
PURPORT
Nothing in existence is possible unless energized by the will of the
Lord. The entire manifested creation is therefore resting on the energy
of the Lord, but one should not therefore presume that the material
manifestation is identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A
cloud may rest in the sky, but that does not mean that the sky and the
cloud are one and the same. Similarly, the qualitative material nature
and its products are never identical with the Supreme Lord. The tendency
to lord it over material nature, or maya, cannot be a feature of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead. When He descends to the material world,
He maintains His transcendental nature, unaffected by the material
qualities. In both the spiritual and material worlds, He is always the
controller of all energies. The uncontaminated spiritual nature always
exists within Him. The Lord appears and disappears in the material world
in different features for His pastimes, yet He is the origin of all
cosmic manifestations.
The material manifestation cannot exist separate from the Supreme Lord,
yet Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in spite of His
connection with the material nature, cannot be subordinate to nature's
influence. His original form of eternal bliss and knowledge is never
subordinate to the three qualities of material nature. This is a
specific feature of the Supreme Lord's inconceivable potencies.
Adi 5.90
TEXT 90
TEXT
acintya aisvarya ei janiha amara
ei ta' gitara artha kaila paracara
SYNONYMS
acintya -- inconceivable; aisvarya -- opulence; ei -- this; janiha --
you must know; amara -- of Me; ei ta' -- this; gitara artha -- the
meaning of the Bhagavad-gita; kaila paracara -- Lord Krsna propagated.
TRANSLATION
"O Arjuna, you should know this as My inconceivable opulence." This is
the meaning propagated by Lord Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita.
Adi 5.91
TEXT 91
TEXT
sei ta' purusa yanra ‘amsa' dhare nama
caitanyera sange sei nityananda-rama
SYNONYMS
sei ta' -- that; purusa -- Supreme Person; yanra -- of whom; amsa -- as
part; dhare nama -- is known; caitanyera sange -- with Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; sei -- that; nityananda-rama -- Lord Nityananda or Balarama.
TRANSLATION
That Maha-purusa [Karanodakasayi Visnu] is known as a plenary part of
Him who is Lord Nityananda Balarama, the favorite associate of Lord
Caitanya.
Adi 5.92
TEXT 92
TEXT
ei ta' navama slokera artha-vivarana
dasama slokera artha suna diya mana
SYNONYMS
ei ta' -- thus; navama slokera -- of the ninth verse; artha-vivarana --
description of the meaning; dasama slokera -- of the tenth verse; artha -
- meaning; suna -- hear; diya mana -- with attention.
TRANSLATION
I have thus explained the ninth verse, and now I shall explain the tenth.
Please listen with rapt attention.
Adi 5.93
TEXT 93
TEXT
yasyamsamsah srila-garbhoda-sayi
yan-nabhy-abjam loka-sanghata-nalam
loka-srastuh sutika-dhama dhatus
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
SYNONYMS
yasya -- whose; amsa-amsah -- portion of a plenary portion; srila-garbha-
uda-sayi -- Garbhodakasayi Visnu; yat -- of whom; nabhi-abjam -- the
navel lotus; loka-sanghata -- of the multitude of planets; nalam --
having a stem that is the resting place; loka-srastuh -- of Lord Brahma,
creator of the planets; sutika-dhama -- the birthplace; dhatuh -- of the
creator; tam -- to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam -- to Lord Balarama in the
form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye -- I surrender.
TRANSLATION
I offer my full obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, a
partial part of whom is Garbhodakasayi Visnu. From the navel of
Garbhodakasayi Visnu sprouts the lotus that is the birthplace of Brahma,
the engineer of the universe. The stem of that lotus is the resting
place of the multitude of planets.
PURPORT
In the Mahabharata, Santi-parva, it is said that He who is Pradyumna is
also Aniruddha. He is also the father of Brahma. Thus Garbhodakasayi
Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu are identical plenary expansions of
Pradyumna, the original Deity of Brahma, who is born from the lotus
flower. It is Pradyumna who gives Brahma direction for cosmic management.
A full description of Brahma's birth is given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.
15–16).
Describing the features of the three purusas, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta
says that Garbhodakasayi Visnu has a four-handed form, and when He
Himself enters the hollow of the universe and lies down in the ocean of
milk He is known as Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who is the Supersoul of all
living entities, including the demigods. In the Satvata-tantra it is
said that the third purusa incarnation, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, is situated
as the Supersoul in everyone's heart. This Ksirodakasayi Visnu is an
expansion of Garbhodakasayi Visnu for pastimes.
Adi 5.94
TEXT 94
TEXT
sei ta' purusa ananta-brahmanda srjiya
saba ande pravesila bahu-murti hana
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; ta' -- certainly; purusa -- incarnation; ananta-brahmanda --
innumerable universes; srjiya -- creating; saba -- all; ande -- in the
egglike universes; pravesila -- entered; bahu-murti hana -- taking
multifarious forms.
TRANSLATION
After creating millions of universes, the first purusa entered into each
of them in a separate form, as Sri Garbhodakasayi.
Adi 5.95
TEXT 95
TEXT
bhitare pravesi' dekhe saba andhakara
rahite nahika sthana karila vicara
SYNONYMS
bhitare -- within the universe; pravesi' -- entering; dekhe -- He sees;
saba -- all; andhakara -- darkness; rahite -- to stay; nahika -- there
is not; sthana -- place; karila vicara -- considered.
TRANSLATION
Entering the universe, He found only darkness, with no place in which to
reside. Thus He began to consider.
Adi 5.96
TEXT 96
TEXT
nijanga-sveda-jala karila srjana
sei jale kaila ardha-brahmanda bharana
SYNONYMS
nija-anga -- of His own body; sveda-jala -- water from perspiration;
karila -- did; srjana -- creation; sei jale -- with that water; kaila --
did; ardha-brahmanda -- half of the universe; bharana -- filling.
TRANSLATION
Then He created water from the perspiration of His own body and with
that water filled half the universe.
Adi 5.97
TEXT 97
TEXT
brahmanda-pramana pancasat-koti-yojana
ayama, vistara, dui haya eka sama
SYNONYMS
brahmanda-pramana -- measurement of the universe; pancasat -- fifty;
koti -- ten millions; yojana -- lengths of eight miles; ayama -- length;
vistara -- breadth; dui -- both of them; haya -- are; eka sama -- one
and the same.
TRANSLATION
The universe measures five hundred million yojanas. Its length and
breadth are one and the same.
Adi 5.98
TEXT 98
TEXT
jale bhari' ardha tanha kaila nija-vasa
ara ardhe kaila caudda-bhuvana prakasa
SYNONYMS
jale -- with water; bhari' -- filling; ardha -- half; tanha -- there;
kaila -- made; nija-vasa -- own residence; ara -- other; ardhe -- in the
half; kaila -- did; caudda-bhuvana -- fourteen worlds; prakasa --
manifestation.
TRANSLATION
After filling half the universe with water, He made His own residence
therein and manifested the fourteen worlds in the other half.
PURPORT
The fourteen worlds are enumerated in Srimad-Bhagavatam, Second Canto,
Fifth Chapter. The upper planetary systems are (1) Bhu, (2) Bhuvar, (3)
Svar, (4) Mahar, (5) Janas, (6) Tapas and (7) Satya. The seven lower
planetary systems are (1) Tala, (2) Atala, (3) Vitala, (4) Nitala, (5)
Talatala, (6) Mahatala and (7) Sutala. The lower planets as a whole are
called Patala. Among the upper planetary systems, Bhu, Bhuvar and Svar
constitute Svargaloka, and the rest are called Martya. The entire
universe is thus known as Triloka.
Adi 5.99
TEXT 99
TEXT
tanhai prakata kaila vaikuntha nija-dhama
sesa-sayana-jale karila visrama
SYNONYMS
tanhai -- there; prakata -- manifestation; kaila -- did; vaikuntha --
the spiritual world; nija-dhama -- His own abode; sesa -- of Lord Sesa;
sayana -- on the bed; jale -- on the water; karila -- did; visrama --
rest.
TRANSLATION
There He manifested Vaikuntha as His own abode and rested in the waters
on the bed of Lord Sesa.
Adi 5.100–101
TEXTS 100–101
TEXT
ananta-sayyate tanha karila sayana
sahasra mastaka tanra sahasra vadana
sahasra-carana-hasta, sahasra-nayana
sarva-avatara-bija, jagat-karana
SYNONYMS
ananta-sayyate -- on Lord Ananta as a bed; tanha -- there; karila sayana
-- lay down; sahasra -- thousands; mastaka -- heads; tanra -- His;
sahasra vadana -- thousands of faces; sahasra -- thousands; carana --
legs; hasta -- hands; sahasra-nayana -- thousands of eyes; sarva-avatara-
bija -- the seed of all incarnations; jagat-karana -- the cause of the
material world.
TRANSLATION
He lay there with Ananta as His bed. Lord Ananta is a divine serpent
having thousands of heads, thousands of faces, thousands of eyes and
thousands of hands and feet. He is the seed of all incarnations and is
the cause of the material world.
PURPORT
In the reservoir of water first created by the perspiration of
Garbhodakasayi Visnu, the Lord lies on the Sesa plenary expansion of
Visnu, who is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam and in the four Vedas as
follows:
sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat
sa bhumim visvato vrtvatyatisthad dasangulam
The Visnu form called Ananta-sayana has thousands of hands and legs and
thousands of eyes, and He is the active generator of all the
incarnations within the material world.
Adi 5.102
TEXT 102
TEXT
tanra nabhi-padma haite uthila eka padma
sei padme haila brahmara janma-sadma
SYNONYMS
tanra -- His; nabhi-padma -- lotus navel; haite -- from; uthila -- grew;
eka -- one; padma -- lotus flower; sei padme -- on that lotus; haila --
there was; brahmara -- of Lord Brahma; janma-sadma -- the place of birth.
TRANSLATION
From His navel grew a lotus flower, which became the birthplace of Lord
Brahma.
Adi 5.103
TEXT 103
TEXT
sei padma-nale haila caudda-bhuvana
tenho brahma hana srsti karila srjana
SYNONYMS
sei padma-nale -- within the stem of that lotus flower; haila -- were;
caudda-bhuvana -- the fourteen worlds; tenho -- He Himself; brahma hana -
- appearing as Brahma; srsti -- the creation; karila srjana -- created.
TRANSLATION
Within the stem of that lotus were the fourteen worlds. Thus the Supreme
Lord, as Brahma, created the entire creation.
Adi 5.104
TEXT 104
TEXT
visnu-rupa hana kare jagat palane
gunatita-visnu sparsa nahi maya-gune
SYNONYMS
visnu-rupa -- the form of Lord Visnu; hana -- becoming; kare -- does;
jagat palane -- maintenance of the material world; guna-atita -- beyond
the material qualities; visnu -- Lord Visnu; sparsa -- touch; nahi --
not; maya-gune -- in the material qualities.
TRANSLATION
And as Lord Visnu He maintains the entire world. Lord Visnu, being
beyond all material attributes, has no touch with the material qualities.
PURPORT
Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana says that although Visnu is the predominating
Deity of the quality of goodness in the material world, He is never
affected by the quality of goodness, for He directs that quality simply
by His supreme will. It is said that all living entities can derive all
good fortune from the Lord simply by His will. In the Vamana Purana it
is said that the same Visnu expands Himself as Brahma and Siva to direct
the different qualities.
Because Lord Visnu expands the quality of goodness, He has the name
Sattvatanu. The multifarious incarnations of Ksirodakasayi Visnu are
known as Sattvatanu. Therefore in all Vedic scriptures Visnu has been
described as being free from all material qualities. In the Tenth Canto
of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said:
harir hi nirgunah saksat purusah prakrteh parah
sa sarva-drg upadrasta tam bhajan nirguno bhavet
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, is always uncontaminated by
the modes of material nature, for He is beyond the material
manifestation. He is the source of the knowledge of all the demigods,
headed by Lord Brahma, and He is the witness of everything. Therefore
one who worships the Supreme Lord Visnu also attains freedom from the
contamination of material nature." (SB 10.88.5) One can attain freedom
from the contamination of material nature by worshiping Visnu, and
therefore He is called Sattvatanu, as described above.
Adi 5.105
TEXT 105
TEXT
rudra-rupa dhari' kare jagat samhara
srsti-sthiti-pralaya -- icchaya yanhara
SYNONYMS
rudra-rupa -- the form of Lord Siva; dhari' -- accepting; kare -- does;
jagat samhara -- annihilation of the material world; srsti-sthiti-
pralaya -- creation, maintenance and annihilation; icchaya -- by the
will; yanhara -- of whom.
TRANSLATION
Assuming the form of Rudra, He destroys the creation. Thus creation,
maintenance and dissolution are created by His will.
PURPORT
Mahesvara, or Lord Siva, is not an ordinary living being, nor is he
equal to Lord Visnu. Effectively comparing Lord Visnu and Lord Siva, the
Brahma-samhita says that Visnu is like milk, whereas Siva is like yogurt.
Yogurt is nothing like milk, but nevertheless it is milk also.
Adi 5.106
TEXT 106
TEXT
hiranya-garbha, antaryami, jagat-karana
yanra amsa kari' kare virata-kalpana
SYNONYMS
hiranya-garbha -- Hiranyagarbha; antah-yami -- the Supersoul; jagat-
karana -- the cause of the material world; yanra amsa kari' -- taking as
His expansion; kare -- does; virata-kalpana -- conception of the
universal form.
TRANSLATION
He is the Supersoul, Hiranyagarbha, the cause of the material world. The
universal form is conceived as His expansion.
Adi 5.107
TEXT 107
TEXT
hena narayana, -- yanra amsera amsa
sei prabhu nityananda -- sarva-avatamsa
SYNONYMS
hena -- such; narayana -- Lord Narayana; yanra -- of whom; amsera -- of
the plenary part; amsa -- a part; sei -- that; prabhu -- the Lord;
nityananda -- Nityananda; sarva-avatamsa -- the source of all
incarnations.
TRANSLATION
That Lord Narayana is a part of a plenary part of Lord Nityananda
Balarama, who is the source of all incarnations.
Adi 5.108
TEXT 108
TEXT
dasama slokera artha kaila vivarana
ekadasa slokera artha suna diya mana
SYNONYMS
dasama -- tenth; slokera -- of the verse; artha -- meaning; kaila --
have done; vivarana -- description; ekadasa -- eleventh; slokera -- of
the verse; artha -- meaning; suna -- please hear; diya mana -- with the
mind.
TRANSLATION
I have thus explained the tenth verse. Now please listen to the meaning
of the eleventh verse with all your mind.
Adi 5.109
TEXT 109
TEXT
yasyamsamsamsah paratmakhilanam
posta visnur bhati dugdhabdhi-sayi
ksauni-bharta yat-kala so 'py anantas
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
SYNONYMS
yasya -- whose; amsa-amsa-amsah -- a portion of a portion of a plenary
portion; para-atma -- the Supersoul; akhilanam -- of all living entities;
posta -- the maintainer; visnuh -- Visnu; bhati -- appears; dugdha-
abdhi-sayi -- Ksirodakasayi Visnu; ksauni-bharta -- upholder of the
earth; yat -- whose; kala -- portion of a portion; sah -- He; api --
certainly; anantah -- Sesa Naga; tam -- to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam --
to Lord Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye -- I surrender.
TRANSLATION
I offer my respectful obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama,
whose secondary part is the Visnu lying in the ocean of milk. That
Ksirodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of all living entities and the
maintainer of all the universes. Sesa Naga is His further subpart.
Adi 5.110
TEXT 110
TEXT
narayanera nabhi-nala-madhyete dharani
dharanira madhye sapta samudra ye gani
SYNONYMS
narayanera -- of Lord Narayana; nabhi-nala -- the stem from the navel;
madhyete -- within; dharani -- the material planets; dharanira madhye --
among the material planets; sapta -- seven; samudra -- oceans; ye gani --
they count.
TRANSLATION
The material planets rest within the stem that grows from the lotus
navel of Lord Narayana. Among these planets are seven oceans.
Adi 5.111
TEXT 111
TEXT
tanha ksirodadhi-madhye ‘svetadvipa' nama
palayita visnu, -- tanra sei nija dhama
SYNONYMS
tanha -- within that; ksira-udadhi-madhye -- in part of the ocean known
as the ocean of milk; svetadvipa nama -- the island named Svetadvipa;
palayita visnu -- the maintainer, Lord Visnu; tanra -- of Him; sei --
that; nija dhama -- own residential quarters.
TRANSLATION
There, in part of the ocean of milk, lies Svetadvipa, the abode of the
sustainer, Lord Visnu.
PURPORT
In the Siddhanta-siromani, an astrological text, the different oceans
are described as follows: (1) the ocean of salt water, (2) the ocean of
milk, (3) the ocean of yogurt, (4) the ocean of clarified butter, (5)
the ocean of sugarcane juice, (6) the ocean of liquor and (7) the ocean
of sweet water. On the southern side of the ocean of salt water is the
ocean of milk, where Lord Ksirodakasayi Visnu resides. He is worshiped
there by demigods like Brahma.
Adi 5.112
TEXT 112
TEXT
sakala jivera tinho haye antaryami
jagat-palaka tinho jagatera svami
SYNONYMS
sakala -- all; jivera -- of the living entities; tinho -- He; haye -- is;
antah-yami -- the Supersoul; jagat-palaka -- the maintainer of the
material world; tinho -- He; jagatera svami -- the Lord of the material
world.
TRANSLATION
He is the Supersoul of all living entities. He maintains this material
world, and He is its Lord.
PURPORT
The Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 2.36–42) gives the following description
of the Visnuloka within this universe, quoted from the Visnu-dharmottara:
"Above Rudraloka, the planet of Lord Siva, is the planet called
Visnuloka, 400,000 miles in circumference, which is inaccessible to any
mortal living being. Above that Visnuloka and east of the Sumeru Hill is
a golden island called Maha-Visnuloka, in the ocean of salt water. Lord
Brahma and other demigods sometimes go there to meet Lord Visnu. Lord
Visnu lies there with the goddess of fortune, and it is said that during
the four months of the rainy season He enjoys sleeping on that Sesa Naga
bed. East of Sumeru is the ocean of milk, in which there is a white city
on a white island where the Lord can be seen sitting with His consort,
Laksmiji, on a throne of Sesa. That feature of Visnu also enjoys
sleeping during the four months of the rainy season. The Svetadvipa in
the milk ocean is situated just south of the ocean of salt water. It is
calculated that the area of Svetadvipa is 200,000 square miles. This
transcendentally beautiful island is decorated with desire trees to
please Lord Visnu and His consort." There are references to Svetadvipa
in the Brahmanda Purana, Visnu Purana, Mahabharata and Padma Purana, and
there is the following reference in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.15.18).
svetadvipa-patau cittam suddhe dharma-maye mayi
dharayan chvetatam yati sad-urmi-rahito narah
"My dear Uddhava, you may know that My transcendental form of Visnu in
Svetadvipa is identical with Me in divinity. Anyone who places this Lord
of Svetadvipa within his heart can surpass the pangs of the six material
tribulations: hunger, thirst, birth, death, lamentation and illusion.
Thus one can attain his original, transcendental form."
Adi 5.113
TEXT 113
TEXT
yuga-manvantare dhari' nana avatara
dharma samsthapana kare, adharma samhara
SYNONYMS
yuga-manu-antare -- in the ages and millenniums of Manu; dhari' --
accepting; nana -- various; avatara -- incarnations; dharma samsthapana
kare -- establishes the principles of religion; adharma samhara --
vanquishing irreligious principles.
TRANSLATION
In the ages and millenniums of Manu, He appears as different
incarnations to establish the principles of real religion and vanquish
the principles of irreligion.
PURPORT
The Lord Visnu who lies in the ocean of milk incarnates Himself in
various forms to maintain the laws of the cosmos and annihilate the
causes of disturbance. Such incarnations are visible in every manv-
antara (i.e., in the course of the reign of each Manu, who lives for 71
x 4,320,000 years). Fourteen such Manus take their birth and die, to
yield a place for the next, during one day of Brahma.
Adi 5.114
TEXT 114
TEXT
deva-gane na paya yanhara darasana
ksirodaka-tire yai' karena stavana
SYNONYMS
deva-gane -- the demigods; na -- not; paya -- get; yanhara -- whose;
darasana -- sight; ksira-udaka-tire -- on the shore of the ocean of milk;
yai' -- go; karena stavana -- offer prayers.
TRANSLATION
Unable to see Him, the demigods go to the shore of the ocean of milk and
offer prayers to Him.
PURPORT
The denizens of heaven, who live in the planetary systems beginning from
Svarloka, cannot even see Lord Visnu in Svetadvipa. Unable to reach the
island, they can simply approach the beach of the milk ocean to offer
transcendental prayers to the Lord, appealing to Him on special
occasions to appear as an incarnation.
Adi 5.115
TEXT 115
TEXT
tabe avatari' kare jagat palana
ananta vaibhava tanra nahika ganana
SYNONYMS
tabe -- at that time; avatari' -- descending; kare -- does; jagat palana
-- maintenance of the material world; ananta -- unlimited; vaibhava --
the opulences; tanra -- of Him; nahika -- there is not; ganana --
counting.
TRANSLATION
He then descends to maintain the material world. His unlimited opulences
cannot be counted.
Adi 5.116
TEXT 116
TEXT
sei visnu haya yanra amsamsera amsa
sei prabhu nityananda -- sarva-avatamsa
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; visnu -- Lord Visnu; haya -- is; yanra -- whose; amsa-
amsera -- of the part of the plenary part; amsa -- part; sei -- that;
prabhu -- Lord; nityananda -- Nityananda; sarva-avatamsa -- the source
of all incarnations.
TRANSLATION
That Lord Visnu is but a part of a part of a plenary portion of Lord
Nityananda, who is the source of all incarnations.
PURPORT
The Lord of Svetadvipa has immense potency for creation and destruction.
Sri Nityananda Prabhu, being Baladeva Himself, the original form of
Sankarsana, is the original form of the Lord of Svetadvipa.
Adi 5.117
TEXT 117
TEXT
sei visnu ‘sesa'-rupe dharena dharani
kanha ache mahi, sire, hena nahi jani
SYNONYMS
sei -- that; visnu -- Lord Visnu; sesa-rupe -- in form of Lord Sesa;
dharena -- carries; dharani -- the planets; kanha -- where; ache -- are;
mahi -- the planets; sire -- on the head; hena nahi jani -- I cannot
understand.
TRANSLATION
That same Lord Visnu, in the form of Lord Sesa, holds the planets upon
His heads, although He does not know where they are, for He cannot feel
their existence upon His heads.
Adi 5.118
TEXT 118
TEXT
sahasra vistirna yanra phanara mandala
surya jini' mani-gana kare jhala-mala
SYNONYMS
sahasra -- thousands; vistirna -- spread; yanra -- whose; phanara -- of
the hoods; mandala -- group; surya -- the sun; jini' -- conquering; mani-
gana -- jewels; kare -- do; jhala-mala -- glittering.
TRANSLATION
His thousands of extended hoods are adorned with dazzling jewels
surpassing the sun.
Adi 5.119
TEXT 119
TEXT
pancasat-koti-yojana prthivi-vistara
yanra eka-phane rahe sarsapa-akara
SYNONYMS
pancasat -- fifty; koti -- ten millions; yojana -- eight miles; prthivi -
- of the universe; vistara -- breadth; yanra -- whose; eka-phane -- on
one of the hoods; rahe -- stays; sarsapa-akara -- like a mustard seed.
TRANSLATION
The universe, which measures five hundred million yojanas in diameter,
rests on one of His hoods like a mustard seed.
PURPORT
The Lord of Svetadvipa expands Himself as Sesa Naga, who sustains all
the planets upon His innumerable hoods. These huge global spheres are
compared to grains of mustard resting on the spiritual hoods of Sesa
Naga. The scientists' law of gravity is a partial explanation of Lord
Sankarsana's energy. The name "Sankarsana" has an etymological
relationship to the idea of gravity. There is a reference to Sesa Naga
in Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.17.21), where it is said:
yam ahur asya sthiti janma-samyamam
tribhir vihinam yam anantam rsayah
na veda siddhartham iva kvacit sthitam
bhu-mandalam murdha-sahasra-dhamasu
"O my Lord, the hymns of the Vedas proclaim that You are the effective
cause for the creation, maintenance and destruction. But in fact You are
transcendental to all limitations and are therefore known as unlimited.
On Your thousands of hoods rest the innumerable global spheres, like
grains of mustard so insignificant that You have no perception of their
weight." The Bhagavatam further says (5.25.2):
yasyedam ksiti-mandalam bhagavato 'nanta-murteh sahasra-sirasa ekasminn
eva sirsani dhriyamanam siddhartha iva laksyate.
"Lord Anantadeva has thousands of hoods. Each sustains a global sphere
that appears like a grain of mustard."
Adi 5.120
TEXT 120
TEXT
sei ta' ‘ananta' ‘sesa' -- bhakta-avatara
isvarera seva vina nahi jane ara
SYNONYMS
sei ta' -- that; ananta -- Lord Ananta; sesa -- the incarnation Sesa;
bhakta-avatara -- incarnation of a devotee; isvarera seva -- the service
of the Lord; vina -- without; nahi -- not; jane -- knows; ara --
anything else.
TRANSLATION
That Ananta Sesa is the devotee incarnation of Godhead. He knows nothing
but service to Lord Krsna.
PURPORT
Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Krsna-sandarbha, has described Sesa Naga as
follows: "Sri Anantadeva has thousands of faces and is fully independent.
Always ready to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He waits upon
Him constantly. Sankarsana is the first expansion of Vasudeva, and
because He appears by His own will, He is called svarat, fully
independent. He is therefore infinite and transcendental to all limits
of time and space. He Himself appears as the thousand-headed Sesa." In
the Skanda Purana, in the Ayodhya-mahatmya chapter, the demigod Indra
requested Lord Sesa, who was standing before him as Laksmana, "Please go
to Your eternal abode, Visnuloka, where Your expansion Sesa, with His
serpentine hoods, is also present." After thus dispatching Laksmana to
the regions of Patala, Lord Indra returned to his abode. This quotation
indicates that the Sankarsana of the quadruple form descends with Lord
Rama as Laksmana. When Lord Rama disappears, Sesa again separates
Himself from the personality of Laksmana. Sesa then returns to His own
abode in the Patala regions, and Laksmana returns to His abode in
Vaikuntha.
The Laghu-bhagavatamrta gives the following description: "The Sankarsana
of the second group of quadruple forms appears as Rama, taking with Him
Sesa, who bears the global spheres. There are two features of Sesa. One
is the bearer of the globes, and the other is the bedstead servitor. The
Sesa who bears the globes is a potent incarnation of Sankarsana, and
therefore He is sometimes also called Sankarsana. The bedstead feature
of Sesa always presents himself as an eternal servitor of the Lord."
Adi 5.121
TEXT 121
TEXT
sahasra-vadane kare krsna-guna gana
niravadhi guna ga'na, anta nahi pa'na
SYNONYMS
sahasra-vadane -- in thousands of mouths; kare -- does; krsna-guna gana -
- chanting of the holy attributes of Krsna; niravadhi -- continuously;
guna ga'na -- chanting of the transcendental qualities; anta nahi pa'na -
- does not reach the end.
TRANSLATION
With His thousands of mouths He sings the glories of Lord Krsna, but
although He always sings in that way, He does not find an end to the
qualities of the Lord.
Adi 5.122
TEXT 122
TEXT
sanakadi bhagavata sune yanra mukhe
bhagavanera guna kahe, bhase prema-sukhe
SYNONYMS
sanaka-adi -- the great sages headed by Sanaka, Sananda, etc.; bhagavata
-- Srimad-Bhagavatam; sune -- hear; yanra mukhe -- from whose mouth;
bhagavanera -- of the Personality of Godhead; guna -- attributes; kahe --
say; bhase -- float; prema-sukhe -- in the transcendental bliss of love
of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
The four Kumaras hear Srimad-Bhagavatam from His lips, and they in turn
repeat it in the transcendental bliss of love of Godhead.
Adi 5.123
TEXT 123
TEXT
chatra, paduka, sayya, upadhana, vasana
arama, avasa, yajna-sutra, simhasana
SYNONYMS
chatra -- umbrella; paduka -- slippers; sayya -- bed; upadhana -- pillow;
vasana -- garments; arama -- resting chair; avasa -- residence; yajna-
sutra -- sacred thread; simha-asana -- throne.
TRANSLATION
He serves Lord Krsna, assuming all the following forms: umbrella,
slippers, bedding, pillow, garments, resting chair, residence, sacred
thread and throne.
Adi 5.124
TEXT 124
TEXT
eta murti-bheda kari' krsna-seva kare
krsnera sesata pana ‘sesa' nama dhare
SYNONYMS
eta -- so many; murti-bheda -- different forms; kari' -- taking; krsna-
seva kare -- serves Lord Krsna; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna; sesata --
ultimate end; pana -- having reached; sesa nama dhare -- assumes the
name Sesa Naga.
TRANSLATION
He is thus called Lord Sesa, for He has attained the ultimate end of
servitude to Krsna. He takes many forms for the service of Krsna, and
thus He serves the Lord.
Adi 5.125
TEXT 125
TEXT
sei ta' ananta, yanra kahi eka kala
hena prabhu nityananda, ke jane tanra khela
SYNONYMS
sei ta' -- that; ananta -- Lord Ananta; yanra -- of whom; kahi -- I say;
eka kala -- one part of the part; hena -- such; prabhu nityananda --
Lord Nityananda Prabhu; ke -- who; jane -- knows; tanra -- His; khela --
pastimes.
TRANSLATION
That person of whom Lord Ananta is a kala, or part of a plenary part, is
Lord Nityananda Prabhu. Who, therefore, can know the pastimes of Lord
Nityananda?
Adi 5.126
TEXT 126
TEXT
e-saba pramane jani nityananda-tattva-sima
tanhake ‘ananta' kahi, ki tanra mahima
SYNONYMS
e-saba -- all these; pramane -- by the evidences; jani -- I know;
nityananda-tattva-sima -- the limit of the truth of Lord Nityananda;
tanhake -- to Him (Lord Nityananda, Balarama); ananta -- Lord Ananta;
kahi -- if I say; ki tanre mahima -- what glory do I speak about Him.
TRANSLATION
From these conclusions we can know the limit of the truth of Lord
Nityananda. But what glory is there in calling Him Ananta?
Adi 5.127
TEXT 127
TEXT
athava bhaktera vakya mani satya kari'
sakala sambhave tante, yate avatari
SYNONYMS
athava -- otherwise; bhaktera vakya -- anything spoken by a pure devotee;
mani -- I accept; satya kari' -- as truth; sakala -- everything;
sambhave -- possible; tante -- in Him; yate -- since; avatari -- the
original source of all incarnations.
TRANSLATION
But I accept it as the truth because it has been said by devotees. Since
He is the source of all incarnations, everything is possible in Him.
Adi 5.128
TEXT 128
TEXT
avatara-avatari -- abheda, ye jane
purve yaiche krsnake keho kaho kari' mane
SYNONYMS
avatara-avatari -- an incarnation and the source of all incarnations;
abheda -- identical; ye jane -- anyone who knows; purve -- formerly;
yaiche -- just as; krsnake -- unto Lord Krsna; keho -- somebody; kaho --
somewhere; kari' -- making; mane -- accepts.
TRANSLATION
They know that there is no difference between the incarnation and the
source of all incarnations. Previously Lord Krsna was regarded in the
light of different principles by different people.
Adi 5.129
TEXT 129
TEXT
keho kahe, krsna saksat nara-narayana
keho kahe, krsna haya saksat vamana
SYNONYMS
keho kahe -- someone says; krsna -- Lord Krsna; saksat -- directly; nara-
narayana -- Lord Nara-Narayana; keho kahe -- someone says; krsna haya --
Krsna is; saksat vamana -- Lord Vamanadeva.
TRANSLATION
Some said that Krsna was directly Lord Nara-Narayana, and some called
Him Lord Vamanadeva incarnate.
Adi 5.130
TEXT 130
TEXT
keho kahe, krsna ksiroda-sayi avatara
asambhava nahe, satya vacana sabara
SYNONYMS
keho kahe -- someone says; krsna -- Lord Krsna; ksiroda-sayi avatara --
an incarnation of Lord Visnu lying in the ocean of milk; asambhava nahe -
- there is not impossibility; satya -- true; vacana sabara -- everyone's
statement.
TRANSLATION
Some called Lord Krsna an incarnation of Lord Ksirodakasayi. All these
names are true; nothing is impossible.
Adi 5.131
TEXT 131
TEXT
krsna yabe avatare sarvamsa-asraya
sarvamsa asi' tabe krsnete milaya
SYNONYMS
krsna -- Lord Krsna; yabe -- when; avatare -- descends; sarva-amsa-
asraya -- the shelter of all other visnu-tattvas; sarva-amsa -- all
plenary portions; asi' -- coming; tabe -- at that time; krsnete -- in
Krsna; milaya -- join.
TRANSLATION
When the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna appears, He is the shelter
of all plenary parts. Thus at that time all His plenary portions join in
Him.
Adi 5.132
TEXT 132
TEXT
yei yei rupe jane, sei taha kahe
sakala sambhave krsne, kichu mithya nahe
SYNONYMS
yei yei -- whatever; rupe -- in the form; jane -- one knows; sei -- he;
taha -- that; kahe -- says; sakala sambhave krsne -- everything is
possible in Krsna; kichu mithya nahe -- there is no falsity.
TRANSLATION
In whatever form one knows the Lord, one speaks of Him in that way. In
this there is no falsity, since everything is possible in Krsna.
PURPORT
In this connection we may mention an incident that took place between
two of our sannyasis while we were preaching the Hare Krsna maha-mantra
in Hyderabad. One of them stated that "Hare Rama" refers to Sri Balarama,
and the other protested that "Hare Rama" means Lord Rama. Ultimately
the controversy came to me, and I gave the decision that if someone says
that the "Rama" in "Hare Rama" is Lord Ramacandra and someone else says
that the "Rama" in "Hare Rama" is Sri Balarama, both are correct because
there is no difference between Sri Balarama and Lord Rama. Here in Sri
Caitanya-caritamrta we find that Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami has stated
the same conclusion:
yei yei rupe jane, sei taha kahe
sakala sambhave krsne, kichu mithya nahe
If someone calls Lord Ramacandra by the vibration Hare Rama,
understanding it to mean "O Lord Ramacandra!" he is quite right.
Similarly, if one says that Hare Rama means "O Sri Balarama!" he is also
right. Those who are aware of the visnu-tattva do not fight over all
these details.
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta Srila Rupa Gosvami has explained Krsna's
being both Ksirodakasayi Visnu and Narayana in the spiritual sky and
expanding in the quadruple forms known as Vasudeva, Sankarsana,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha. He has refuted the idea that Krsna is an
incarnation of Narayana. Some devotees think that Narayana is the
original Personality of Godhead and that Krsna is an incarnation. Even
Sankaracarya, in his commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, has accepted
Narayana as the transcendental Personality of Godhead who appeared as
Krsna, the son of Devaki and Vasudeva. Therefore this matter may be
difficult to understand. But the Gaudiya Vaisnava-sampradaya, headed by
Rupa Gosvami, has established the principle of the Bhagavad-gita that
everything emanates from Krsna, who says in the Bhagavad-gita, aham
sarvasya prabhavah: [Bg. 10.8] "I am the original source of everything."
"Everything" includes Narayana. Therefore Rupa Gosvami, in his Laghu-
bhagavatamrta, has established that Krsna, not Narayana, is the original
Personality of Godhead.
In this connection he has quoted a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.15)
that states:
sva-santa-rupesv itaraih svarupair
abhyardyamanesv anukampitatma
paravareso mahad-amsa-yukto
hy ajo 'pi jato bhagavan yathagnih
"When pure devotees of the Lord like Vasudeva are greatly disturbed by
dangerous demons like Kamsa, Lord Krsna joins with all His pastime
expansions, such as the Lord of Vaikuntha, and, although unborn, becomes
manifest, just as fire becomes manifest by the friction of arani wood."
Arani wood is used to ignite a sacrificial fire without matches or any
other flame. Just as fire appears from arani wood, the Supreme Lord
appears when there is friction between devotees and nondevotees. When
Krsna appears, He appears in full, including within Himself all His
expansions, such as Narayana, Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and
Pradyumna. Krsna is always integrated with His other incarnations, like
Nrsimhadeva, Varaha, Vamana, Nara-Narayana, Hayagriva and Ajita. In
Vrndavana Lord Krsna sometimes exhibits the functions of such
incarnations.
In the Brahmanda Purana it is said, "The same Personality of Godhead who
is known in Vaikuntha as the four-handed Narayana, the friend of all
living entities, and in the milk ocean as the Lord of Svetadvipa, and
who is the best of all purusas, appeared as the son of Nanda. In a fire
there are many sparks of different dimensions; some of them are very big,
and some are small. The small sparks are compared to the living
entities, and the large sparks are compared to the Visnu expansions of
Lord Krsna. All the incarnations emanate from Krsna, and after the end
of their pastimes they again merge with Krsna."
Therefore in the various Puranas Krsna is described sometimes as
Narayana, sometimes as Ksirodakasayi Visnu, sometimes as Garbhodakasayi
Visnu and sometimes as Vaikunthanatha, the Lord of Vaikuntha. Because
Krsna is always full, Mula-sankarsana is in Krsna, and since all
incarnations are manifested from Mula-sankarsana, it should be
understood that He can manifest different incarnations by His supreme
will, even in the presence of Krsna. Great sages have therefore
glorified the Lord by different names. Thus when the original person,
the source of all incarnations, is sometimes described as an incarnation,
there is no discrepancy.
Adi 5.133
TEXT 133
TEXT
ataeva sri-krsna-caitanya gosani
sarva avatara-lila kari' sabare dekhai
SYNONYMS
ataeva -- therefore; sri-krsna-caitanya -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
gosani -- the Lord; sarva -- all; avatara-lila -- the pastimes of
different incarnations; kari' -- exhibiting; sabare -- to everyone;
dekhai -- He showed.
TRANSLATION
Therefore Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu has exhibited to everyone all the
pastimes of all the various incarnations.
Adi 5.134
TEXT 134
TEXT
ei-rupe nityananda ‘ananta'-prakasa
sei-bhave -- kahe muni caitanyera dasa
SYNONYMS
ei-rupe -- in this way; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; ananta-prakasa --
unlimited manifestations; sei-bhave -- in that transcendental emotion;
kahe -- He says; muni -- I; caitanyera dasa -- the servant of Lord
Caitanya.
TRANSLATION
Thus Lord Nityananda has unlimited incarnations. In transcendental
emotion He calls Himself a servant of Lord Caitanya.
Adi 5.135
TEXT 135
TEXT
kabhu guru, kabhu sakha, kabhu bhrtya-lila
purve yena tina-bhave vraje kaila khela
SYNONYMS
kabhu -- sometimes; guru -- spiritual master; kabhu -- sometimes; sakha -
- friend; kabhu -- sometimes; bhrtya-lila -- pastimes as a servant;
purve -- formerly; yena -- as; tina-bhave -- in three different moods;
vraje -- in Vrndavana; kaila khela -- plays with Krsna.
TRANSLATION
Sometimes He serves Lord Caitanya as His guru, sometimes as His friend
and sometimes as His servant, just as Lord Balarama played with Lord
Krsna in these three different moods in Vraja.
Adi 5.136
TEXT 136
TEXT
vrsa hana krsna-sane matha-mathi rana
kabhu krsna kare tanra pada-samvahana
SYNONYMS
vrsa hana -- becoming a bull; krsna-sane -- with Krsna; matha-mathi rana
-- fighting head to head; kabhu -- sometimes; krsna -- Krsna; kare --
does; tanra -- His; pada-samvahana -- massaging the feet.
TRANSLATION
Playing like a bull, Lord Balarama fights with Krsna head to head. And
sometimes Lord Krsna massages the feet of Lord Balarama.
Adi 5.137
TEXT 137
TEXT
apanake bhrtya kari' krsne prabhu jane
krsnera kalara kala apanake mane
SYNONYMS
apanake -- Himself; bhrtya kari' -- considering a servant; krsna --
Krsna; prabhu -- master; jane -- He knows; krsnera -- of Lord Krsna;
kalara kala -- as a plenary portion of a plenary portion; apanake --
Himself; mane -- He accepts.
TRANSLATION
He considers Himself a servant and knows Krsna to be His master. Thus He
regards Himself as a fragment of His plenary portion.
Adi 5.138
TEXT 138
TEXT
vrsayamanau nardantau
yuyudhate parasparam
anukrtya rutair jantums
ceratuh prakrtau yatha
SYNONYMS
vrsayamanau -- becoming like bulls; nardantau -- making roaring sounds;
yuyudhate -- both used to fight; parasparam -- each other; anukrtya --
imitating; rutaih -- with cries; jantun -- the animals; ceratuh -- used
to play; prakrtau -- ordinary boys; yatha -- just like.
TRANSLATION
"Acting just like ordinary boys, They played like roaring bulls as They
fought each other, and They imitated the calls of various animals."
PURPORT
This and the following quotation are from the Bhagavatam (10.11.40 and
10.15.14).
Adi 5.139
TEXT 139
TEXT
kvacit krida-parisrantam
gopotsangopabarhanam
svayam visramayaty aryam
pada-samvahanadibhih
SYNONYMS
kvacit -- sometimes; krida -- playing; parisrantam -- very much fatigued;
gopa-utsanga -- the lap of a cowherd boy; upabarhanam -- whose pillow;
svayam -- personally Lord Krsna; visramayati -- causing to rest; aryam --
His elder brother; pada-samvahana-adibhih -- by massaging His feet, etc.
TRANSLATION
"Sometimes when Lord Krsna's elder brother, Lord Balarama, felt tired
after playing and lay His head on the lap of a cowherd boy, Lord Krsna
Himself served Him by massaging His feet."
Adi 5.140
TEXT 140
TEXT
keyam va kuta ayata
daivi va nary utasuri
prayo mayastu me bhartur
nanya me 'pi vimohini
SYNONYMS
ka -- who; iyam -- this; va -- or; kutah -- from where; ayata -- has
come; daivi -- whether demigod; va -- or; nari -- woman; uta -- or;
asuri -- demoness; prayah -- in most cases; maya -- illusory energy;
astu -- she must be; me -- My; bhartuh -- of the master, Lord Krsna; na -
- not; anya -- any other; me -- My; api -- certainly; vimohini --
bewilderer.
TRANSLATION
"Who is this mystic power, and where has she come from? Is she a demigod
or a demoness? She must be the illusory energy of My master, Lord Krsna,
for who else can bewilder Me?"
PURPORT
The playful pastimes of the Lord caused suspicion in the mind of Lord
Brahma, and therefore Lord Brahma, to test Krsna's Lordship, stole all
the Lord's calves and cowherd boys with his own mystic power. Sri Krsna
responded, however, by replacing all the calves and boys in the field.
Lord Balarama's thoughts of astonishment at such wonderful retaliation
are recorded in this verse (SB 10.13.37).
Adi 5.141
TEXT 141
TEXT
yasyanghri-pankaja-rajo 'khila-loka-palair
mauly-uttamair dhrtam upasita-tirtha-tirtham
brahma bhavo 'ham api yasya kalah kalayah
sris codvahema ciram asya nrpasanam kva
SYNONYMS
yasya -- whose; anghri-pankaja -- lotuslike feet; rajah -- the dust;
akhila-loka -- of the universal planetary systems; palaih -- by the
masters; mauli-uttamaih -- with valuable turbans on their heads; dhrtam -
- accepted; upasita -- worshiped; tirtha-tirtham -- the sanctifier of
the holy places; brahma -- Lord Brahma; bhavah -- Lord Siva; aham api --
even I; yasya -- of whom; kalah -- portions; kalayah -- of a plenary
portion; srih -- the goddess of fortune; ca -- and; udvahema -- we carry;
ciram -- eternally; asya -- of Him; nrpa-asanam -- the throne of a king;
kva -- where.
TRANSLATION
"What is the value of a throne to Lord Krsna? The masters of the various
planetary systems accept the dust of His lotus feet on their crowned
heads. That dust makes the holy places sacred, and even Lord Brahma,
Lord Siva, Laksmi and I Myself, who are all portions of His plenary
portion, eternally carry that dust on our heads."
PURPORT
When the Kauravas, to flatter Baladeva so that He would become their
ally, spoke ill of Sri Krsna, Lord Baladeva became angry and spoke this
verse (SB 10.68.37).
Adi 5.142
TEXT 142
TEXT
ekale isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya
yare yaiche nacaya, se taiche kare nrtya
SYNONYMS
ekale -- alone; isvara -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna --
Krsna; ara -- others; saba -- all; bhrtya -- servants; yare -- unto whom;
yaiche -- as; nacaya -- He causes to dance; se -- He; taiche -- in that
way; kare nrtya -- dances.
TRANSLATION
Lord Krsna alone is the supreme controller, and all others are His
servants. They dance as He makes them do so.
Adi 5.143
TEXT 143
TEXT
ei mata caitanya-gosani ekale isvara
ara saba parisada, keha va kinkara
SYNONYMS
ei mata -- in this way; caitanya-gosani -- Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu;
ekale -- alone; isvara -- the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ara saba --
all others; parisada -- associates; keha -- someone; va -- or; kinkara -
- servants.
TRANSLATION
Thus Lord Caitanya is also the only controller. All others are His
associates or servants.
Adi 5.144–145
TEXTS 144–145
TEXT
guru-varga, -- nityananda, advaita acarya
srivasadi, ara yata -- laghu, sama, arya
sabe parisada, sabe lilara sahaya
saba lana nija-karya sadhe gaura-raya
SYNONYMS
guru-varga -- elders; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; advaita acarya --
and Advaita Acarya; srivasa-adi -- Srivasa Thakura and others; ara --
others; yata -- all; laghu, sama, arya -- junior, equal or superior;
sabe -- everyone; parisada -- associates; sabe -- everyone; lilara
sahaya -- helpers in the pastimes; saba lana -- taking all of them; nija-
karya -- His own aims; sadhe -- executes; gaura-raya -- Lord Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TRANSLATION
His elders such as Lord Nityananda, Advaita Acarya and Srivasa Thakura,
as well as His other devotees -- whether His juniors, equals or
superiors -- are all His associates who help Him in His pastimes. Lord
Gauranga fulfills His aims with their help.
Adi 5.146
TEXT 146
TEXT
advaita acarya, nityananda, -- dui anga
dui-jana lana prabhura yata kichu ranga
SYNONYMS
advaita acarya -- Sri Advaita Acarya; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; dui
anga -- two limbs of the Lord; dui-jana lana -- taking the two of Them;
prabhura -- of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yata -- all; kichu -- some;
ranga -- playful activities.
TRANSLATION
Sri Advaita Acarya and Srila Nityananda Prabhu, who are plenary parts of
the Lord, are His principal associates. With these two the Lord performs
His pastimes in various ways.
Adi 5.147
TEXT 147
TEXT
advaita-acarya-gosani saksat isvara
prabhu guru kari' mane, tinho ta' kinkara
SYNONYMS
advaita-acarya -- Advaita Acarya; gosani -- the Lord; saksat isvara --
directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prabhu -- Lord Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu; guru kari' mane -- accepts Him as His teacher; tinho ta'
kinkara -- but He is the servant.
TRANSLATION
Lord Advaita Acarya is directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Although Lord Caitanya accepts Him as His preceptor, Advaita Acarya is a
servant of the Lord.
PURPORT
Lord Caitanya always offered respects to Advaita Prabhu as He would to
His father because Advaita was even older than His father; yet Advaita
Prabhu always considered Himself a servant of Lord Caitanya. Sri Advaita
Prabhu and Isvara Puri, Lord Caitanya's spiritual master, were both
disciples of Madhavendra Puri, who was also the spiritual master of
Nityananda Prabhu. Thus Advaita Prabhu, as Lord Caitanya's spiritual
uncle, was always to be respected because one should respect one's
spiritual master's Godbrothers as one respects one's spiritual master.
Because of all these considerations, Sri Advaita Prabhu was superior to
Lord Caitanya, yet Advaita Prabhu considered Himself Lord Caitanya's
subordinate.
Adi 5.148
TEXT 148
TEXT
acarya-gosanira tattva na yaya kathana
krsna avatari yenho tarila bhuvana
SYNONYMS
acarya-gosanira -- of Advaita Acarya; tattva -- the truth; na yaya
kathana -- cannot be described; krsna -- Lord Krsna; avatari -- making
descend; yenho -- who; tarila -- delivered; bhuvana -- all the world.
TRANSLATION
I cannot describe the truth of Advaita Acarya. He has delivered the
entire world by making Lord Krsna descend.
Adi 5.149
TEXT 149
TEXT
nityananda-svarupa purve ha-iya laksmana
laghu-bhrata haiya kare ramera sevana
SYNONYMS
nityananda-svarupa -- Lord Nityananda Svarupa; purve -- formerly; ha-iya
-- becoming; laksmana -- Laksmana, Lord Ramacandra's younger brother;
laghu-bhratra haiya -- becoming the younger brother; kare -- does;
ramera sevana -- service to Lord Ramacandra.
TRANSLATION
Lord Nityananda Svarupa formerly appeared as Laksmana and served Lord
Ramacandra as His younger brother.
PURPORT
Among the sannyasis of the Sankara-sampradaya there are different names
for brahmacaris. Each sannyasi has some assistants, known as brahmacaris,
who are called by different names according to the names of the
sannyasi. Among such brahmacaris there are four names: Svarupa, Ananda,
Prakasa and Caitanya. Nityananda Prabhu maintained Himself as a
brahmacari; He never took sannyasa. As a brahmacari His name was
Nityananda Svarupa, and therefore the sannyasi under whom He was living
must have been from the tirthas or asramas of the Sankara-sampradaya,
because one of the names for the assistant brahmacari of such a
sannyasi is Svarupa.
Adi 5.150
TEXT 150
TEXT
ramera caritra saba, -- duhkhera karana
svatantra lilaya duhkha sahena laksmana
SYNONYMS
ramera caritra saba -- all the activities of Lord Ramacandra; duhkhera
karana -- causes of suffering; sva-tantra -- although independent;
lilaya -- in the pastimes; duhkha -- unhappiness; sahena laksmana --
Laksmana tolerates.
TRANSLATION
The activities of Lord Rama were full of suffering, but Laksmana, of His
own accord, tolerated that suffering.
Adi 5.151
TEXT 151
TEXT
nisedha karite nare, yate chota bhai
mauna dhari' rahe laksmana mane duhkha pai'
SYNONYMS
nisedha karite nare -- unable to prohibit Lord Ramacandra; yate --
because; chota bhai -- younger brother; mauna dhari' -- becoming silent;
rahe -- remains; laksmana -- Laksmana; mane -- in the mind; duhkha --
unhappiness; pai' -- getting.
TRANSLATION
As a younger brother He could not stop Lord Rama from His resolution,
and so He remained silent, although unhappy in His mind.
Adi 5.152
TEXT 152
TEXT
krsna-avatare jyestha haila sevara karana
krsnake karaila nana sukha asvadana
SYNONYMS
krsna-avatare -- in the incarnation of Lord Krsna; jyestha haila -- He
became the elder brother; sevara karana -- for the purpose of service;
krsnake -- to Krsna; karaila -- made; nana -- various; sukha --
happinesses; asvadana -- tasting.
TRANSLATION
When Lord Krsna appeared, He [Balarama] became His elder brother to
serve Him to His heart's content and make Him enjoy all sorts of
happiness.
Adi 5.153
TEXT 153
TEXT
rama-laksmana -- krsna-ramera amsa-visesa
avatara-kale donhe donhate pravesa
SYNONYMS
rama-laksmana -- Ramacandra and Laksmana; krsna-ramera amsa-visesa --
particular expansions of Lord Krsna and Lord Balarama; avatara-kale --
at the time of incarnation; donhe -- both of Them (Rama and Laksmana);
donhate pravesa -- entered into Them both (Krsna and Balarama).
TRANSLATION
Sri Rama and Sri Laksmana, who are plenary portions of Lord Krsna and
Lord Balarama respectively, entered into Them at the time of Krsna's and
Balarama's appearance.
PURPORT
With reference to the Visnu-dharmottara, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta
explains that Rama is an incarnation of Vasudeva, Laksmana is an
incarnation of Sankarsana, Bharata is an incarnation of Pradyumna, and
Satrughna is an incarnation of Aniruddha. The Padma Purana describes
that Ramacandra is Narayana and that Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna are
respectively Sesa, Cakra and Sankha (the conchshell in the hand of
Narayana). In the Rama-gita of the Skanda Purana, Laksmana, Bharata and
Satrughna have been described as the triple attendants of Lord Rama.
Adi 5.154
TEXT 154
TEXT
sei amsa lana jyestha-kanisthabhimana
amsamsi-rupe sastre karaye vyakhyana
SYNONYMS
sei amsa lana -- taking that plenary portion; jyestha-kanistha-abhimana -
- considering Themselves the elder or younger; amsa-amsi-rupe -- as the
expansion and the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; sastre -- in
the revealed scriptures; karaye -- does; vyakhyana -- explanation.
TRANSLATION
Krsna and Balarama present Themselves as younger brother and elder
brother, but in the scriptures They are described as the original
Supreme Personality of Godhead and His expansion.
Adi 5.155
TEXT 155
TEXT
ramadi-murtisu kala-niyamena tisthan
nanavataram akarod bhuvanesu kintu
krsnah svayam samabhavat paramah puman yo
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
SYNONYMS
rama-adi -- the incarnation of Lord Rama, etc.; murtisu -- in different
forms; kala-niyamena -- by the order of plenary portions; tisthan --
existing; nana -- various; avataram -- incarnations; akarot -- executed;
bhuvanesu -- within the worlds; kintu -- but; krsnah -- Lord Krsna;
svayam -- personally; samabhavat -- appeared; paramah -- the supreme;
puman -- person; yah -- who; govindam -- unto Lord Govinda; adi-purusam -
- the original person; tam -- unto Him; aham -- I; bhajami -- offer
obeisances.
TRANSLATION
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary
portions appears in the world in different forms and incarnations such
as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as
Lord Krsna."
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Brahma-samhita (5.39).
Adi 5.156
TEXT 156
TEXT
sri-caitanya -- sei krsna, nityananda -- rama
nityananda purna kare caitanyera kama
SYNONYMS
sri-caitanya -- Lord Sri Caitanya; sei krsna -- that original Krsna;
nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; rama -- Balarama; nityananda -- Lord
Nityananda; purna kare -- fulfills; caitanyera kama -- all the desires
of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya is the same Lord Krsna, and Lord Nityananda is Lord
Balarama. Lord Nityananda fulfills all of Lord Caitanya's desires.
Adi 5.157
TEXT 157
TEXT
nityananda-mahima-sindhu ananta, apara
eka kana sparsi matra, -- se krpa tanhara
SYNONYMS
nityananda-mahima -- of the glories of Lord Nityananda; sindhu -- the
ocean; ananta -- unlimited; apara -- unfathomed; eka kana -- one
fragment; sparsi -- I touch; matra -- only; se -- that; krpa -- mercy;
tanhara -- His.
TRANSLATION
The ocean of Lord Nityananda's glories is infinite and unfathomable.
Only by His mercy can I touch even a drop of it.
Adi 5.158
TEXT 158
TEXT
ara eka suna tanra krpara mahima
adhama jivere cadhaila urdhva-sima
SYNONYMS
ara -- another; eka -- one; suna -- please hear; tanra krpara mahima --
glory of His mercy; adhama jivere -- the downtrodden living being;
cadhaila -- He elevated; urdhva-sima -- to the topmost limit.
TRANSLATION
Please listen to another glory of His mercy. He made a fallen living
entity climb to the highest limit.
Adi 5.159
TEXT 159
TEXT
veda-guhya katha ei ayogya kahite
tathapi kahiye tanra krpa prakasite
SYNONYMS
veda -- like the Vedas; guhya -- very confidential; katha -- incident;
ei -- this; ayogya kahite -- not fit to disclose; tathapi -- still;
kahiye -- I speak; tanra -- His; krpa -- mercy; prakasite -- to manifest.
TRANSLATION
To disclose it is not proper, for it should be kept as confidential as
the Vedas, yet I shall speak of it to make His mercy known to all.
Adi 5.160
TEXT 160
TEXT
ullasa-upari lekhon tomara prasada
nityananda prabhu, mora ksama aparadha
SYNONYMS
ullasa-upari -- on account of great ecstasy; lekhon -- I write; tomara
prasada -- Your mercy; nityananda prabhu -- Lord Nityananda; mora -- my;
ksama -- please excuse; aparadha -- offenses.
TRANSLATION
O Lord Nityananda, I write of Your mercy out of great exultation. Please
forgive me for my offenses.
Adi 5.161
TEXT 161
TEXT
avadhuta gosanira eka bhrtya prema-dhama
minaketana ramadasa haya tanra nama
SYNONYMS
avadhuta -- the mendicant; gosanira -- of Lord Nityananda; eka -- one;
bhrtya -- servant; prema-dhama -- reservoir of love; minaketana --
Minaketana; rama-dasa -- Ramadasa; haya -- is; tanra -- his; nama --
name.
TRANSLATION
Lord Nityananda Prabhu had a servant named Sri Minaketana Ramadasa, who
was a reservoir of love.
Adi 5.162
TEXT 162
TEXT
amara alaye aho-ratra-sankirtana
tahate aila tenho pana nimantrana
SYNONYMS
amara alaye -- at my house; ahah-ratra -- day and night; sankirtana --
chanting the Hare Krsna mantra; tahate -- on account of this; aila --
came; tenho -- he; pana nimantrana -- getting an invitation.
TRANSLATION
At my house there was sankirtana day and night, and therefore he visited
there, having been invited.
Adi 5.163
TEXT 163
TEXT
maha-prema-maya tinho vasila angane
sakala vaisnava tanra vandila carane
SYNONYMS
maha-prema-maya -- absorbed in emotional love; tinho -- he; vasila --
sat; angane -- in the courtyard; sakala vaisnava -- all other Vaisnavas;
tanra -- his; vandila -- worshiped; carane -- lotus feet.
TRANSLATION
Absorbed in emotional love, he sat in my courtyard, and all the
Vaisnavas bowed down at his feet.
Adi 5.164
TEXT 164
TEXT
namaskara karite, ka'ra uparete cade
preme ka're vamsi mare, kahake capade
SYNONYMS
namaskara karite -- while offering obeisances, bowing down; ka'ra -- of
someone; uparete -- on the body; cade -- gets up; preme -- in ecstatic
love; ka're -- someone; vamsi -- the flute; mare -- strikes; kahake --
someone; capade -- slaps.
TRANSLATION
In a joyful mood of love of God he sometimes climbed upon the shoulder
of someone offering obeisances, and sometimes he struck others with his
flute or mildly slapped them.
Adi 5.165
TEXT 165
TEXT
ye nayana dekhite asru haya mane yara
sei netre avicchinna vahe asru-dhara
SYNONYMS
ye -- his; nayana -- eyes; dekhite -- seeing; asru -- tears; haya --
appear; mane -- from the mind; yara -- of someone; sei netre -- in his
eyes; avicchinna -- continuously; vahe -- flows; asru-dhara -- a shower
of tears.
TRANSLATION
When someone saw the eyes of Minaketana Ramadasa, tears would
automatically flow from his own eyes, for a constant shower of tears
flowed from the eyes of Minaketana Ramadasa.
Adi 5.166
TEXT 166
TEXT
kabhu kona ange dekhi pulaka-kadamba
eka ange jadya tanra, ara ange kampa
SYNONYMS
kabhu -- sometimes; kona -- some; ange -- in parts of the body; dekhi --
I see; pulaka-kadamba -- eruptions of ecstasy like kadamba flowers; eka
ange -- in one part of the body; jadya -- stunned; tanra -- his; ara
ange -- in another limb; kampa -- trembling.
TRANSLATION
Sometimes there were eruptions of ecstasy like kadamba flowers on some
parts of his body, and sometimes one limb would be stunned while another
would be trembling.
Adi 5.167
TEXT 167
TEXT
nityananda bali' yabe karena hunkara
taha dekhi' lokera haya maha-camatkara
SYNONYMS
nityananda -- the name Nityananda; bali' -- saying; yabe -- whenever;
karena hunkara -- makes a great sound; taha dekhi' -- seeing that;
lokera -- of the people; haya -- there is; maha-camatkara -- great
wonder and astonishment.
TRANSLATION
Whenever he shouted aloud the name Nityananda, the people around him
were filled with great wonder and astonishment.
Adi 5.168
TEXT 168
TEXT
gunarnava misra name eka vipra arya
sri-murti-nikate tenho kare seva-karya
SYNONYMS
gunarnava misra -- of Gunarnava Misra; name -- by the name; eka -- one;
vipra -- brahmana; arya -- very respectable; sri-murti-nikate -- by the
side of the Deity; tenho -- he; kare -- does; seva-karya -- activities
in devotion.
TRANSLATION
One respectable brahmana named Sri Gunarnava Misra was serving the Deity.
Adi 5.169
TEXT 169
TEXT
angane asiya tenho na kaila sambhasa
taha dekhi' kruddha hana bale ramadasa
SYNONYMS
angane -- to the courtyard; asiya -- coming; tenho -- he; na -- not;
kaila -- did; sambhasa -- address; taha dekhi' -- seeing this; kruddha
hana -- becoming angry; bale -- says; rama-dasa -- Sri Ramadasa.
TRANSLATION
When Minaketana was seated in the yard, this brahmana did not offer him
respect. Seeing this, Sri Ramadasa became angry and spoke.
Adi 5.170
TEXT 170
TEXT
‘ei ta' dvitiya suta romaharasana
baladeva dekhi' ye na kaila pratyudgama'
SYNONYMS
ei ta' -- this; dvitiya -- second; suta romaharasana -- Romaharsana-suta;
baladeva dekhi' -- seeing Lord Balarama; ye -- who; na -- not; kaila --
did; pratyudgama -- stand up.
TRANSLATION
"Here I find the second Romaharsana-suta, who did not stand to show
honor when he saw Lord Balarama."
Adi 5.171
TEXT 171
TEXT
eta bali' nace gaya, karaye santosa
krsna-karya kare vipra -- na karila rosa
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; nace -- he dances; gaya -- chants; karaye
santosa -- becomes satisfied; krsna-karya -- the duties of Deity worship;
kare -- performs; vipra -- the brahmana; na karila -- did not become;
rosa -- angry.
TRANSLATION
After saying this, he danced and sang to his heart's content, but the
brahmana did not become angry, for he was then serving Lord Krsna.
PURPORT
Minaketana Ramadasa was a great devotee of Lord Nityananda. When he
entered the house of Krsnadasa Kaviraja, Gunarnava Misra, the priest who
was worshiping the Deity installed in the house, did not receive him
very well. A similar event occurred when Romaharsana-suta was speaking
to the great assembly of sages at Naimisaranya. Lord Baladeva entered
that great assembly, but since Romaharsana-suta was on the vyasasana, he
did not get down to offer respect to Lord Baladeva. The behavior of
Gunarnava Misra indicated that he had no great respect for Lord
Nityananda, and this idea was not at all palatable to Minaketana
Ramadasa. For this reason the mentality of Minaketana Ramadasa is never
deprecated by devotees.
Adi 5.172
TEXT 172
TEXT
utsavante gela tinho kariya prasada
mora bhrata-sane tanra kichu haila vada
SYNONYMS
utsava-ante -- after the festival; gela -- went away; tinho -- he;
kariya prasada -- showing mercy; mora -- of me; bhrata-sane -- with the
brother; tanra -- of him; kichu -- some; haila -- there was; vada --
controversy.
TRANSLATION
At the end of the festival Minaketana Ramadasa went away, offering his
blessings to everyone. At that time he had some controversy with my
brother.
Adi 5.173
TEXT 173
TEXT
caitanya-prabhute tanra sudrdha visvasa
nityananda-prati tanra visvasa-abhasa
SYNONYMS
caitanya-prabhute -- unto Lord Caitanya; tanra -- his; su-drdha -- fixed;
visvasa -- faith; nityananda-prati -- unto Lord Nityananda; tanra --
his; visvasa-abhasa -- dim reflection of faith.
TRANSLATION
My brother had firm faith in Lord Caitanya but only a dim glimmer of
faith in Lord Nityananda.
Adi 5.174
TEXT 174
TEXT
iha jani' ramadasera duhkha ha-ila mane
tabe ta' bhratare ami karinu bhartsane
SYNONYMS
iha -- this; jani' -- knowing; rama-dasera -- of the saint Ramadasa;
duhkha -- unhappiness; ha-ila -- there was; mane -- in the mind; tabe --
at that time; ta' -- certainly; bhratare -- to my brother; ami -- I;
karinu -- did; bhartsane -- chastisement.
TRANSLATION
Knowing this, Sri Ramadasa felt unhappy in his mind. I then rebuked my
brother.
Adi 5.175
TEXT 175
TEXT
dui bhai eka-tanu -- samana-prakasa
nityananda na mana, tomara habe sarva-nasa
SYNONYMS
dui bhai -- two brothers; eka-tanu -- one body; samana-prakasa -- equal
manifestation; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda; na mane -- you do not
believe; tomara -- your; habe -- that will be; sarva-nasa -- downfall.
TRANSLATION
"These two brothers," I told him, "are like one body; They are identical
manifestations. If you do not believe in Lord Nityananda, you will fall
down.
Adi 5.176
TEXT 176
TEXT
ekete visvasa, anye na kara sammana
"ardha-kukkuti-nyaya" tomara pramana
SYNONYMS
ekete visvasa -- faith in one; anye -- in the other; na -- not; kara --
do; sammana -- respect; ardha-kukkuti-nyaya -- the logic of accepting
half of a hen; tomara -- your; pramana -- evidence.
TRANSLATION
"If you have faith in one but disrespect the other, your logic is like
the logic of accepting half a A foolish farmer once thought he would
save money by cutting off his hen's head, which he had to feed, and
leaving its tail, which produced the eggs. Hence the term ardha-kukkuti-
nyaya, literally "half-hen logic."hen.
Adi 5.177
TEXT 177
TEXT
kimva, donha na manina hao ta' pasanda
eke mani' are na mani, -- ei-mata bhanda
SYNONYMS
kimva -- otherwise; donha -- both of Them; na -- not; manina --
accepting; hao -- you become; ta' -- certainly; pasanda -- atheist; eke -
- one of Them; mani' -- accepting; are -- the other; na mani -- not
accepting; ei-mata -- this kind of faith; bhanda -- hypocrisy.
TRANSLATION
"It would be better to be an atheist by slighting both brothers than a
hypocrite by believing in one and slighting the other."
Adi 5.178
TEXT 178
TEXT
kruddha haiya vamsi bhangi' cale ramadasa
tat-kale amara bhratara haila sarva-nasa
SYNONYMS
kruddha haiya -- being very angry; vamsi -- the flute; bhangi' --
breaking; cale -- departs; rama-dasa -- Ramadasa; tat-kale -- at that
time; amara -- my; bhratara -- of the brother; haila -- there was; sarva-
nasa -- downfall.
TRANSLATION
Thus Sri Ramadasa broke his flute in anger and went away, and at that
time my brother fell down.
Adi 5.179
TEXT 179
TEXT
ei ta' kahila tanra sevaka-prabhava
ara eka kahi tanra dayara svabhava
SYNONYMS
ei ta' -- thus; kahila -- explained; tanra -- of Him; sevaka-prabhava --
the power of the servant; ara -- other; eka -- one; kahi -- I say; tanra
-- His; dayara -- of mercy; svabhava -- characteristic.
TRANSLATION
I have thus described the power of the servants of Lord Nityananda. Now
I shall describe another characteristic of His mercy.
Adi 5.180
TEXT 180
TEXT
bhaike bhartsinu muni, lana ei guna
sei ratre prabhu more dila darasana
SYNONYMS
bhaike -- my brother; bhartsinu -- chastised; muni -- I; lana -- taking;
ei -- this; guna -- as a good quality; sei ratre -- on that night;
prabhu -- my Lord; more -- unto me; dila -- gave; darasana -- appearance.
TRANSLATION
That night Lord Nityananda appeared to me in a dream because of my good
quality in chastising my brother.
Adi 5.181
TEXT 181
TEXT
naihati-nikate ‘jhamatapura' name grama
tanha svapne dekha dila nityananda-rama
SYNONYMS
naihati-nikate -- near the village Naihati; jhamatapura -- Jhamatapura;
name -- by the name; grama -- village; tanha -- there; svapne -- in a
dream; dekha -- appearance; dila -- gave; nityananda-rama -- Lord
Nityananda Balarama.
TRANSLATION
In the village of Jhamatapura, which is near Naihati, Lord Nityananda
appeared to me in a dream.
PURPORT
There is now a railway line to Jhamatapura. If one wants to go there, he
can take a train on the Katwa railway line and go directly to the
station known as Salara. From that station one can go directly to
Jhamatapura.
Adi 5.182
TEXT 182
TEXT
dandavat haiya ami padinu payete
nija-pada-padma prabhu dila mora mathe
SYNONYMS
dandavat haiya -- offering obeisances; ami -- I; padinu -- fell down;
payete -- at His lotus feet; nija-pada-padma -- His own lotus feet;
prabhu -- the Lord; dila -- placed; mora -- my; mathe -- on the head.
TRANSLATION
I fell at His feet, offering my obeisances, and He then placed His own
lotus feet upon my head.
Adi 5.183
TEXT 183
TEXT
‘utha', ‘utha' bali' more bale bara bara
uthi' tanra rupa dekhi' hainu camatkara
SYNONYMS
utha utha -- get up, get up; bali' -- saying; more -- unto me; bale --
says; bara bara -- again and again; uthi' -- getting up; tanra -- His;
rupa dekhi' -- seeing the beauty; hainu -- became; camatkara --
astonished.
TRANSLATION
"Arise! Get up!" He told me again and again. Upon rising, I was greatly
astonished to see His beauty.
Adi 5.184
TEXT 184
TEXT
syama-cikkana kanti, prakanda sarira
saksat kandarpa, yaiche maha-malla-vira
SYNONYMS
syama -- blackish; cikkana -- glossy; kanti -- luster; prakanda -- heavy;
sarira -- body; saksat -- directly; kandarpa -- Cupid; yaiche -- like;
maha-malla -- very stout and strong; vira -- hero.
TRANSLATION
He had a glossy blackish complexion, and His tall, strong, heroic
stature made Him seem like Cupid himself.
Adi 5.185
TEXT 185
TEXT
suvalita hasta, pada, kamala-nayana
patta-vastra sire, patta-vastra paridhana
SYNONYMS
suvalita -- well-formed; hasta -- hands; pada -- legs; kamala-nayana --
eyes like lotus flowers; patta-vastra -- silk cloth; sire -- on the head;
patta-vastra -- silk garments; paridhana -- wearing.
TRANSLATION
He had beautifully formed hands, arms and legs, and eyes like lotus
flowers. He wore a silk cloth, with a silk turban on His head.
Adi 5.186
TEXT 186
TEXT
suvarna-kundala karne, svarnangada-vala
payete nupura baje, kanthe puspa-mala
SYNONYMS
suvarna-kundala -- gold earrings; karne -- on the ears; svarna-angada --
golden armlets; vala -- and bangles; payete -- on the feet; nupura --
ankle bells; baje -- tinkle; kanthe -- on the neck; puspa-mala -- flower
garland.
TRANSLATION
He wore golden earrings on His ears, and golden armlets and bangles. He
wore tinkling anklets on His feet and a garland of flowers around His
neck.
Adi 5.187
TEXT 187
TEXT
candana-lepita-anga, tilaka suthama
matta-gaja jini' mada-manthara payana
SYNONYMS
candana -- with sandalwood pulp; lepita -- smeared; anga -- body; tilaka
suthama -- nicely decorated with tilaka; matta-gaja -- a mad elephant;
jini' -- surpassing; mada-manthara -- maddened by drinking; payana --
movement.
TRANSLATION
His body was anointed with sandalwood pulp, and He was nicely decorated
with tilaka. His movements surpassed those of a maddened elephant.
Adi 5.188
TEXT 188
TEXT
koti-candra jini' mukha ujjvala-varana
dadimba-bija-sama danta tambula-carvana
SYNONYMS
koti-candra -- millions upon millions of moons; jini' -- surpassing;
mukha -- face; ujjvala-varana -- bright and brilliant; dadimba-bija --
pomegranate seeds; sama -- like; danta -- teeth; tambula-carvana --
chewing betel nut.
TRANSLATION
His face was more beautiful than millions upon millions of moons, and
His teeth were like pomegranate seeds because of His chewing betel.
Adi 5.189
TEXT 189
TEXT
preme matta anga dahine-vame dole
‘krsna' ‘krsna' baliya gambhira bola bale
SYNONYMS
preme -- in ecstasy; matta -- absorbed; anga -- the whole body; dahine --
to the right side; vame -- to the left side; dole -- moves; krsna krsna
-- Krsna, Krsna; baliya -- saying; gambhira -- deep; bola -- words; bale
-- was uttering.
TRANSLATION
His body moved to and fro, right and left, for He was absorbed in
ecstasy. He chanted "Krsna, Krsna" in a deep voice.
Adi 5.190
TEXT 190
TEXT
ranga-yasti haste dole yena matta simha
cari-pase vedi ache caranete bhrnga
SYNONYMS
ranga-yasti -- a red stick; haste -- in the hand; dole -- moves; yena --
like; matta -- mad; simha -- lion; cari-pase -- all around; vedi --
surrounding; ache -- there is; caranete -- at the lotus feet; bhrnga --
bumblebees.
TRANSLATION
His red stick moving in His hand, He seemed like a maddened lion. All
around the four sides of His feet were bumblebees.
Adi 5.191
TEXT 191
TEXT
parisada-gane dekhi' saba gopa-vese
‘krsna' ‘krsna' kahe sabe saprema avese
SYNONYMS
parisada-gane -- associates; dekhi' -- seeing; saba -- all; gopa-vese --
in the dress of cowherd boys; krsna krsna -- Krsna, Krsna; kahe -- says;
sabe -- all; sa-prema -- of ecstatic love; avese -- in absorption.
TRANSLATION
His devotees, dressed like cowherd boys, surrounded His feet like so
many bees and also chanted "Krsna, Krsna," absorbed in ecstatic love.
Adi 5.192
TEXT 192
TEXT
singa vamsi bajaya keha, keha nace gaya
sevaka yogaya tambula, camara dhulaya
SYNONYMS
singa vamsi -- horns and flutes; bajaya -- play; keha -- some; keha --
some of them; nace -- dance; gaya -- sing; sevaka -- a servant; yogaya --
supplies; tambula -- betel nut; camara -- fan; dhulaya -- moves.
TRANSLATION
Some of them played horns and flutes, and others danced and sang. Some
of them offered betel nuts, and others waved camara fans about Him.
Adi 5.193
TEXT 193
TEXT
nityananda-svarupera dekhiya vaibhava
kiba rupa, guna, lila -- alaukika saba
SYNONYMS
nityananda-svarupera -- of Lord Nityananda Svarupa; dekhiya -- seeing;
vaibhava -- the opulence; kiba rupa -- what a wonderful form; guna --
qualities; lila -- pastimes; alaukika -- uncommon; saba -- all.
TRANSLATION
Thus I saw such opulence in Lord Nityananda Svarupa. His wonderful form,
qualities and pastimes are all transcendental.
Adi 5.194
TEXT 194
TEXT
anande vihvala ami, kichu nahi jani
tabe hasi' prabhu more kahilena vani
SYNONYMS
anande -- in transcendental ecstasy; vihvala -- overwhelmed; ami -- I;
kichu -- anything; nahi -- not; jani -- know; tabe -- at that time; hasi'
-- smiling; prabhu -- the Lord; more -- unto me; kahilena -- says; vani
-- some words.
TRANSLATION
I was overwhelmed with transcendental ecstasy, not knowing anything else.
Then Lord Nityananda smiled and spoke to me as follows.
Adi 5.195
TEXT 195
TEXT
are are krsnadasa, na karaha bhaya
vrndavane yaha, -- tanha sarva labhya haya
SYNONYMS
are are -- O! O!; krsna-dasa -- Krsnadasa; na -- not; karaha -- make;
bhaya -- fear; vrndavane yaha -- go to Vrndavana; tanha -- there; sarva -
- everything; labhya -- available; haya -- is.
TRANSLATION
"O my dear Krsnadasa, do not be afraid. Go to Vrndavana, for there you
will attain all things."
Adi 5.196
TEXT 196
TEXT
eta bali' prerila more hatasani diya
antardhana kaila prabhu nija-gana lana
SYNONYMS
eta bali' -- saying this; prerila -- dispatched; more -- me; hatasani --
indication of the hand; diya -- giving; antardhana kaila -- disappeared;
prabhu -- my Lord; nija-gana lana -- taking His personal associates.
TRANSLATION
After saying this, He directed me toward Vrndavana by waving His hand.
Then He disappeared with His associates.
Adi 5.197
TEXT 197
TEXT
murcchita ha-iya muni padinu bhumite
svapna-bhanga haila, dekhi, hanache prabhate
SYNONYMS
murcchita ha-iya -- fainting; muni -- I; padinu -- fell; bhumite -- on
the ground; svapna-bhanga -- breaking of the dream; haila -- there was;
dekhi -- I saw; hanache -- there was; prabhate -- morning light.
TRANSLATION
I fainted and fell to the ground, my dream broke, and when I regained
consciousness I saw that morning had come.
Adi 5.198
TEXT 198
TEXT
ki dekhinu ki suninu, kariye vicara
prabhu-ajna haila vrndavana yaibara
SYNONYMS
ki dekhinu -- what did I see; ki suninu -- what did I hear; kariye
vicara -- I began to consider; prabhu-ajna -- the order of my Lord;
haila -- there was; vrndavana -- to Vrndavana; yaibara -- to go.
TRANSLATION
I thought about what I had seen and heard and concluded that the Lord
had ordered me to proceed to Vrndavana at once.
Adi 5.199
TEXT 199
TEXT
sei ksane vrndavane karinu gamana
prabhura krpate sukhe ainu vrndavana
SYNONYMS
sei ksane -- that very second; vrndavane -- toward Vrndavana; karinu --
I did; gamana -- starting; prabhura krpate -- by the mercy of Lord
Nityananda; sukhe -- in great happiness; ainu -- arrived; vrndavana --
at Vrndavana.
TRANSLATION
That very second I started for Vrndavana, and by His mercy I reached
there in great happiness.
Adi 5.200
TEXT 200
TEXT
jaya jaya nityananda, nityananda-rama
yanhara krpate painu vrndavana-dhama
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories; nityananda -- to Lord Nityananda; nityananda-
rama -- to Lord Balarama, who appeared as Nityananda; yanhara krpate --
by whose mercy; painu -- I got; vrndavana-dhama -- shelter at Vrndavana.
TRANSLATION
All glory, all glory to Lord Nityananda Balarama, by whose mercy I have
attained shelter in the transcendental abode of Vrndavana!
Adi 5.201
TEXT 201
TEXT
jaya jaya nityananda, jaya krpa-maya
yanha haite painu rupa-sanatanasraya
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories; nityananda -- to Lord Nityananda; jaya krpa-
maya -- all glories to the most merciful Lord; yanha haite -- from whom;
painu -- I got; rupa-sanatana-asraya -- shelter at the lotus feet of
Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami.
TRANSLATION
All glory, all glory to the merciful Lord Nityananda, by whose mercy I
have attained shelter at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana!
Adi 5.202
TEXT 202
TEXT
yanha haite painu raghunatha-mahasaya
yanha haite painu sri-svarupa-asraya
SYNONYMS
yanha haite -- from whom; painu -- I got; raghunatha-maha-asaya -- the
shelter of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; yanha haite -- from whom; painu -- I
got; sri-svarupa-asraya -- shelter at the feet of Svarupa Damodara
Gosvami.
TRANSLATION
By His mercy I have attained the shelter of the great personality Sri
Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, and by His mercy I have found the refuge of Sri
Svarupa Damodara.
PURPORT
Anyone desiring to become expert in the service of Sri Sri Radha and
Krsna should always aspire to be under the guidance of Svarupa Damodara
Gosvami, Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami and Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. To
come under the protection of the Gosvamis, one must get the mercy and
grace of Nityananda Prabhu. The author has tried to explain this fact in
these two verses.
Adi 5.203
TEXT 203
TEXT
sanatana-krpaya painu bhaktira siddhanta
sri-rupa-krpaya painu bhakti-rasa-pranta
SYNONYMS
sanatana-krpaya -- by the mercy of Sanatana Gosvami; painu -- I got;
bhaktira siddhanta -- the conclusions of devotional service; sri-rupa-
krpaya -- by the mercy of Srila Rupa Gosvami; painu -- I got; bhakti-
rasa-pranta -- the limit of the mellows of devotional service.
TRANSLATION
By the mercy of Sanatana Gosvami I have learned the final conclusions of
devotional service, and by the grace of Sri Rupa Gosvami I have tasted
the highest nectar of devotional service.
PURPORT
Sri Sanatana Gosvami Prabhu, the teacher of the science of devotional
service, wrote several books, of which the Brhad-bhagavatamrta is very
famous; anyone who wants to know about the subject matter of devotees,
devotional service and Krsna must read this book. Sanatana Gosvami also
wrote a special commentary on the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam known
as the Dasama-tippani, which is so excellent that by reading it one can
understand very deeply the pastimes of Krsna in His exchanges of loving
activities. Another famous book by Sanatana Gosvami is the Hari-bhakti-
vilasa, which states the rules and regulations for all divisions of
Vaisnavas, namely, Vaisnava householders, Vaisnava brahmacaris, Vaisnava
vanaprasthas and Vaisnava sannyasis. This book was especially written,
however, for Vaisnava householders. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has
described Sanatana Gosvami in his prayer Vilapa-kusumanjali, verse six,
where he has expressed his obligation to Sanatana Gosvami in the
following words:
vairagya-yug-bhakti-rasam prayatnair
apayayan mam anabhipsum andhamkrp
ambudhir yah para-duhkha-duhkhi
sanatanas tam prabhum asrayami
"I was unwilling to drink the nectar of devotional service possessed of
renunciation, but Sanatana Gosvami, out of his causeless mercy, made me
drink it, even though I was otherwise unable to do so. Therefore he is
an ocean of mercy. He is very compassionate to fallen souls like me, and
thus it is my duty to offer my respectful obeisances unto his lotus feet.
" Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami also, in the last section of the Caitanya-
caritamrta, specifically mentions the names of Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana
Gosvami and Srila Jiva Gosvami and offers his respectful obeisances unto
the lotus feet of these three spiritual masters, as well as Raghunatha
dasa. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami also accepted Sanatana Gosvami as
the teacher of the science of devotional service. Srila Rupa Gosvami is
described as the bhakti-rasacarya, or one who knows the essence of
devotional service. His famous book Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu is the
science of devotional service, and by reading this book one can
understand the meaning of devotional service. Another of his famous
books is the Ujjvala-nilamani. In this book he elaborately explains the
loving affairs and transcendental activities of Lord Krsna and Radharani.
Adi 5.204
TEXT 204
TEXT
jaya jaya nityananda-caranaravinda
yanha haite painu sri-radha-govinda
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya -- all glories to; nityananda -- of Lord Nityananda; carana-
aravinda -- the lotus feet; yanha haite -- from whom; painu -- I got;
sri-radha-govinda -- the shelter of Sri Radha and Govinda.
TRANSLATION
All glory, all glory to the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda, by whose
mercy I have attained Sri Radha-Govinda!
PURPORT
Srila Narottama dasa Thakura, who is famous for his poetic composition
known as Prarthana, has lamented in one of his prayers, "When will Lord
Nityananda be merciful upon me so that I will forget all material
desires?" Srila Narottama dasa Thakura confirms that unless one is freed
from material desires to satisfy the needs of the body and senses, one
cannot understand the transcendental abode of Lord Krsna, Vrndavana. He
also confirms that one cannot understand the loving affairs of Radha and
Krsna without going through the direction of the six Gosvamis. In
another verse Narottama dasa Thakura has stated that without the
causeless mercy of Nityananda Prabhu, one cannot enter into the affairs
of Radha and Krsna.
Adi 5.205
TEXT 205
TEXT
jagai madhai haite muni se papistha
purisera kita haite muni se laghistha
SYNONYMS
jagai madhai -- the two brothers Jagai and Madhai; haite -- than; muni --
I; se -- that; papistha -- more sinful; purisera -- in stool; kita --
the worms; haite -- than; muni -- I am; se -- that; laghistha -- lower.
TRANSLATION
I am more sinful than Jagai and Madhai and even lower than the worms in
the stool.
Adi 5.206
TEXT 206
TEXT
mora nama sune yei tara punya ksaya
mora nama laya yei tara papa haya
SYNONYMS
mora nama -- my name; sune -- hears; yei -- anyone who; tara -- his;
punya ksaya -- destruction of piety; mora nama -- my name; laya -- takes;
yei -- anyone; tara -- his; papa -- sin; haya -- is.
TRANSLATION
Anyone who hears my name loses the results of his pious activities.
Anyone who utters my name becomes sinful.
Adi 5.207
TEXT 207
TEXT
emana nirghrna more keba krpa kare
eka nityananda vinu jagat bhitare
SYNONYMS
emana -- such; nirghrna -- abominable; more -- unto me; keba -- who;
krpa -- mercy; kare -- shows; eka -- one; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda;
vinu -- but; jagat -- world; bhitare -- within.
TRANSLATION
Who in this world but Nityananda could show His mercy to such an
abominable person as me?
Adi 5.208
TEXT 208
TEXT
preme matta nityananda krpa-avatara
uttama, adhama, kichu na kare vicara
SYNONYMS
preme -- in ecstatic love; matta -- mad; nityananda -- Lord Nityananda;
krpa -- merciful; avatara -- incarnation; uttama -- good; adhama -- bad;
kichu -- any; na -- not; kare -- makes; vicara -- consideration.
TRANSLATION
Because He is intoxicated by ecstatic love and is an incarnation of
mercy, He does not distinguish between the good and the bad.
Adi 5.209
TEXT 209
TEXT
ye age padaye, tare karaye nistara
ataeva nistarila mo-hena duracara
SYNONYMS
ye -- whoever; age -- in front; padaye -- falls down; tare -- unto him;
karaye -- does; nistara -- deliverance; ataeva -- therefore; nistarila --
delivered; mo -- as me; hena -- such; duracara -- sinful and fallen
person.
TRANSLATION
He delivers all those who fall down before Him. Therefore He has
delivered such a sinful and fallen person as me.
Adi 5.210
TEXT 210
TEXT
mo-papisthe anilena sri-vrndavana
mo-hena adhame dila sri-rupa-carana
SYNONYMS
mo-papisthe -- unto me, who am so sinful; anilena -- He brought; sri-
vrndavana -- to Vrndavana; mo-hena -- such as me; adhame -- to the
lowest of mankind; dila -- delivered; sri-rupa-carana -- the lotus feet
of Rupa Gosvami.
TRANSLATION
Although I am sinful and I am the most fallen, He has conferred upon me
the lotus feet of Sri Rupa Gosvami.
Adi 5.211
TEXT 211
TEXT
sri-madana-gopala-sri-govinda-darasana
kahibara yogya nahe e-saba kathana
SYNONYMS
sri-madana-gopala -- Lord Madana Gopala; sri-govinda -- Lord Radha-
Govinda; darasana -- visiting; kahibara -- to speak; yogya -- fit; nahe -
- not; e-saba kathana -- all these confidential words.
TRANSLATION
I am not fit to speak all these confidential words about my visiting
Lord Madana Gopala and Lord Govinda.
Adi 5.212
TEXT 212
TEXT
vrndavana-purandara sri-madana-gopala
rasa-vilasi saksat vrajendra-kumara
SYNONYMS
vrndavana-purandara -- the chief Deity of Vrndavana; sri-madana-gopala --
Lord Madana Gopala; rasa-vilasi -- the enjoyer of the rasa dance;
saksat -- directly; vrajendra-kumara -- the son of Nanda Maharaja.
TRANSLATION
Lord Madana Gopala, the chief Deity of Vrndavana, is the enjoyer of the
rasa dance and is directly the son of the King of Vraja.
Adi 5.213
TEXT 213
TEXT
sri-radha-lalita-sange rasa-vilasa
manmatha-manmatha-rupe yanhara prakasa
SYNONYMS
sri-radha -- Srimati Radharani; lalita -- Her personal associate named
Lalita; sange -- with; rasa-vilasa -- enjoyment of the rasa dance;
manmatha -- of Cupid; manmatha-rupe -- in the form of Cupid; yanhara --
of whom; prakasa -- manifestation.
TRANSLATION
He enjoys the rasa dance with Srimati Radharani, Sri Lalita and others.
He manifests Himself as the Cupid of Cupids.
Adi 5.214
TEXT 214
TEXT
tasam avirabhuc chaurih
smayamana-mukhambujah
pitambara-dharah sragvi
saksan manmatha-manmathah
SYNONYMS
tasam -- among them; avirabhut -- appeared; saurih -- Lord Krsna;
smayamana -- smiling; mukha-ambujah -- lotus face; pita-ambara-dharah --
dressed with yellow garments; sragvi -- decorated with a flower garland;
saksat -- directly; manmatha -- of Cupid; manmathah -- Cupid.
TRANSLATION
"Wearing yellow garments and decorated with a flower garland, Lord Krsna,
appearing among the gopis with His smiling lotus face, looked directly
like the charmer of the heart of Cupid."
PURPORT
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.2).
Adi 5.215
TEXT 215
TEXT
sva-madhurye lokera mana kare akarsana
dui pase radha lalita karena sevana
SYNONYMS
sva-madhurye -- in His own sweetness; lokera -- of all people; mana --
the minds; kare -- does; akarsana -- attracting; dui pase -- on two
sides; radha -- Srimati Radharani; lalita -- and Her associate Lalita;
karena -- do; sevana -- service.
TRANSLATION
With Radha and Lalita serving Him on His two sides, He attracts the
hearts of all by His own sweetness.
Adi 5.216
TEXT 216
TEXT
nityananda-daya more tanre dekhaila
sri-radha-madana-mohane prabhu kari' dila
SYNONYMS
nityananda-daya -- the mercy of Lord Nityananda; more -- unto me; tanre -
- Madana-mohana; dekhaila -- showed; sri-radha-madana-mohane -- Radha-
Madana-mohana; prabhu kari' dila -- gave as my Lord and master.
TRANSLATION
The mercy of Lord Nityananda showed me Sri Madana-mohana and gave me Sri
Madana-mohana as my Lord and master.
Adi 5.217
TEXT 217
TEXT
mo-adhame dila sri-govinda darasana
kahibara katha nahe akathya-kathana
SYNONYMS
mo-adhame -- to one as abominable as me; dila -- delivered; sri-govinda
darasana -- the audience of Lord Sri Govinda; kahibara -- to speak this;
katha -- words; nahe -- there are not; akathya -- unspeakable; kathana --
narration.
TRANSLATION
He granted to one as low as me the sight of Lord Govinda. Words cannot
describe this, nor is it fit to be disclosed.
Adi 5.218–219
TEXTS 218–219
TEXT
vrndavane yoga-pithe kalpa-taru-vane
ratna-mandapa, tahe ratna-simhasane
sri-govinda vasiyachena vrajendra-nandana
madhurya prakasi' karena jagat mohana
SYNONYMS
vrndavane -- at Vrndavana; yoga-pithe -- at the principal temple; kalpa-
taru-vane -- in the forest of desire trees; ratna-mandapa -- an altar
made of gems; tahe -- upon it; ratna-simha-asane -- on the throne of
gems; sri-govinda -- Lord Govinda; vasiyachena -- was sitting; vrajendra-
nandana -- the son of Nanda Maharaja; madhurya prakasi' -- manifesting
His sweetness; karena -- does; jagat mohana -- enchantment of the whole
world.
TRANSLATION
On an altar made of gems in the principal temple of Vrndavana, amidst a
forest of desire trees, Lord Govinda, the son of the King of Vraja, sits
upon a throne of gems and manifests His full glory and sweetness, thus
enchanting the entire world.
Adi 5.220
TEXT 220
TEXT
vama-parsve sri-radhika sakhi-gana-sange
rasadika-lila prabhu kare kata range
SYNONYMS
vama-parsve -- on the left side; sri-radhika -- Srimati Radharani; sakhi-
gana-sange -- with Her personal friends; rasa-adika-lila -- pastimes
like the rasa dance; prabhu -- Lord Krsna; kare -- performs; kata range -
- in many ways.
TRANSLATION
By His left side is Srimati Radharani and Her personal friends. With
them Lord Govinda enjoys the rasa-lila and many other pastimes.
Adi 5.221
TEXT 221
TEXT
yanra dhyana nija-loke kare padmasana
astadasaksara-mantre kare upasana
SYNONYMS
yanra -- of whom; dhyana -- the meditation; nija-loke -- in his own
abode; kare -- does; padma-asana -- Lord Brahma; astadasa-aksara-mantre -
- by the hymn composed of eighteen letters; kare -- does; upasana --
worshiping.
TRANSLATION
Lord Brahma, sitting on his lotus seat in his own abode, always
meditates on Him and worships Him with the mantra consisting of eighteen
syllables.
PURPORT
In his own planet, Lord Brahma, with the inhabitants of that planet,
worships the form of Lord Govinda, Krsna, by the mantra of eighteen
syllables, klim krsnaya govindaya gopi-jana-vallabhaya svaha. Those who
are initiated by a bona fide spiritual master and who chant the Gayatri
mantra three times a day know this astadasaksara (eighteen-syllable)
mantra. The inhabitants of Brahmaloka and the planets below Brahmaloka
worship Lord Govinda by meditating with this mantra. There is no
difference between meditating and chanting, but in the present age
meditation is not possible on this planet. Therefore loud chanting of a
mantra like the maha-mantra, Hare Krsna, with soft chanting of the
astadasaksara, the mantra of eighteen syllables, is recommended.
Lord Brahma lives in the highest planetary system, known as Brahmaloka
or Satyaloka. In every planet there is a predominating deity. As the
predominating deity in Satyaloka is Lord Brahma, so in the heavenly
planets Indra is the predominating deity, and on the sun, the sun-god,
Vivasvan, is the predominating deity. The inhabitants and predominating
deities of every planet are all recommended to worship Govinda either by
meditation or by chanting.
Adi 5.222
TEXT 222
TEXT
caudda-bhuvane yanra sabe kare dhyana
vaikunthadi-pure yanra lila-guna gana
SYNONYMS
caudda-bhuvane -- within the fourteen worlds; yanra -- of whom; sabe --
all; kare dhyana -- perform meditation; vaikuntha-adi-pure -- in the
abodes of the Vaikuntha planets; yanra -- of whom; lila-guna --
attributes and pastimes; gana -- chanting.
TRANSLATION
Everyone in the fourteen worlds meditates upon Him, and all the denizens
of Vaikuntha sing of His qualities and pastimes.
Adi 5.223
TEXT 223
TEXT
yanra madhurite kare laksmi akarsana
rupa-gosani kariyachena se-rupa varnana
SYNONYMS
yanra -- of whom; madhurite -- by the sweetness; kare -- does; laksmi --
the goddess of fortune; akarsana -- attraction; rupa-gosani -- Srila
Rupa Gosvami; kariyachena -- has done; se -- that; rupa -- of the beauty;
varnana -- enunciation.
TRANSLATION
The goddess of fortune is attracted by His sweetness, which Srila Rupa
Gosvami has described in this way:
PURPORT
Srila Rupa Gosvami, in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, has quoted from the
Padma Purana, where it is stated that Laksmi-devi, the goddess of
fortune, after seeing the attractive features of Lord Krsna, was
attracted to Him, and to get the favor of Lord Krsna she engaged herself
in meditation. When asked by Krsna why she engaged in meditation with
austerity, Laksmi-devi answered, "I want to be one of Your associates
like the gopis in Vrndavana." Hearing this, Lord Sri Krsna replied that
it was quite impossible. Laksmi-devi then said that she wanted to remain
just like a golden line on the chest of the Lord. The Lord granted the
request, and since then Laksmi has always been situated on the chest of
Lord Krsna as a golden line. The austerity and meditation of Laksmi-devi
are also mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.36), where the Naga-
patnis, the wives of the serpent Kaliya, in the course of their prayers
to Krsna, said that the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, also wanted His
association as a gopi and desired the dust of His lotus feet.
Adi 5.224
TEXT 224
TEXT
smeram bhangi-traya-paricitam saci-vistirna-drstim
vamsi-nyastadhara-kisalayam ujjvalam candrakena
govindakhyam hari-tanum itah kesi-tirthopakanthe
ma preksisthas tava yadi sakhe bandhu-sange 'sti rangah
SYNONYMS
smeram -- smiling; bhangi-traya-paricitam -- bent in three places,
namely the neck, waist and knees; saci-vistirna-drstim -- with a broad
sideways glance; vamsi -- on the flute; nyasta -- placed; adhara -- lips;
kisalayam -- newly blossomed; ujjvalam -- very bright; candrakena -- by
the moonshine; govinda-akhyam -- named Lord Govinda; hari-tanum -- the
transcendental body of the Lord; itah -- here; kesi-tirtha-upakanthe --
on the bank of the Yamuna in the neighborhood of Kesighata; ma -- do not;
preksisthah -- glance over; tava -- your; yadi -- if; sakhe -- O dear
friend; bandhu-sange -- to worldly friends; asti -- there is; rangah --
attachment.
TRANSLATION
"My dear friend, if you are indeed attached to your worldly friends, do
not look at the smiling face of Lord Govinda as He stands on the bank of
the Yamuna at Kesighata. Casting sidelong glances, He places His flute
to His lips, which seem like newly blossomed twigs. His transcendental
body, bending in three places, appears very bright in the moonlight."
PURPORT
This is a verse quoted from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.239) in
connection with practical devotional service. Generally people in their
conditioned life engage in the pleasure of society, friendship and love.
This so-called love is lust, not love. But people are satisfied with
such a false understanding of love. Vidyapati, a great and learned poet
of Mithila, has said that the pleasure derived from friendship, society
and family life in the material world is like a drop of water, but our
hearts desire pleasure like an ocean. Thus the heart is compared to a
desert of material existence that requires the water of an ocean of
pleasure to satisfy its dryness. If there is a drop of water in the
desert, one may indeed say that it is water, but such a minute quantity
of water has no value. Similarly, in this material world no one is
satisfied in the dealings of society, friendship and love. Therefore if
one wants to derive real pleasure within his heart, he must seek the
lotus feet of Govinda. In this verse Rupa Gosvami indicates that if one
wants to be satisfied in the pleasure of society, friendship and love,
he need not seek shelter at the lotus feet of Govinda, for if one takes
shelter under His lotus feet he will forget that minute quantity of so-
called pleasure. One who is not satisfied with that so-called pleasure
may seek the lotus feet of Govinda, who stands on the shore of the
Yamuna at Kesitirtha, or Kesighata, in Vrndavana and attracts all the
gopis to His transcendental loving service.
Adi 5.225
TEXT 225
TEXT
saksat vrajendra-suta ithe nahi ana
yeba ajne kare tanre pratima-hena jnana
SYNONYMS
saksat -- directly; vrajendra-suta -- the son of Nanda Maharaja; ithe --
in this matter; nahi -- there is not; ana -- any exception; yeba --
whatever; ajne -- a foolish person; kare -- does; tanre -- unto Him;
pratima -- hena -- as a statue; jnana -- such a consideration.
TRANSLATION
Without a doubt He is directly the son of the King of Vraja. Only a fool
considers Him a statue.
Adi 5.226
TEXT 226
TEXT
sei aparadhe tara nahika nistara
ghora narakete pade, ki baliba ara
SYNONYMS
sei aparadhe -- by that offense; tara -- his; nahika -- there is not;
nistara -- deliverance; ghora -- terrible; narakete -- in a hellish
condition; pade -- falls down; ki baliba -- what will I say; ara -- more.
TRANSLATION
For that offense, he cannot be liberated. Rather, he will fall into a
terrible hellish condition. What more should I say?
PURPORT
In his Bhakti-sandarbha Jiva Gosvami has stated that those who are
actually very serious about devotional service do not differentiate
between the form of the Lord made of clay, metal, stone or wood and the
original form of the Lord. In the material world a person and his
photograph, picture or statue are different. But the statue of Lord
Krsna and Krsna Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are not
different, because the Lord is absolute. What we call stone, wood and
metal are energies of the Supreme Lord, and energies are never separate
from the energetic. As we have several times explained, no one can
separate the sunshine energy from the energetic sun. Therefore material
energy may appear separate from the Lord, but transcendentally it is
nondifferent from the Lord.
The Lord can appear anywhere and everywhere because His diverse energies
are distributed everywhere like sunshine. We should therefore understand
whatever we see to be the energy of the Supreme Lord and should not
differentiate between the Lord and His arca form made from clay, metal,
wood or paint. Even if one has not developed this consciousness, one
should accept it theoretically from the instructions of the spiritual
master and should worship the arca-murti, or form of the Lord in the
temple, as nondifferent from the Lord.
The Padma Purana specifically mentions that anyone who thinks the form
of the Lord in the temple to be made of wood, stone or metal is
certainly in a hellish condition. Impersonalists are against the worship
of the Lord's form in the temple, and there is even a group of people
who pass as Hindus but condemn such worship. Their so-called acceptance
of the Vedas has no meaning, for all the acaryas, even the impersonalist
Sankaracarya, have recommended the worship of the transcendental form of
the Lord. Impersonalists like Sankaracarya recommend the worship of five
forms, known as pancopasana, which include Lord Visnu. Vaisnavas,
however, worship the forms of Lord Visnu in His varied manifestations,
such as Radha-Krsna, Laksmi-Narayana, Sita-Rama and Rukmini-Krsna.
Mayavadis admit that worship of the Lord's form is required in the
beginning, but they think that in the end everything is impersonal.
Therefore, since they are ultimately against worship of the Lord's form,
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has described them as offenders.
Srimad-Bhagavatam has condemned those who think the body to be the self
as bhauma ijya-dhih. Bhauma means earth, and ijya-dhih means worshiper.
There are two kinds of bhauma ijya-dhih: those who worship the land of
their birth, such as nationalists, who make many sacrifices for the
motherland, and those who condemn the worship of the form of the Lord.
One should not worship the planet earth or land of his birth, nor should
one condemn the form of the Lord, which is manifested in metal or wood
for our facility. Material things are also the energy of the Supreme
Lord.
Adi 5.227
TEXT 227
TEXT
hena ye govinda prabhu, painu yanha haite
tanhara carana-krpa ke pare varnite
SYNONYMS
hena -- thus; ye govinda -- this Lord Govinda; prabhu -- master; painu --
I got; yanha haite -- from whom; tanhara -- His; carana-krpa -- mercy
of the lotus feet; ke -- who; pare -- is able; varnite -- to describe.
TRANSLATION
Therefore who can describe the mercy of the lotus feet of Him [Lord
Nityananda] by whom I have attained the shelter of this Lord Govinda?
Adi 5.228
TEXT 228
TEXT
vrndavane vaise yata vaisnava-mandala
krsna-nama-parayana, parama-mangala
SYNONYMS
vrndavane -- in Vrndavana; vaise -- there are; yata -- all; vaisnava-
mandala -- groups of devotees; krsna-nama-parayana -- addicted to the
name of Lord Krsna; parama-mangala -- all-auspicious.
TRANSLATION
All the groups of Vaisnavas who live in Vrndavana are absorbed in
chanting the all-auspicious name of Krsna.
Adi 5.229
TEXT 229
TEXT
yanra prana-dhana -- nityananda-sri-caitanya
radha-krsna-bhakti vine nahi jane anya
SYNONYMS
yanra -- whose; prana-dhana -- life and soul; nityananda-sri-caitanya --
Lord Nityananda and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; radha-krsna -- to Krsna and
Radharani; bhakti -- devotional service; vine -- except; nahi jane anya -
- do not know anything else.
TRANSLATION
Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda are the life and soul of those
Vaisnavas, who do not know anything but devotional service to Sri Sri
Radha-Krsna.
Adi 5.230
TEXT 230
TEXT
se vaisnavera pada-renu, tara pada-chaya
adhamere dila prabhu-nityananda-daya
SYNONYMS
se vaisnavera -- of all those Vaisnavas; pada-renu -- the dust of the
feet; tara -- their; pada-chaya -- the shade of the feet; adhamere --
unto this fallen soul; dila -- gave; prabhu-nityananda-daya -- the mercy
of Lord Nityananda Prabhu.
TRANSLATION
The dust and shade of the lotus feet of the Vaisnavas have been granted
to this fallen soul by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
Adi 5.231
TEXT 231
TEXT
‘tanha sarva labhya haya' -- prabhura vacana
sei sutra -- ei tara kaila vivarana
SYNONYMS
tanha -- at that place; sarva -- everything; labhya -- obtainable; haya -
- is; prabhura -- of the Lord; vacana -- the word; sei sutra -- that
synopsis; ei -- this; tara -- His; kaila vivarana -- has been described.
TRANSLATION
Lord Nityananda said, "In Vrndavana all things are possible." Here I
have explained His brief statement in detail.
Adi 5.232
TEXT 232
TEXT
se saba painu ami vrndavane aya
sei saba labhya ei prabhura krpaya
SYNONYMS
se saba -- all this; painu -- got; ami -- I; vrndavane -- to Vrndavana;
aya -- coming; sei saba -- all this; labhya -- obtainable; ei -- this;
prabhura krpaya -- by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
TRANSLATION
I have attained all this by coming to Vrndavana, and this was made
possible by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
PURPORT
All the inhabitants of Vrndavana are Vaisnavas. They are all-auspicious
because somehow or other they always chant the holy name of Krsna. Even
though some of them do not strictly follow the rules and regulations of
devotional service, on the whole they are devotees of Krsna and chant
His name directly or indirectly. Purposely or without purpose, even when
they pass on the street they are fortunate enough to exchange greetings
by saying the name of Radha or Krsna. Thus directly or indirectly they
are auspicious.
The present city of Vrndavana has been established by the Gaudiya
Vaisnavas since the six Gosvamis went there and directed the
construction of their different temples. Of all the temples in Vrndavana,
ninety percent belong to the Gaudiya Vaisnava sect, the followers of
the teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nityananda, and seven
temples are very famous. The inhabitants of Vrndavana do not know
anything but the worship of Radha and Krsna. In recent years some
unscrupulous so-called priests known as caste gosvamis have introduced
the worship of demigods privately, but no genuine and rigid Vaisnavas
participate in this. Those who are serious about the Vaisnava method of
devotional activities do not take part in such worship of demigods.
The Gaudiya Vaisnavas never differentiate between Radha-Krsna and Lord
Caitanya. They say that since Lord Caitanya is the combined form of
Radha-Krsna, He is not different from Radha and Krsna. But some misled
people try to prove that they are greatly elevated by saying that they
like to chant the holy name of Lord Gaura instead of the names of Radha
and Krsna. Thus they purposely differentiate between Lord Caitanya and
Radha-Krsna. According to them, the system of nadiya-nagari, which they
have recently invented in their fertile brains, is the worship of Gaura,
Lord Caitanya, but they do not like to worship Radha and Krsna. They put
forward the argument that since Lord Caitanya Himself appeared as Radha
and Krsna combined, there is no necessity of worshiping Radha and Krsna.
Such differentiation by so-called devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu
is considered disruptive by pure devotees. Anyone who differentiates
between Radha-Krsna and Gauranga is to be considered a plaything in the
hands of maya.
There are others who are against the worship of Caitanya Mahaprabhu,
thinking Him mundane. But any sect that differentiates between Lord
Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Radha-Krsna, either by worshiping Radha-Krsna as
distinct from Lord Caitanya or by worshiping Lord Caitanya but not Radha-
Krsna, is in the group of prakrta-sahajiyas.
Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta,
predicts in verses 225 and 226 that in the future those who manufacture
imaginary methods of worship will gradually give up the worship of Radha-
Krsna, and although they will call themselves devotees of Lord Caitanya,
they will also give up the worship of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and fall down
into material activities. For the real worshipers of Lord Caitanya, the
ultimate goal of life is to worship Sri Sri Radha and Krsna.
Adi 5.233
TEXT 233
TEXT
apanara katha likhi nirlajja ha-iya
nityananda-gune lekhaya unmatta kariya
SYNONYMS
apanara -- personal; katha -- description; likhi -- I write; nirlajja ha-
iya -- being shameless; nityananda-gune -- the attributes of Nityananda;
lekhaya -- cause to write; unmatta kariya -- making like a madman.
TRANSLATION
I have described my own story without reservations. The attributes of
Lord Nityananda, making me like a madman, force me to write these things.
Adi 5.234
TEXT 234
TEXT
nityananda-prabhura guna-mahima apara
‘sahasra-vadane' sesa nahi paya yanra
SYNONYMS
nityananda-prabhura -- of Lord Nityananda; guna-mahima -- glories of
transcendental attributes; apara -- unfathomable; sahasra-vadane -- in
thousands of mouths; sesa -- ultimate end; nahi -- does not; paya -- get;
yanra -- whose.
TRANSLATION
The glories of Lord Nityananda's transcendental attributes are
unfathomable. Even Lord Sesa, with His thousands of mouths, cannot find
their limit.
Adi 5.235
TEXT 235
TEXT
sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa
caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa
SYNONYMS
sri-rupa -- Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha -- Srila Raghunatha dasa
Gosvami; pade -- at the lotus feet; yara -- whose; asa -- expectation;
Caitanya-caritamrta -- the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe --
describes; krsna-dasa -- Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
TRANSLATION
Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always
desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta,
following in their footsteps.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila,
Fifth Chapter, describing the glories of Lord Nityananda Balarama.
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